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California State Library £ Y • 

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Accession No... 

Call No. 

4237 6-20 10M 





Mining and Scientific Press 

July to December 1 92 1 


Adams, A. K., obituary 74 

Adams, H Metric weights and measures. . . . 665 

Address to mining students F. Laist. ... 21 

Aeroplane prospecting 4 5 

Ageton, R. V Industrial morale. ... 27 

Agitation in flotation A. W. Fahrenwald. ... 699 

Ditto F. G. Moses. . . . 477 

Agricultural Geology, book review. F. V. Emerson. . . . 724 

Aircraft Handbook, book review 

F. H. Colvin and H. F. Colvin. . . . 441 

Air-lift in theory and practice A. W. Allen. . . . 711 

Alaska, future of mining in A. H. Brooks. . . . 202 

Transportation in 44 

Allen. A. W Air-lift in theory and practice. . . . 711 

Ditto Chuquicamata enterprise — III. . . . 117 

Ditto Disc-crusher and leaching practice. . . . 849 

Ditto Wetting and amalgamation. . . . 699 

Allen Cone Co 874 

Alley, F. C, obituary 946 

Allis-Chalmers Mfg. Co 765, 874, 950 

Alternators, A-C engine-type 78 

Aluminum ; 20, 507 

Amalgamation and cyanidation Editorial. . . . 317 

American Bureau of Metal Statistics 143 

American Chemistry, book review H. Hale. ... 724 

American Electricians' Handbook, book review 

T. Croft 614 

American English, book review G. M. Tucker. ... 3S 

American Metal Products Co 6 24 

American Mining Congress 216 

American Smelting & Refining Co 548 

Company report 722 

Losses 273 

American Steel & Wire Co 692 

American Sulphuric Acid Practice, book review 

P. DeWolf and E. L. Larison . . . . 442 

American Trona Corporation. . . .L. J. Richardson. ... 116 

Company report 802 

American Turpentine & Tar Co 728 

America's oil supply Editorial. ... 915 

America's Power Resources, book review 

C. G. Gilbert and J. E. Pogue. . . . 725 

Amparo Mining Co., company report 130 

Anaconda Copper Mining Co 791 

And American Brass Editorial. ... 914 

And American Brass merger 903 

Analytical Chemistry, book review 

F. P. Tread well and W. T. Hall 763 

Ancient South American milling and amalgamating 

practice 474 

South American smelting practice 861 

Anderson, A. Indexing current technical literature. . . . 392 

Angele, N Fruits of Victory, book review. . . . 613 

Antimony 292 

In China 269 

Anuaria de Mineria, book review. . . . A. Contreras. ... 726 

Applied geology at Butte T. A. Rickard. ... 427 

Arentz, S. S 579 

Bill 659 

Arizona Copper Co., Ltd 525 

Company report 723 


Arizona mines, appraisal of 9 8 

Arkins, Charles T., obituary 719 

Arnold, E. C, obituary 946 

Asbestos 679 

In Canada 26 

Ore in Quebec, milling W. D. Hubbard. . . . 932 

Assessment work 383 

Ditto W. L. Clark .... 82 

Ditto A. Del Mar and C. V. Craig. ... 5 

Associated Machinery Corporation S38 

Austin, L. S Metallurgy of the Common Metals, 

book review 417 

Automotive Repair, book review J. C. Wright. . . . 901 

Bain, H. F Professional advice from the Bureau 

of Mines 221 

Ditto Training for foreign exploration. . . . 55 

Baja California and oil possibilities. V. H. Wilhelm. ... 125 

Ball-milling Editorial. . . . S7S 

And flotation at Catemu, Chile, I, II 

F. Benitez. . . . 883, 921 

Bauxite in India 20 

Beardsley, A. L Revision of the mining law. . . . 150 

Beckett, B. B Scheduling mine operations to suit 

a power contract 545 

Beginning of the cyanide process on the Rand 

A. F. Crosse. . . . 405 

Behrend, B. A Induction Motor, book review. ... 614 

Belgian Congo, experiences in the Kasin diamond fields 

J. E. Robinson. . . . 647 

Mining in the 134 

Belgian investment in foreign mining 127 

Belgium, zinc production in 43 6 

Benguet Consolidated Mining Co., company report. . . . 722 

Benitez, F Ball-milling and flotation at Catemu, 

Chile, I, II 883, 921 

Ditto Chilean nitrate. . . . 700 

Bentonite 784 

Berdan pan 423 

Berrien, C. L Ventilation and phthisis. . . . 223 

Big Bend vein-system R. J. Burgess. . . . 564 

Billingsley, J. H., obituary 37 

Bingham-Galena Mining Co 47 

Bisbee, Arizona 456 

Black sand, gold in L. A. Perret. . . . 423 

Ditto J. S. Taylor. . . . 532 

Blackburn, A. G Mining law revision. . . . 424 

Blue sky regulations R. M. Harrop. . . . 389 

Bolivia, mining in 29 

Bone, A. J Reverberatory v. blast-furnace. . . . 629 

Book-reviewing P. B. McDonald. ... 116 

Borzynski, F Lead-acetate method of assaying 

cyanide solutions 860 

Boston-Washington power project Editorial. . . . 734 

Bourquin, J. J Device to prevent accidents in 

hoisting 931 

Bowater, H. W Concentrating an ore of wolfram, 

bismuth, and molybdenite in Australia 821 

Bradbury, J. A Copper in impure sulphate 

solutions 710 


. •■•••■ : ■•;•"•"•*"" ' Page 
Bradford, R. H. .%.".:.*; ..V.ViJl^lJlJza^on pj-ofce& (£e 

Pope-Shenoif jnnt^ - ..' I.'v'i '• •:: . .'.':.'. ' . .'.'. . . . 263 

Bradley. W. S 'Pyrites' and 'pyrite'. ... 196 

Bramble, C. A Educating an engineer. ... 115 

Brewster, W. T Writing English Prose, 

book review 203 

Brinsmade, R. B Mining activities near San Luis 

Potosi, Mexico . . . 61 

Ditto Mining districts near Zimapan. Hidalgo, 

Mexico 293 

Ditto Mining law revision .... 495 

Ditto Non-American issues. ... 599 

Ditto Panama canal toll-exemption. ... 630 

Ditto Smelting practice in the Zimapan 

district, Mexico 433 

Ditto Taxation and the mineral industry. ... 84 

Britannia Beach flood 682 

Britannia Mining & Smelting Co 791 

Broken Hill Proprietary Co., Ltd., company report 802 

Broken Hill South, Ltd., company report 802 

Brooks, A. H Future of mining in Alaska. . . . 202 

Brophy, T. D Copper in domestic commerce. . . . 873 

Bruce, James L., of Butte, an interview 

T. A. Rickard. ... 353 

Brunton, D. W Zinc-silver ore treatment. ... 52 

Buchanan Co., C. G 691 

Bucyrus Co 728 

Bullard, E. D.. obituary 172 

Bullard, E. W 176 

Bullion, sampling of R. R. Kahan. ... 30 

Burch, A 3 

Ditto Mining litigation and common sense. ... 7 

Bureau of Mines in Alaska 166 

Burgess. R. J Big Bend vein-system. ... 564 

Burma enterprise Editorial. . . . 842 

Buttgenbach. M. H Uranium and radium of 

Katanga 636 

Cadmium 92, 124 

Caldwell & Son Co., H. W 7S 

California Rand Silver Mine. I, II 

A. B. Parsons. . . . 667, 855 

Calumet & Hecla, tailing, cost of re-treating 31 

Canadian copper production 9 8 

Tariff 135 

Carbide with explosives, danger of storing 

C. E. Munroe. . . . 899 

Cash Boy Co 827 

Cement Gun Co 692 

Central Mining & Investment Corporation 49 

Centralized buying E. Higgins. . . . 403 

Ceramics, book review A. Malinovsky. . . . 442 

Cerro de Pasco Company 615 

Channing. J. P Mining law revision. . . . 773 

Charcoal and cyanidation Editorial. . . . 493 

Ditto T. French. . . . 737 

Ditto W. Motherwell. . . . 600 

And wood-oil manufacture Editorial. . . . 219 

Chatburn, G. H Highway Engineering, book 

review 370 

Chemical and Metallographic Examination of Iron, 

Steel and Brass, book review 

W. T. Hall and R. S. Williams 614 

Chemistry and Civilization, book review 

A. S. Cushman. . . . 762 

Chicago Pneumatic Tool Co 692 

v. Keller Pneumatic Tool Co 766 

Chief Consolidated Mining Co 649, 6S1, 713 

Company report 802 

Chile Copper Co 108 

Company report 130, 722 

Chilean nitrate F. Benitez. . . . 700 

Chloride volatilization process H. R. Layng. . . . 284 

Christmas greeting Editorial. ... 877 

Message H. C. Hoover. . . . S90 

Chromite 512 

Chuquicamata enterprise. Ill A. W. Allen. . . . 117 

City Deep. Ltd.. company report 802 

Claim Assessment Act 23 5 

Claims against Mexico 50 

Clark, W. L Assessment work. ... 82 

Cleland, R. G 1 

Ditto Mining industry in Mexico, I, II. . . . 13, 638 

Coast Equipment Co 44 

Cold-water thawing 47 

Collins, G. E McFadden bill. . . . 882 

Colorado, ore treatment in H. F. Lunt . . . . 891 

Vol. 123 










Coloring of glass F. J. G. Duck 

Di "° F. H. Mason 

Ditto r. d. Perkins 

Colvin, F. H., and H. F Aircraft Handbook, 

book review 

And K. A. Juthe. Working of Steel, book review! '. . '. 

Comstock lode in the 'sixties R. H. Stretch 

Meeting Editorial '.'.'.'. 

Concentrating an ore of wolfram, bismuth, and molyb- 
denite in Australia H. W. Bowater. 

Magnetite ore Editorial 


And cyanidation c'. Flury . . . . 

Concentration by Flotation, book review '.'.'.'. 

T. A. Rickard. . . . 244, 

Concerning fakes E. M. West. 

Concrete tunnel lining 

Work W. K. Hatt and W.'c.' Voss! '. '. '. 

Conditions in Europe L. W. Douglas. 

Consolidated Virginia mine 

Consolidation of mines Editorial . '. . 

Contreras, A Anuaria de Mineria. book review. . . . 

Cook, P. R Technical writing, on ... . 

Copper M. F. Donahoe .... 

Ditto Editorial .... 

Impurity in lead ores D. C. McGruer. . . . 

In domestic commerce T. D. Brophy. 

In impure sulphate solutions. . .T. A. Bradbury. . . . 

Lead deposit, an unusual W. L. Uglow. . . . 

More uses for Editorial .... 

Precipitating apparatus, development of 

J. Irving, Jr. . . . 533 

Precipitating, with iron Editorial. . . . 593 

Products, cost of w. X. Osborn. . . . 423 

Sales of 68 

Selling drive L. S. Ropes . . . . 149 

Surplus 580 

To Germany 864 

Copper and Brass Research Association. .205, 273, 615, 863 

Copper Queen employees' representation plan 67 

Correction E. Shores. . . . 879 

Cornucopia Divide Mining Co 279 

Cost of mine supplies Editorial. . . . 385 

Couch, J. F Dictionary of Chemical Terms, 

book review 370 

Couplers for mine-cars 77 

Craig, C. V Assessment work. ... 5 

Cranmer, W. S. . . .Tariff on magnesite and chrome. ... 335 

Crawling-tractor crane 764 

Crittenden, A Management of Mexican labor. . . . 267 

Croasdale. Stuart 145 

Crocker, W Flotation and lubrication. ... 462 

Ditto Mining law revision. ... 563 

Ditto Non-American issues. . . . 337 

Ditto Valuation of placers. . . . 567 

Croft, T American Electricians' Handbook, 

book review 614 

Ditto Steam Boilers, book review. ... 680 

Cronshaw, H. B Oil Shales, book review. . . . 902 

Crosse, A. F Beginning of the cyanide process 

on the Rand 405 

Crown mines group 49 

Cushman, A. S Chemistry and Civilization, 

book review 762 

Cyanide notes A. James. . . . 225 

Process on the Rand, beginning of the 

A. F. Crosse. . . . 405 

Regeneration A. James. . . . 225 

Regeneration during precipitation 

E. M. Hamilton. ... 81 

Solutions, assaying F. Borzynski. . . . 860 

Cyaniding at Virginia City Editorial. . . . 733 

Pyritic ore Editorial. ... 627 


Daveler, E. V. and R. E. Renz Storage battery 

locomotives in metal mines 751 

Davis, F. P Revision of mining law. ... S3 

Davis. J. F Revision of mining law. . . . 252 

Day. D. E Distillation of oil-shale. . . . 257 

Dayton-Dowd Co 44, 78, 524 

De-aerating water 605 

Dean, R. A Mining law revision. . . . 698 

Del Mar. A Assessment work .... 5 

Ditto Flotation of precious metals. . . . 497 

Ditto Zinc-silver ore treatment. . . . 52, 255 

Denny, L. C Revision of mining law .... 83 

Desvernine, R. E 50 

Vol. I--':: 



Determinative Mineralogy, book review 

C. H. Warren. ... 7:'i 

De Wolf. P American Sulphuric Acid Practice. 

book review 448 

Diamond Industry I ~>* I 

Dicker man, a i. . obituary 450 

Dictionary of Chemical Terms, book review 

J. F. Couch 370 

Dietrich. W. F Time studies in metallurgical 

analysis 708 

Dingle, a. t: Prospecting. ... 82 

Dlp-charl and protractor W. E. Gaby. . . . 201 

Disarmament conference Editorial. . . . 385 

Disc-crusher and leaching practice. . . .A. W. Allen. . . . S49 

Discussion Editorial .... 2, 247 

Distillation ol oil-shale D. E. Day. . . . 257 

Dividends from mines 243 

Dolbear. S. H Wei tint; and amalgamation. . . . 665 

Dolores Esperanza Corporation 68 

Dominion Oxygen Co 176 

Donahue. M. K Copper. . . . 460 

Donaldson, S.. obituary 910 

Douglas. L. W Conditions in Europe. ... 64 

Drake. F 3 

Drawing Room Practice, book review 

F. A. Stanley 725 

Dredges, shop-operations and repairs on 

F. A. Stanley. ... 569 

Drill-steel, hollow ingot 78 

Dry grinding in model ball-mill A. T. Fry. ... 736 

Duck. F. J. G Coloring of glass. ... 54 

Du Pont Co 176, S74 

Dwellings in mining settlements Editorial. . . . 386 


Earthquake engineering 420 

Eaton. L Use of scrapers underground. . . . 703, 917 

Economics of Petroleum, book review. .J. E. Pogue. . . . 901 

Amalgamation and cyanidation 317 

America's ore supply 915 

Anaconda Copper and American Brass 914 

Ball-milling 87S 

Boston-Washington power project 734 

Burma enterprise 842 

Charcoal and cyanidation 493 

Charcoal and wood-oil manufacture 219 

Christmas greeting 877 

Concentrating magnetite ore 769 

Conditions in Germany 146 

Consolidation of mines 217 

Copper 420 

Copper, precipitating, with iron 593 

Cost of mine supplies 385 

Cyaniding at Virginia City 733 

Cyaniding pyritic ore 627 

Detachable rock-drill bit S06 

Disarmament conference 385 

Discussion 2, 247 

Dr. Ricketts of Arizona 457 

Dwellings in mining settlements 386 

Electricity and copper 110 

Evasion of licensing 80 

Financial and economic engineering 282 

Ford and the supply of nitrate Ill 

Freight-rates and mining 805 

Futility of war 626 

Gold and oil 561 

Hunting for ore 527 

Inarticulate subordinate 422 

Indexing current technical literature ISO 

Industrial co-operation 248 

Influence of metallurgic methods on gold production 3 

In San Francisco 350 

Interrogatory 558 

Institute and technical journals 421, 732 

Iron-ore resources of Europe 249 

Kata-thermometer 387 

Lawlessness 526 

Lead poisoning 491 

Making a career 351 

Mechanical shoveling underground 696 

Metric weights and measures 562 

Mexican labor problems 250 

Minerals Separation v. Butte & Superior 492 

Mining in Russia 662 

Mining law revision 560, 841 

Editorial, cont. Page 

Mori .upper 179 

Motor traffic and road construction J I 8 

Oil and l rid ion 79 

Osmiridlum 88 l 

Platinum 918 

Professional advice from the Bureau of Mines L'ls 

Profit-sharing 559 

Railroad strike 591 

Royston, or San Antone 804 

Rubber supply. America's 592 

Second-hand equipment 661 

South American affairs 490 

Star case 877 

Status of silver 280 

Steel from western iron ore 731 

Strike at Tonopah 281 

Tariff 109 

Tariff again 178 

Taxation of mines 178 

Tube-mill pebbles and colloids 219 

Use of metals 318 

Valuation of placers 351 

Volatilization of metals 145 

Wages and costs 246 

Washington conference 694, 770 

Welded pipe 732 

Worthy purpose 456 

Editorials and Editorial Writing, book review 

R. W. Neal 762 

Editorial, The. book review L. N. Flint. . . . 577 

Educating an engineer C. A. Bramble. . . . 115 

Education of engineers J. W. T. . . . 462 

Of a mining engineer T. A. Rickard . ... 811 

Edwards, J. W., obituary 910 

Efficiency of labor J. A. Norden . . . . 196 

Electric smelting 454 

Electricity and copper Editorial. . . . 110 

In the development of the mining industry 

G. B. Rosenblatt and G. Bright. . . . 785 

v. steam in gold dredging L. A. Perret. . . . 460 

Elements of Fuel Oil and Steam Engineering, book re- 
view R. Sibley and C. H. Delaney. . . . 370 

Elements of Specification Writing, book review 

R. S. Kirby. ... 441 

Emerson. F. V. .Agricultural Geology, book review. . . . 724 

Engels Copper Mining Co 939 

Operations of the, I. II. . . .A. B. Parsons. . . . 151, 183 

Engineer-Journalist Technical writing. ... 632 

Engineering, definition of A. B. Parsons. . . . 84.7 

Engineering Geology, book review 

H. Ries and T. L. Watson. . . . 442 

Engineering of Power Plants, book review 

R. H. Fernald and G. A. Orrok. . . . 442 

Errors latent in mine-sampling. . .Morton Webber. ... 633 

Europe, conditions in L. W. Douglas. ... 64 

European gold reserve 455 

Europeans' wages in Africa 4 9 

Evans. E. A Lubricating and Allied Oils, book 

review 902 

Evasion of licensing Editorial. ... SO 

Ditto W. S. Hutchinson .... 251 

Ditto A. H. Rogers. . . . 251 

Excelsior Iron Co 235 

Fahrenwald, A. W Agitation in flotation. . . . 699 

Ditto Surface energy and adsorption in 

flotation 227 

Ditto Surface tension in flotation .... 631 

Failures from lack of capital D. Waterman. . . . 598 

Fatigue and atmospheric conditions in mines 270 

Fenn, F. W Motor-truck in mining. . . . 745 

Fernald, R. H., and G. A. Orrok Engineering of 

Power Plants, book review 442 

Ferrocyanide method, determination of zinc by 66 

Feust, A Errors in mine sampling. . . . 773 

Field Mapping for the Oil Geologist, book review 

C. A. Warner. . . . 204 

Field maps and notes, loose-leaf system for 

J. L. Rich 936 

Financial and economic engineering. .. .Editorial. .. . 282 

Fire hazards in metal mines , 297 

First Aid and Rescue Work in Mining, book review. . . . 

L. G. Irvine. ... 680 

Fitch, W., Jr Breaking the world's record in 

shaft-sinking 74$ 

Flin Flon mine 815 


Vol. 123 


Flint, L. N Editorial, The, book review. . . . 577 

Flotation, agitation in A. W. Fahrenwald. . . . 699 

And lubrication W. Crocker. . . . 462 

Machine impellers A. T. Fry. . . . 702 

Of precious metals A. Del Mar. ... 497 

Ditto . .A. H. Jones. ... 630 

Plants, design of A. B. Parsons. . . . 775 

Practice at Mount Lyell. . . .L. V. Waterhouse. ... 87 

Reagent, new 175 

Surface energy and adsorption in 

A. W. Fahrenwald 227 

Flury, C Concentration and cyanidation. ... 771 

Ditto Regeneration of cyanide. . . . 918 

Forbes, C. R Rock-drilling tests in the Tri-State 

mining district 937 

Ford and the supply of nitrate Editorial. . . . Ill 

Foreign exploration, training for. .H. Foster Bain. ... 55 

Fraser, R. H Graduate, the question 

confronting the 595 

Freight-rates and mining Editorial. . . . 805 

Rate hearings 864 

French, T Charcoal and cyanidation. . . . 737 

French mines, destruction of 63 

Fresenius, R. C Introduction to Qualitative 

Chemical Analysis, book review 39 

Fresnillo mine 340 

Fruits of Victory, book review N. Angell. . . . 613 

Fry, A. T Dry grinding in model ball-mill. . . . 736 

Ditto Flotation-machine impellers. ... 702 

Futility of war Editorial. . . . 626 


Gaby, W. E. Combination dip-chart and protractor. . . . 201 

Gale, H. S Priceite in Oregon. . . . 895 

Garfield smelter operations 68, 371 

Garrison. L. M 50 

Gayford, E Lime in cyanidation. . . . 629 

General Electric Co 44, 176, 692 

Geological mining H. G. Nichols. . . . 809 

Germany, conditions in Editorial. . . . 146 

Giant non-freezing powder 44 

Gibson, A Magnetometer. . . . 437 

Gilbert, C. G America's Power Resources, 

book review 725 

Gilman, G. W Milling method. . . . 565 

Giolitti, F Heat Treatment of Soft and Medium 

Steels, book review 442 

Glaeser, O. A Gold bullion mill. . . . 601 

Gleason, Charles F., obituary 946 

Gold and oil Editorial. . . . 561 

Bullion mill O. A. Glaeser. . . . 601 

From black sand G. L. Holmes. . . . 224 

In black sand J. S. Taylor. . . . 532 

Miner, relief for E. E. Putnam. . . . 736 

Production in 1920 589 

Production, influence o£ metallurgic methods on . . . 

Editorial. ... 3 

Refining 750 

Variation in value of 372 

Gold Hill mine, development at 48 

Gosrow, R. C Standardizing steel for mining 

and milling 147 

Graduate, the question confronting the 

R. H. Fraser. . . . 595 

Graphic analysis H. M. Merry. ... 807 

Graphical Methods, book review.. W. C. Marshall.... 725 

Grass Valley, miners' strike at 68, 135 

Greene, L., obituary 240 

Greene-Cananea Copper Co., company report.... 418, 722 

Guanajuato Reduction & Mines Co., company report.. 418 

Hager, D Oil Field Practice, book review. . . . 724 

Hale, H American Chemistry, book review. . . . 724 

Halferdahl, A. C Surface-tension in flotation. . . . 498 

Hall, E Discovery of Potosi. . . . 251 

Ditto Time element in cyanidation. ... 666 

Hall, F Why the prospector has disappeared. . . . 808 

Hall, W. T., and R. S. Williams Chemical and 

Metallographic Examination of Iron, Steel and 

Brass, book review ' 614 

Hamilton, E. M Regeneration of cyanide during 

precipitation 81 

Hammer-welded pipe 728 

Handbook of Standard Details, book review 

C. H. Hughes. . . . 417 


Hardinge Company 623, 766 

Combination ball-mill feeder 175 

Mills 875 

Harger, W. G Location. Grading and Drainage of 

Highways, book review 204 

Harrington, D Ventilation in mines. . . . 609 

Harrop, R. M Blue sky regulations. ... 389 

Hatfield. W., obituary 688 

Hatt, W. K., and W. C. Voss Concrete Work, 

book review 441 

Hayden bill 339 

Haye's Handbook for Field Geologists, book review. . . 

S. Page 763 

Heat Treatment of Soft and Medium Steels, book re- 
view F. Giolitti. ... 442 

Hecla-Star controversy 681 

Hercules Powder Co 766 

Hickman, F. C Tunnel-driving record. . . . 424 

Higgins, E Centralized buying. . . . 403 

Highway Engineering, book review 

G. R. Chatburn 370 

Hints to speculators and investors in mines 127 

Hoisting accidents, device to prevent 

J. J. Bourquin. . . . 931 

Hoist, the Sullivan turbinair 43 

Hollinger Consolidated 649 

Holmes, G. L Gold from black sand. . . . 224 

Ditto Revision of mining law. ... 288 

Homestake Mining Co 177 

Hoover, H. C Christmas message. ... 890 

Hornsilver, assessment work at 78 

Hot high-nitrogen gas in a metal mine 788 

Howard, L. O Mining law revision. ... 459 

Ditto Valuing partly exhausted mines. ... 568 

Howe, A. S Mining law revision. ... 697 

Howe Chain Co 950 

Howe Sound Co., company report 130 

Howe Sound Mining Co 650 

Hubbard, W. D. . . .Milling asbestos ore in Quebec. . . . 932 

Hughes, C. H Handbook of Standard Details, 

book review 417 

Hunting for ore Editorial. . . . 527 

Huntley, E Producer-gas. . . . 424 

Hutchinson, W. S Evasion of licensing. ... 251 

Hutton, G. H Valuation of placer deposits. ... 365 

Huxley: the exponent of veracity. . .T. A. Rickard. ... 499 

Hyatt Roller Bearing Co 691 

Impressions of a journey to Europe 

P. B. McDonald. . . . 

Inarticulate subordinate Editorial. . . . 

Indexing current technical literature 

Ditto A. Anderson .... 

Ditto Editorial 

Ditto F. H. Probert .... 

Ditto M. W. von Bernewitz. ... 391, 

Ditto J. H. G. Wolf 

India's influence on bullion market 

Indicative plants R- Van Aubel. . . . 

Induction Motor, book review B. A. Behrend. . . . 

Industrial co-operation Editorial. . . . 

Morale R- V. Ageton .... 

Industrial Works Co 

Influence of metallurgic methods on gold production. . 

Editorial. . . . 

Ingersoll-Rand Co 

Institute as a publisher 


Secretary, appointment of 


Institutes and technical journals. . .Editorial. . . . 421, 
International Nickel Co., company report. . . .130, 271, 

International Smelting Co • • ■ 

Interrogatory Editorial. . . . 

Introduction to Qualitative Chemical Analysis, book 

review R- C. Fresenius. . . . 

Introduction to the Study of Minerals and Rocks, book 

review A. F. Rogers 

Iron and steel on the Pacific Coast. ,N. Thompson. . . . 

Ditto C. E. Williams .... 

Iron Cap v. Arizona Commercial • • • 

Ore resources of Europe Editorial. . . . 

Irvine, L. G First Aid and Rescue Work in 

Mining, book review 

Irving, Jr., J Development of copper- 
precipitating apparatus 

Irving, J Metallurgical methods at Rio Tinto. . . . 










Vol. 123 



Jackson, C. F Scrapers underground, use of . . . . 77" 

James. A Cyanide notes. ... L'J". 

Japanese census in California 1 

Jaw-crusher frame 765 

Jeffrey Mfg. Co 728 

Johnson. J. R Revision of mining law. . . . 196 

Jones. A. H Flotation of precious metals. ... 630 

Jones. T. J 3 

Ditto Rehabilitation of the Russian mining 

industry 6 

Joslin. G. A Repairing a wood-stave pipe-line. . . . 163 

J. \V. T Education of engineers. . . . 462 

Kasin diamond fields, experiences in 

J. E. Robinson. . . . 647 

Kata-thermometer Editorial. . . . 387 

Katanga, uranium and radium of 

M. H. Buttgenbach. . . . 636 

Kellogg. A. E Quicksilver. . . . 255 

Kelly. P. J., obituary 172 

Kennecott Copper Co 165 

Kennedy-Van Saun Mfg. & Eng. Corporation 765 

Kerr Lake Mines. Ltd.. company report 722 

Kidder. S. J McFadden bill. ... 738 

Kimman, H. T.. obituary 520 

Kinsey, A. S Fusion welding. . . . 432 

Kirby. F. J Revision of mining law. . . . 287 

Kirby, R. S Elements of Specification Writing, 

book review 441 

Klaxon Co 692 

Knapp. S. A Mining-law revision. . . . 459 

Ditto Monetization of silver. . . . 664 

Koppel Industrial Car & Equipment Co 838 

Korf . W. F Prospecting .... 53 

Ditto Royston. . . . 918 

Korzybski. A. .Manhood of Humanity, book review. . . . 441 

Krom sintering system 524 

Laist. F 2 

Lake Superior copper mine, valuations of 71 

Lamont, T. W 1 

Lawlessness _ Editorial .... 526 

Layng, H. R Chloride volatilization process. . . . 2S4 

Lead acetate method of assaying cyanide solutions. . . . 

F. Borzynski. . . . 860 

Poisoning Editorial. . . . 491 

Letcher, O Mineral industry of South Africa. . . . 298 

Licensing of engineers 332 

Lime consumption in cyanidation. . . .R. W. Perry. . . . 605 

In cyanidation E. Gayford. . . . 629 

Link-Belt Co 78 

Little Tugger derrick 623 

Loading converter matte F. Taylor. . . . 790 

Location, Grading, and Drainage of Highways, book 

review W. G. Harger. . . . 204 

Longyear Co., E. J 44 

Loomis, H Surficial closing of fissure veins. . . . 737 

Lubricating and Allied Oils, book review 

E. A. Evans. . . . 902 

Lucas, A. F., obituary 414 

Lucky Tiger Combination Gold Mining Co., company 

report 418 

Lunt, H. F Ore treatment in Colorado. . 891 

Lynch Bros 692 


Maas. A. E Placers in Sinaloa. ... 335 

Magmatic origin of the chalcopyrite and bornite at 

Engels W. H. Turner 333 

Magnesium 648 

Magnetometer A. Gibson. ... 437 

Making a career Editorial .... 351 

Malinovsky, A Ceramics, book review. . . . 442 

Man efficiency on the Rand 262 

Management of Mexican labor A. Crittenden. . . . 267 

Manganese 712 

In Spain 164 

Tariff on 408 

Manhood of Humanity, book review. A. Korzybski. ... 441 

Manson, L. I Mining law revision. ... 115 

Manual of Oil and Gas Industry, book review; 578 

Marc; ball-mill . . 875 

Ball-mill capacity 43 

Marshall, \V. C, . .Graphical Methods, book review. . . . 725 

Mason. F. H 3 

Ditto Coloring of glass. ... 8 

Ditto Wetting and amalgamation. . . . 772 

.May. H. F Mining law revision. . . . 563 

May, .1 C. obituary 104 

McClelland. G. E Prospecting. . . . r,:i 

M' lumber, C. H Prospecting. . . . 51 

McDonald, P. B Book reviewing. ... 116 

Ditto Impressions of a journey. . . . 789 

Ditto Problem of recreation.... 663 

Ditto Technical writing. . . . 774 

McFadden bill 579, 649 

Ditto G. E. Collins 882 

Ditto S. J. Kidder 738 

MeGrath. T. O Mine Accounting and Coat 

Principles, book review 441 

McGruer. D. C Copper impurity in lead ores. . . . 606 

Mclntyre-Porcupine Mines, Ltd.. company report 723 

McLaughlin. R. P Oil Land Development and 

Valuation, book review 370 

Mechanical shoveling underground Editorial.... 696 

Merry. H. M Graphic analysis. . . . 807 

Metal & Thermit Corporation 78 

Metal mining in California C. G. Yale. . . . 200 

Mining industry, status of the 508, 539, '573 

Metalkase brick 454 

Metallography, book review S. L. Hoyt. ... 39 

Metallurgical methods at Rio Tinto J. Irving. ... 52 

Methods on gold production, influence of 

Editorial.... 3 

Metallurgy of the Common Metals, book review 

L. S. Austin 417 

Metals, use of Editorial .... 318 

Metric v. English System, book review 901 

Metric weights and measures H. Adams. ... 665 

Ditto Editorial .... 562 

Ditto H. W. Reed.... 807 

Mexican labor problems Editorial. . . . 250 

Mexico, mining districts near Zimapan, Hidalgo 

R. B. Brinsmade. . . . 293 

Mining industry in R. G. Cleland. ... 13, 63S 

Scenes in 9, 10, 11, 12 

Silver and gold production in 272 

Smelting operations in 166 

Mexico, People of, book review. . . .W. Thompson. ... 369 

Miles. J. H., obituary 172 

Milling method G. W. Gilman. . . . 565 

Mills, J Within the Atom, book review. . . . 726 

Mine Accounting and Cost Principles, book review. . . . 

T. C. MeGrath 441 

Mine Safety Appliances Co 44 

Mine sampling, errors in A. Feust. . . . 773 

Ventilation 313 

Mineral industry during 1920 266 

'Mineralogist' 'Pyrites' and 'pyrite'. 


Minerals Separation Co 45, 245, 513, 754 

v. Butte & Superior 371, 753 

Ditto Editorial .... 492 

Mining activities near San Luis Potosi. Mexico 

R. B. Brinsmade. ... 61 

In Bolivia 29 

Industry of Mexico R. G. Cleland. ... 13, 638 

Law revision 480, 817, 828 

Ditto H. F. Bain . 

Ditto A. L. Beardsley. 

Ditto A. G. Blackburn . 

Ditto R. B. Brinsmade . 

Ditto J. Parke Channing. 

Ditto Wm. Crocker . 

Ditto F. P. Davis . , 

Ditto J. F. Davis . , 

Ditto R. A. Dean . 

Ditto L. C. Denny . 

Ditto Editorial . 

Ditto G. L. Holmes . 

Ditto . L. O. Howard . 

Ditto A. S. Howe . 

Ditto J. R. Johnson . 

Ditto F. J. Kirby . 

Ditto S. A. Knapp . 

Ditto L. I. Manson . 

Ditto H. F. May . 

Ditto L. I. Munson . 

Ditto Northwest Mining Association. 



.560. 841 


Vol. 123 

Mining law revision, cont. 

Ditto H. D. Phelps 

Ditto A. D. Ramel 

Ditto E. M. Renaud 

Ditto W. W. Rush 

Ditto G. L. Sheldon 

Ditto F. L. Sizer 

Ditto W. D. Smith 

Ditto F. Spear 

Ditto G. D. Stanley 

Ditto J. Underhill 

Ditto E. C. Watson 

Ditto W. K. Whit more 

Litigation and common sense A. Burch 

Ditto A. B. Parsons 

Ditto S. H. Raine 

Mining Corporation of Canada, company report.. 

Missouri School of Mines Editorial 

Modderfontein Deep Levels, company report 

Monetization of silver S. A. Knapp 

Monroe Calculating Machine Co 

Morrison, R. S. . .Oil and Gas Rights, book review 

Morse, H. W 

Moses, F. G Agitation in flotation 

Motherwell, W Charcoal and cyanidation 

Motor traffic and road construction Editorial 

Truck in mining F. W. Fenn 

Motor-Truck, book review V. W. Page 

Mount Lyell, flotation practice at 

L. V. Waterhouse 

Mount Morgan dispute 

Mount Morgan Gold Mining Co., company report. . 

Munroe. C. E Danger of storing carbide 


Munson, L. I New mining law 

Mutual Truck Co 


. 735 

. 336 

. 252 

. 115 

. 2S4 

. 254 

. 920 

. 392 

. 426 

. 529 

. 530 

. 285 

. 41S 

. 695 

. 802 

. 664 

. 728 

. 902 

. 940 

. 477 

. 600 

. 218 

. 745 

. 725 

! 87 

. 660 

. 722 





Neal, R. W Editorials and Editorial Writing, 

book review 762 

Neill, J. W Valuation of placer deposits. . . . 529 

Nevada Consolidated Copper Co. — IV, V 

A. B. Parsons. . . .323, 393 

Nevius, J. N Resuscitation of the Octave 

gold mine 122 

New Idria v. British-American Mfg. Co 9 03 

New mining law L. I. Munson. . . . 115 

Ditto W. W. Rush 115 

New Modderfontein Gold Mining Co.. company report. . 722 
New York & Honduras Rosario Mining Co., company re- 
port 418 

Nichols, H. G Geological mining. . . . 809 

Nickel 900 

Nipissing Mines 903 

Nitrate. Mr. Ford and the supply of Editorial. . . . Ill 

Non-American issues R. B. Brinsmade. ... 599 

Ditto Wm. Crocker. . . . 337 

Nordberg Mfg. Co 764 

Norden, J. A Efficiency of labor. . . . 196 

North Broken Hill Co.. company report 802 

Northwest Mining Association 792 

Ditto Mining law revision. ... 845 

Novo air-compressor 454 


Octave gold mine, resuscitation of the 

J. N. Nevius 122 

Oil and friction Editorial. ... 79 

Shale exploitation 608 

Supply, America's Editorial. . . . 915 

Oil and Gas Rights, book review 

R. S. Morrison and E. D. de Soto. . . . 902 

Oil-Field Practice, book review D. Hager. . . . 724 

Oil Land Development and Valuation, book review... 

R. P. McLaughlin. ... 370 

Oil Shales, book review A. B. Cronshaw . . . . 902 

Ophir Hill Consolidated Mining Co 649 

Osborn. W. X Cost of copper products. . . . 423 

Osmiridium Editorial. ... 661 

Outlook for gold Editorial. ... 49 

Oxweld Acetylene Co 950 

Oxy-acetylene cutting and welding 825 

Page. V. W Motor-Truck, book review. . . . 725 

Paige. S Hayes' Handbook for Field 

Geologists, book review 763 


Panama-canal toll-exemption. . . .R. B. Brinsmade. . . . 630 

Papua 338 

Parsons, A. B 2, 3 

Ditto. .California Rand silver mine — I, II.... 667, 855 

Ditto Definition of engineering. . . . 847 

Ditto Design of flotation plants. . . . 775 

Ditto .... Mining litigation and common sense .... 8 

Ditto Nevada Consolidated Copper Co. . . .323, 393 

Ditto Operations of the Engels Copper 

Mining Co. — I, II 151, 183 

Patent Office, our anamalous K. P. McElroy 

U. S 


Pawling & Harnischfeger 7S, 176, 766, 950 

Pelton Water Wheel Co 949 

Perkins, R. D Coloring of glass. ... 54 

Perret, L. A. .Electricity v. steam in gold dredging. . . . 460 

Ditto Gold in black sand .... 423 

Ditto Russian placer mining. . . . 879 

Perry, R. W. . . .Lime consumption in cyanidation. . . . 605 

Peru, conditions in 78 

Petroleum, book review 680 

Petroleum stocks 46 

Phelps. H. D Mining law revision. . . . 735 

Philippines, silver in the W. D. Smith. . . . 498 

Pittman, K Silver and the Pittman Act. . . . 290 

Pittsburgh Mining Machinery Co 728 

Placers in Sinaloa A. E. Maas. ... 335 

Placer mining in Russia L. A. Perret. . . . 879 

Ditto C. W. Purington. . . . 389 

Ditto W. E. Thorne. . . . 919 

Valuation Wm. Crocker. . . . 567 

Platinum 451 

Ditto Editorial .... 916 

Pogue, J. E. .Economics of Petroleum, bood review. . . . 901 

Pomeroy. R. E. H Pulverizing coal. . . . 568 

Potosi, discovery of E. Hall. . . . 251 

Powdered Coal Development Corporation 728 

Powdered Coal Engineering & Equipment Co 692 

Power contract, scheduling mine operations to suit a. . 

B. B. Beckett 545 

Power & Mining Machinery Co 875 

Premium on gold 216 

Prescott Co 523 

Present depression and its causes. . .H. C. Hoover. ... 131 

Priceite in Curry county, Oregon H. S. Gale. . . . 895 

Prices of commodities .. 42, 214, 488, 658, 801 

Probert, F. H Indexing current technical 

literature 283 

Producer-gas Erie Huntley. . . . 424 

Professional advice from the Bureau of Mines 

H. F. Bain 221 

Ditto Editorial. . . . 218 

Profit-sharing Editorial. . . . 559 

Prospecting A. G. Dingle. ... 82 

Ditto W. F. Korf .... 53 

Ditto G. E. McClelland. ... 53 

Ditto C. H. McCumber. ... 51 

Ditto R. H. Stretch 114 

By aeroplane 45 

Prospector, to help the J. T. Reid . . . . 565 

Has disappeared, why the F. Hall. . . . SOS 

Pulverized coal 816 

Ditto R. E. H. Pomeroy. . . . 568 

Purington. C. W Russian placer mining. . . . 3S9 

Putnam, E. E Relief for gold miner. . . . 736 

'Pyrites' and 'pyrite' W. S. Bradley. . . . 196 

Ditto 'Mineralogist' .... 256 


Quicksilver A. E. Kellogg. . . . 255 


Railroad strike Editorial. . . . 591 

Raine, S. H 2 

Ditto Mining litigation and common sense. ... 7 

Ramel. A. D Revision of mining law. . . . 336 

Rand dividends 77 

Ray Consolidated Copper Co., company report 722 

Read, T. T AVetting and amalgamation. . . . 919 

Recent Practice in the ITse of Self-Contained Breathing 

Apparatus, book review R. C. Smart. . . . 204 

Recreation, problem of P. B. McDonald. . . . 663 

Reed, H. W Metric weights and measures. . . . 807 

Regeneration of cyanide C. Flury. . . . 91S 

Rehabilitation of the Russian mining industry 

T. J. Jones. ... 6 

Reid. J. T Prospector, to help the. . . . 565 

Vol. rj; 


Rellel for gold miner IS. B. Putnam ... 786 

Renaud, K U Revision of mining law. . . . •-'"■:' 

Repairing ■ «,,,>, i-stave pipe-line Q. A. Joslln, . . . li'>:'. 

Respirators 338 

le A.t amendment 4S 

Reverberator; t. blast Furnace \. J. Bone.... 629 

k. vision of mining law iso. si7. 82S 

Ditto H. F. Bain 843 

Ditto A. L. Beardsley. . . . 150 

Ditto A. G. Blackburn. . . . 424 

Ditto R. B. Brinsmade. . . . 495 

Ditto J. Parke Channing. . . . 773 

Ditto Wm. Cracker. ... 563 

Ditto F. P. Davis. ... 83 

Ditto I. f. Davis. ... ■::•■! 

Ditto R. A. Dean. . . . 698 

Ditto L. C. Dennv. ... 83 

■ Ditto Editorial. . . .560, 841 

Ditto G. L. Holmes 288 

Ditto L. O. Howard. . . . 459 

Ditto A. S. Howe. . . . 679 

Ditto J. R. Johnson.... 195 

Ditto F. J. Kirby. . . . 287 

Ditto S. A. Knapp. . . . 459 

Ditto L. I. Manson. . . . 115 

Ditto H. F. May 563 

Ditto L. I. Munson. ... 115 

Ditto Northwest Mining Association. . . . 845 

Ditto H. D. Phelps 73 5 

Ditto A. D. Ramel. . . . 336 

Ditto E. M. Renaud.... 2 5 2 

Ditto W. W. Rush. . . . 114 

Ditto G. L. Sheldon .... 284 

Ditto F. L. Sizer ... 254 

Ditto W. D. Smith. ... 920 

Ditto F. Spear 392 

Ditto G. D. Stanley 426 

Ditto J. Underhill 529 

Ditto E. C. Watson. ... 530 

Ditto W. K. Whitmore. . . . 285 

Rice. George Graham 47, 97. 205, 557 

And the blue-sky laws of California 272 

Rich, J. L Loose-leaf system for field-maps 

and notes 936 

Richards, J. W.. obituary 620 

Richards, Wm. J., obituary 104 

Richardson, L. J. . . .American Trona Corporation. . . . 116 

Rickard, T. A Applied geology at Butte. . . . 427 

Ditto. . .James L. Bruce. Of Butte, an interview. . . . 353 

Ditto Concentration by Flotation, book 

review 244, 417 

Ditto Education of the mining engineer. ... 811 

Ditto Huxley: the exponent of veracity. . . . 499 

Ditto. .L. D. Ricketts, of Arizona, an interview. . . . 463 

Rieketts of Arizona, Dr Editorial. . . . 457 

Ricketts of Arizona, L. D., an interview 

T. A. Rickard. ... 463 

Ries. H Engineering Geology, book review .... 442 

Roberts, Milnor 3 

Ditto Valuing partly exhausted mines. ... 5 

Robinson & Co., Dwight B 838 

Robinson, J. E. .Experiences in the Belgian Congo. . . . 647 

Rocca, A., obituary 759 

Rock-drill bit, detachable Editorial .... 806 

Rock-drilling tests in the Tri-State mining district. . . . 

C. R. Forbes. . . . 937 

Rockwell Co.. W. S 524, 692, 766 

Rogers. A. F. . . .Introduction to the Study of Minerals 

and Rocks, book review 724 

Rogers. A. H Evasion of licensing. ... 251 

Ropes. L. S Copper-selling drive. . . . 149 

Rosenblatt, G. B.. and G. Bright Electricity in the 

development of the mining industry 78 5 

Round Mountain Mining Co., company report 418 

Royston W. F. Korf . . . . 91S 

Ditto R. H. Stretch 917 

Ditto E. C. Watson. . . . 917 

Or San Antoue Editorial. . . . 804 

Rubber simply, America's Editorial. . . . 592 

Rush, W. W New mining law. . . . 114 

Russia, mining in 676 

Ditto Editorial .... 662 

Russian gold exports 302 

Metallurgy under Soviet rule 637 

Mining industry, rehabilitation of. .T. J. Jones. ... 6 

Placer mining L. A. Perret . . . . 879 

Ditto C. W. Purington. . . . 389 

Ditto W. E. Thorne. ... 919 

Russo-Asiatic Consolidated Co 315 


Salt production In United States | 

Sampling of bullion R. [{. Kalian. . . . 80 

Errors in .Morton Webber . . 

San Francisco, in Editorial.... 360 

San Luis Potosi, Mexico, mining activities near 

K. li. Brinsmade. ... 61 

Sand, gold in black L. A. Perret. . . . 128 

Ditto r. S. Taylor. ... 532 

Scheduling mine operations to suit a power contract. . 

B. B. Beckett 546 

Scrapers underground, use of L. Eaton. . . . 703, 917 

Ditto C. F. Jackson. . . . 773 

Second-hand equipment Editorial. . . . 661 

Shackelford, W. B., obituary 140, 414 

Shaft sinking, breaking the world's record in 

W. Fitch, Jr 748 

Sinking record 303 

Shale-oil distillation D. E. Day .... 257 

Sharpless. F. F., as Institute secretary 1 

Shasta Zinc & Copper Co 108 

Shattuck Arizona Copper Co., company report 722 

Sheldon, G. L Revision of mining law. . . . 2S4 

Shores, E Correction .... 879 

Siberia, mining in 77 

Sibley, R., and C. H. Delaney. . . .Elements of Fuel Oil 

and Steam Engineering, book review 370 

Sicily, sulphur industry of 431 

Silver and the Pittman Act K. Pittman. . . . 290 

Silver Bromide Grain, book review 

A. P. H. Trivelli and S. E. Sheppard 680 

Silver Hills 913 

Silver King Coalition Mines Co., company report 418 

Silver, status of Editorial. . . . 280 

Silverhorn district 107 

Simon Silver-Lead Co 339 

Sizer. F. L Revision of mining law. . . . 254 

Ditto Stocks and prices. . . . 256 

Smart, R. C Recent Practice in the Use of Self- 

Contained Breathing Apparatus, book review. . . 204 

Smelting practice, ancient South American 861 

Smith. W. D Mining law revision. ... 920 

Ditto Silver in the Philippines. ... 498 

Smuggler Union Mining Co 135 

South Africa, mineral industry of O. Letcher. . . . 298 

South American affairs Editorial. . . . 490 

Spain, manganese in 164 

Spear, F Revision of mining law. . . . 392 

Specification Writing, Elements of, book review 

R. S. Kirby. ... 441 

Stamp Electric Hoist Co 692 

Standard mine, sale of 68 

Standard Oil Co 46 

Standardizing steel for mining and milling 

R. C. Gosrow. . . . 147 

Stanley. F. A Drawing Room Practice, 

book review 725 

Ditto Shop-operations and repairs 

on gold-dredges 569 

Stanley, G. D Mining law revision. . . . 426 

Star case Editorial .... 877 

v. Federal Mining Company 165, 903 

Steam Boilers, book review.- F. Croft. . . . 680 

Steel belt conveyor S37 

From western iron ore Editorial. ... 731 

Steel. Working of, book review 

F. H. Colvin and K. A. Juthe. . . . 578 

Stevenson, C. C, and T. Varley Chloride 

volatilization process 159 

Stocks and prices F. L. Sizer. . . . 256 

Ditto _. . D. Waterman .... 392 

Storage-battery locomotives in metal mines 

E. V. Daveler and R. E. Renz. . . . 751 

Stretch, "R. H Comstock lode in the 'sixties. . . . 739 

Ditto Prospecting. . . . 114 

Ditto Royston. . . . 917 

Sullivan Machinery Co 691 

Dry vacuum pump 175 

Pneumatic-displacement pump 838 

Sundry observations M. W. von Bernewitz. . . . 774 

Surface energy and adsorption in flotation 

A. W. Fahrenwald. . . . 227 

Tension in flotation A. W. Fahrenwald. ... 631 

Ditto A. C. Halferdahl. . . . 498 

Tension, measurement of R. B. Elder. . . . 226 

Tension, method of determining 124 

Surflcial closing of fissure veins H. Loomis. . . . 737 


Vol. 123 

Talc .. 


Tariff Editorial 

Again Editorial 


On magnesite and chrome W. S. Cranmer. . . . 

Taxation and the mineral industry 

R. B. Brinsmade. . . . 

Of mines 

Ditto Editorial 

Taxing gold producers J. S. Taylor. . . . 

Taylor, A., obituary 

Taylor, F Loading converter matte. . . . 

Taylor, J. S Taxing gold producers 

Technical writing P. R. Cook. . . . 

Ditto Engineer-Journalist .... 

Ditto P. B. McDonald .... 

Temiskaming Mining Co., Ltd., company report 

Tempering copper 

Tennessee Copper & Chemical Co 

Thawing, cold water 

Thompson, N. . .Iron and steel on the Pacific coast. . . . 

Thompson, W People of Mexico, book review. . . . 

Thorne, S. M., obituary 

Thorne, W. E Russian placer mining. . . . 

Time element in cyanidation E. Hall. . . . 

Studies in metallurgical analysis 

W. F. Dietrich .... 

Timkin Roller Bearing Co 

Tin-plate fabrication 

Tintic Standard Co 

Tom Reed v. United Eastern 

Tonopah, strike at Editorial. . . . 

Tonopah Extension Co 

Training for foreign exploration H. F. Bain. . . . 


Transportation in Alaska 

Transvaal gold production 

Treadwell Engineering Co 

Treadwell, F. P., and W. T. Hall Analytical 

Chemistry, book review 

Trivelli, A. P. H Silver Bromide Grain, 

book review 

Tube-mill pebbles and colloids Editorial. . . . 

Tucker, G. M American English, book review. . . . 

Tunnel-driving record F. C. Hickman. . . . 

Turbinair hoist, Sullivan 

Turner, H. W Magmatic origin of the 

chalcopyrite and bornite at Engels 


. 768 

. 8S9 

. 109 

. 178 

. 67 

. 335 

'. 84 

. 827 

. 178 

. 738 

. 172 

. 790 

. 738 

. 597 

. 632 

























Uglow, W. L 177 

Ditto An unusual copper-lead deposit. ... 197 

Undergraduate English \ 79 

Underhill, J Mining law revision. ... 529 

United Verde Mining Co., company report 723 

Universal Crane Co 692 

Uranium and radium of Katanga 

M. H. Buttgenbach. ... 636 

U. S. High-Speed Steel & Tool Corporation 72S 

U. S. Rubber Co 176 

U. S. Smelting, Refining & Mining Co 6 8 

Utah Apex v. Utah Consolidated 548, 579, 791 

Utah Consolidated v. Utah-Apex. .*. 407 

Utah Copper Co., company report 722 

Finances 340 

Utah Metal Operators Institute 547 

Utah mines dividends 9 7 


Vanadium 824 

Van Aubel, R Indicative plants. . . . 600 

Varley, T., and C. C. Stevenson Chloride 

volatilization process 159 

Ventilation and phthisis C. L. Berrien. . . . 223 

In mines D. Harrington. . . . 609 

Volatilization of metals Editorial. . . . 145 

Process at the Pope-Shenon mine 

R. H. Bradford 263 

Process, chloride. T. Varley and C. C. Stevenson. . . . 159 

von Bernewitz, M. W Indexing current 

technical literature 391, 531 

Ditto Sundry observations. ... 774 

Ditto Wetting and amalgamation. ... 881 

Voorhees, S. S., obituary 554 


Wages and costs Editorial. . . . 246 

Of Europeans in Africa 49 

War minerals relief 342, 939 

Mar Minerals Relief Act 205, 828, 864 

War Minerals Relief Bill 753 

Warner, C. A. .Field mapping for the oil geologist. . . . 204 

Warren. C. H Determinative Mineralogy, 

book review 724 

Washington conference Editorial. . . .694, 770 

Waste in Industry, book review 726 

Waterhouse, L. V Flotation practice at 

Mount Lyell 87 

Waterman, D Failures from lack of capital. . . . 598 

Ditto Stocks and prices. ... 392 

Waters, A. L., obituary 140 

Watson, E. C Mining law revision. . . . 530 

Ditto Royston .... 917 

Webber, Morton. . .Errors latent in mine-sampling. ... 633 

Welded pine Editorial. ... 732 

Welding, fusion A. S. Kinsey. . . . 432 

Wellman-Seaver-Morgan Co 766 

West, E. M Concerning fakes. . . . 225 

Westinghouse Electric & Manufacturing Co 524 

Wetting and amalgamation A. W. Allen. ... 699 

Ditto S. H. Dolbear .... 665 

Ditto F. H. Mason .... 772 

Ditto T. T. Read. . . . 919 

Ditto M. W. von Bernewitz. . . . 881 

Whitley, C. W.. obituary 554 

Whitmore, W. K Revision of mining law. ... 285 

Who's who in engineering 45 

Wilhelm. V. H Baja California and oil 

possibilities 125 

Williams. C. E. .Iron and steel on the Pacific coast. ... 94 

Wilson. C Wilson's Mining Laws, 1921, 

book review 442 

Wilson's Mining Laws, 1921, book review 

C. Wilson 442 

Within the Atom, book review J. Mills. . . . 726 

Witwatersrand Gold Mining Co 4 

Wolf, J. H. G Indexing current 

technical literature 335 

Wood, J. E Value of gold. . . . 226 

Worthy purpose Editorial. ... 456 

Wright, J. C. . . .Automotive Repair, book review. . . . 901 

Writing English Prose, book review 

W. T. Brewster. . . . 203 

Yale, C. G 177 

Ditto. '. Metal mining in California. ... 200 

Valuation of ore W. Crocker. 

Of placers '. W. Crocker. 

Ditto Editorial . . 

Of placer deposits G. H. Hutton. 

Ditto J. W. Neill . 

Value of gold J. E. Wood . . 

Valuing partly exhausted mines. . . .L. O. Howard. . 

Ditto M. Roberts . . 


567 Zimapan district, Mexico, smelting practice in the. . . . 

351 R. B. Brinsmade. . . . 433 

365 Zinc, determination by the ferrocyanide method 66 

529 Industry, world's 271 

226 Silver ore treatment D. W. Brunton. ... 52 

568 Ditto A. Del Mar. . . .51, 255 

5 Zirconium 576 

mnuumgr smudl 

it the Fi 
pi.-ii.iii. ■ ..- -t ni .Li-- matter 


\ olurac 123 No. 1 

1 5 Ci hi - pel Copy; I per Year 


Quick Shipment 

Motors & Supplies -from iff ese points! 

AS Westinghouse Agent-Jobbers we carry a 
l large stock of Motors and supplies in Denver 
and El Paso 

At East Pittsburgh we have on order many more 
motors for eai-ly shipment to our stock. 

Wire or write our nearest office and quotation or shipment from our nearest 
stock or factory will be promptly made. 

The Mine and Smelter Supply Co. 


Chicago Representative: 


4555 Maiden St., Chicago. lit. 

./Veto Yorli Office: 42 "Broadway 


San Francisco ReprenentatiVe: \y 

3151 Eton Ave., 'Berkeley, Cal. 


Jnlv 2, 1921 

Why do you Grind and Pulverize Your Ore? 

To release the values and get a better return in mill-savings. 

For the same reason, — coal is pulverized — to release the heat values, — and 
to gain greater saving in power-plant operation. 

Lignites, cheap bituminous or low-grade anthracites, can be burned with- 
out smoke and with high efficiency — can be made to give up more of their 
R.T.U. 's — when prepared, pulverized, dried and burned by the 


Pulverized Coal Burning Equipment 

This modern and highly developed apparatus includes everything necessary 
to reduce coal of any size down to the finest uniform powder. It delivers the 
fuel dry into the boiler furnace with a minimum amount of excess air to com- 
plete the combustion. 

The extremely fine subdivision of the coal and its intimate mixture with 
air, under full control of the operator, gives the same flexibility that is 
obtained with oil and gaseous fuels — at a higher over-all economy and with 
absolute reliability and safety. 

Engineering details regarding the 
application of Fuller-Lehigh Pulver- 
ized Coal Burning Equipment to yoHr 
boiler plant may be obtained without 
cost or obligation by writing to us. 


Fullerton, Pa. 

What Constitutes A 
Coal Pulverizing Plant? 

Fully explainedin our Booklet 600-MS 
which we will be glad to send on re- 
quest. More than 35,000 tons of coal 
are being pulverized daily by this 
method and you owe it to yourself to 
be posted on details. 

Julv 2. 1921 


Hero and the 


THE first rotary engine described by Hero, the 
Greek writer of ancient times, was a toy. 

BUT now, after sleeping 3,000 years, the rotary idea of 
Hero's toy, incorporated in the new Waughoist, is solv- 
ing the lifting problems of the mining industry and 
speeding up hoisting operations everywhere. 

BY minimizing friction in this remarkable new engine, 
the ideal of its manufacturers has been attained — greater 
power from less air, longer life and completely satis- 
factory service from every point of view. 

LET us tell you more about it. Write today for a 
Waughoist booklet. 

San Francisco 
El Paso 

l^\ \mv ^^Sv^ ^^ ^'v^ G. 


Los Angeles 


Salt Lake City 






New York City 



Canadian Rock Drill Company, Limited 
Sole Agents in Canada 

Cobalt Nelson 

Mexico City 



July 2, 1921 






The massive construction of 


Steel Jaw Crushers and XX 
Straight Line Crushing Rolls, 
indicates machines that are 
built for heavy work and 
Severe Service. 

All the latest improvements 
are embodied assuring Maxi- 
mum Efficiency and Economy. 

AH Steel Jaw Crusher 


All Steel Jaw Crushers 

No. 1810 

XX Straight Line Crushing 


No. 1816 

July 2. 1921 






Since 1 894- 1 898 there has been only one fundamental 
improvement in the field of Cyanide manufacture — the dis- 
covery of Aero Brand Cyanide. 

This product was developed four years ago, to meet an urgent 
need for lower priced cyanide, in a time of scarcity and high 
prices. The service performed then by Aero Brand is still 
at work — Aero Brand is still being sold at the lowest cost of 
any cyanide on the market. 

Its efficiency has been demonstrated under every possible 
metallurgical condition, under the observation of some of the 
best mining engineers in the United States, Canada and 

The almost universal use of Aero Brand on this continent is 
the best evidence of the service it is rendering in these 
difficult times. 



July •_>, 1921 



Conveyor Belting 

Elevator Belting 

Test Special Transmission Belting 

Indestructible Air Drill Hose 

Indestructible Water Hose 

Indestructible Steam Hose 

Acetylene Welding Hose 

Firo Superheat Sheet Packing 

Indestructible Sheet Packing 

Cobbs Piston Packing 

Pump Valves 

The Braided Jacket 
adds enormous 


And that is but one of the many points of superiority in 
Indestructible Air Drill Hose. Note the thickness of the 
rubber cover — it gives ample protection against external 
injury without the necessity for wire or other armoring. 

Here is construction you can see is good. The rubber 
stocks used throughout are the best — the tube is com- 
pounded to resist the effects of oil — the friction strength 
is unusual and the rubber cover tough and elastic. 

These features make Indestructible Air Drill Hose long 
lived and dependable. 


SALT LAKE CITY - 313 Felt Bldg. 

EL PASO Martin Bldg. 

SAN FRANCISCO ■ 519 Mission St. 






July 2, 1921 


Vigilant" Safety 
Water Column 



N° 58 




A safety appliance necessary for protec- 
tion against the dangers incident to high 
and low water levels in steam boilers. 

COLUMN will automatically sound an 
alarm and notify the attendant whenever 
the water level approaches either danger 
limit. It thereby safeguards life and pro- 
tects the boiler from serious disaster which 
may be caused by the low level allowing 
the fire to play on the crown sheets and 
tubes when unprotected, or extreme high 
level which causes priming of the boiler 
and consequent damage to the power unit 
and the connecting pipes and valves. 

The action of the "VIGILANT" operating 
mechanism is simple but positive. The 
single float actuates the double acting valve 
through the medium of stops set for high 
and low level limits. When the water ap- 
proaches either danger limit the valve is 
opened, permitting steam to pass and blow 
the signal whistle. 

A sediment chamber is provided at the 
bottom to trap scale or dirt which may enter 
the Column; Gauge Cock connections are 
tapped on both sides to permit right or 
left hand assembly; the top is removable 
for inspection of working parts, and all 
parts are renewable. 

The "VIGILANT" Safety Water Column is 
recommended for working steam pressures 
up to 250 pounds; is made in a variety of 
sizes to suit all makes of boilers, and from 
the extensive line of LUNKENHEIMER 
Water Gauges and Gauge Cocks available 
a combination can be selected to suit every 
individual installation. 

Safety Water Columns and insist on 
getting what you specify. 






C h1cag°o RK CINCINNATI l B o°n S do^ 



July 2, 1921 


Traylor Rolls 

roll-shells that remain 
straight and true because 
of the patented "fleeting 
roll" mechanism. 

Write for Bulletin 

Leaving aside the important and well-known Traylor 
Roll patented features such as the "Fleeting Roll', 
there's another valuable point to be considered when this 
question of buying a set of rolls comes up. 

That question is weight — material contained — inherent 

Size for size — compared with others — Traylor Rolls are 
of heavier construction — weigh more — contain more 
actual material. 

This extra weight in construction counts in the daily 
grind of service and shows up in a greater percentage of 
running time, day in and day out. 

Write for weight figures on Traylor Rolls 

and get the facts on the patented built-in 

"Fleeting-Roll" mechanism. 

Traylor Engineering and Mfg. Co. 



New York Chicago 

Los Angeles 


Truck and Tractor Division: 









July 2, 1921 

Price oil engines 

It should not be a question of installing "an engine to do the work" but in equipping your plant with 
the machinery which will do the work under your operating conditions. 

Your best assurances of this service are the names of companies whose products you know to be ever- 
lasting monuments to their credit. 

First, we ask you to associate Price Oil Engines with Ingersoll-Rand. These engines are built and 
sold by the same staff responsible for the present reputation and service of Ingersoll-Rand Com- 
pressors, Vacuum Pumps, Rock Drills, etc. 

Price Oil Engines are rugged, compact and simple. 
They have the economy of a Diesel Engine and the 
simplicity of a steam engine. 

Ignition is by temperature of compression — there are 
no hot bulbs or plates. This feature has reduced 
starting and other common oil engine troubles to a 

Fuel injection is direct and positive without the use of 
compressed air. With Price engines no expensive high 
pressure air compressor and fittings are necessary. 

These and other features have made it possible for us 
to offer a simple and reliable engine. 

The distinctive and simple oiling system and careful 
construction of the engines permit us to guarantee 
a consumption of only one gallon of lubricating oil 
per 4000 HP. hours. 

The single cylinder, horizontal engine shown above 
is known as the Type "PO" and is built in 45 and 90 
HP. sizes. We also offer multi-cylinder, vertical 
engines in sizes ranging from 105 to 1000 BHP. 

These engines are suitable for driving generators, 
compressors, line shaft — in fact for all general 
power purposes. 

Our Engineers will be very glad to tell you more about Price 
Engines. In the meantime let us send you complete information 


11 Broadway, New York 

^^^^^ 13-SOE 


July 2. 1921 


il ■ 

A real tribute from the 
Toledo Chevrolet Motor Co. 

Writing of two Ingersoll-Rand "XB" Compressors installed 
at their plant, Mr. G. D. Moore, General Manager, said: 

"and wish to say with reference to the opera- 
tion of these units . . . we do not believe 
you can exaggerate the efficiency or the satis- 
faction we have experienced during the years 
these compressors have been in operation in 
our plant." 

There is nothing to add to what Mr. Moore has said except 
that we are glad that his company has secured the same service 
as thousands of other users of Ingersoll-Rand Compressors. 

No matter what the size or type there is an Ingersoll-Rand Compressor 
to meet your requirements. Our En ineers will gladly discuss your 
compressor problems with you. 

Ingersoll-Rand Company 

165 Q. Victoria St. 


Turbo Blowers and Compress- 
ors, Condensers, Oil Engines, 
Rock Drills, Pneumatic Tools, 
Hoists and Cameron Pumps 




July 2, 1921 

Sectional Vertical Sinking Pumps 

These pumps are built in sections, the 
heaviest single part weighing less than 
300 lbs. 

Even in the remote interiors of Central 
and South America, cut off from rail- 
roads by mountain ranges, these pumps 
are delivering true Cameron Service. 

Cameron pumping service means re- 
liability and economy combined with 

Write for Bulletin 7304 

Inger soil -Rand Company 

11 Broadway 

Vacuum Pumps 
Air Lift Pumps 

New York 

Air Compressors 
Rock Drills 


Ino enroll -Rand 

The A. S. Cameron Steam Pump Works 

Jab 2, 1921 



The leader in a leading industry 

TODAY the Chicago Pneu- 
matic Tool Company is a 
twenty-five-year-old leader in 
an industry which touches 
practically every phase of 
modern engineering and con- 
struction work. The company 
is more than the world's largest 
builder of pneumatic and elec- 
tric tools — 

Chicago Pneumatic Air Com- 
pressors are built in 500 types 
and sizes — all modern! Giant 
Oil, Gas and Steam Engines 
are built in capacities from 12 
to 200 h.p., and if desired, may 
be supplied as complete elec- 
tric generating units. Pneu- 
matic Geared Hoists, Sand 
Rammers, Rock Drills, Coal 
Drills, Pneumatic Winches. 

Electric Track Drills and Vacu- 
um Pumps are other C-P Pro- 
ducts — ■ one great family, whose 
homes comprise five American 
and three foreign plants. 

Sales and Service Branches the world 
over carry stocks of C-P Products, and 
extend expert engineering counsel without 
obligation. Inquiries addressed to the near- 
est Branch will receive prompt attention. 

Chicago Pneum 

Chicago Pneumatic Building 

Sales and *Service Branches alt over the World 

atic Tool Company 

■ 6 East 44th Street - New York 


•Boston •Cincinnati El Paw Houston •Minneapolis •Pmiladeuphia Salt Lake City "St. Louu 

•BurrALO 'Cleveland Erie Joflln "New Orleans •PrrrsBUtiCH "San Francisco 





Depend upon 

that Name 



July 2, 1921 

Power Plant Equipment 

conforms to the latest methods of modern 
steam practice. 

We make all the necessary valves, fittings and piping to 
take care of high pressure superheated steam and high or 
low pressure saturated steam. 

Wc arc manufacturers of about 20,000 articles, including valves, pipe 
fittings and steam sepcialties, made of brass, iron, ferrosteel, cast steel 
and forged steel, in all sizes, for all pressures and all purposes and are 
distributors of pipe, heating and plumbing materials. 






























. CRANK, l«S6 





































July L\ 1921 



Aldrich Power Pumps 

There's No 

"Waster's Penalty" 
Where Aldrich Pumps 
Are Used 

At Inspiration 

Four Aldrich Triplex Pumps take care of the water 
supply for the concentration mill of the Inspiration 
Consolidated Copper Company, of Miami, Arizona. 

This Aldrich installation is typical of many among 
large mines where pumping cost-factors are carefully 
considered and where Aldrich Pumps have been 
found to fit exact pumping requirements. 

Aldrich engineers have prepared a folder in which 
pump efficiency and its relation to mine power-costs 
is shown in chart form. It will be gladly sent on 

Ask for the "No Waster's Penalty" Folder 

The Aldrich Pump Company 

No. 7 Gordon St., AHentown, Pa. 

Chicago El Paso New York Philadelphia Tulsa Pittsburgh 

Sales Agencies: 

Hendrie & Bolthoff Mfg. & Supply Co Denver 

Harron, Rickard & McCone, San Francisco and Los Angeles 

The Salt Lake Hardware Co Salt Lake City 

S. P. Wright & Co Butte 



July 2, 1921 

Kuaales Coles Draere 

They run for years without breakdown 

For more than 27 years we have 

consistently worked to produce dryers 
that operators could learn to depend 
upon for steady, uninterrupted ser- 
vice. From the beginning, our policy 
has always been to employ only the 
highest class of workmanship and the 
best materials in building our dryers. 

All plates, tires, gears, wheels and 
castings entering into the construc- 

tion of Ruggles-Coles Dryers are the 
best to be obtained. There are no 
weak parts to be easily broken. 

The unusual strength and rugged- 
ness of Ruggles-Coles Dryers permits 
them to operate 21 hours day after 
day with minimum wear. In fact, 
some of our machines have consistent- 
ly been on the job for 20 years. 

Our catalog will give complete information regarding 
construction and operation of all Ruggles-Coles Dryers. 

Ruggles-Coles Engineering Company 

120 Broadway 

New York City 

•Iiilv 2, 192] 



You Need This Book 

QuPOND "Blasting Accessories 


Branch Offices : 

Birmingham, Ala. 
Boston, Mass. 
Buffalo, N. Y. 
Chicago, 111. 
Denver, Colo. 
Duluth, Minn. 
Huntington, W. Va. 
Joplin, Mo. 
Juneau, Alaska 
Kansas City, Mo. 
New York, N. Y. 
Pittsburgh, Pa. 
Portland, Ore. 
St. Louis, Mo. 
San Francisco, Calif. 
Scranton, Pa. 
Seattle, Wash. 
Spokane, Wash. 
Springfield, 111. 

Du Pont Products Store 
Atlantic City, N. J. 

Mail the Coupon Today 

IT contains up-to-the-minute details covering the most ad- 
vanced blasting practice, which will prove valuable to anyone 
engaged in the purchase or use of explosives. 

Du Pont Blasting Accessories are designed by the world's largest 
makers of explosives to give completely satisfactory results under 
all conditions. They are the most widely used of any accessories 
made, simply because they deliver 100 per cent service. 

Blasting Caps 

Electric Blasting Caps 

Delay Electric Blasting Caps 


Blasting Machines 

Electric Igniters, Delay 

Leading Wires 
Cap Crimpers 
Tamping Bags 
Thawing Kettles 

E. I. 


Sales Dept.: Explosives Division 

Wilmington, Delaware 
Fill out and mail the coupon NOW 


/ E. I. du Pont de Nemours & Co., Inc. 






(Fill in nearest branch office — see above) 
Gentlemen : 

Please send me your book "Blasting Accessories,' 



y without charge or obligation to me. 
/ Name 



/ Position- 

- State 



July 2, 1921 

23rd Level Palst Shaft 
Ironwood, Michigan 

Station Pumps in the Pabst Shaft 


HERE'S no shambling or relaying of water with 
Prescott-Menominee Pumps and this installation 
in the Pabst Shaft of the Oliver Iron Mining Co., 

Ironwood, Michigan, is no exception. 

Here each, for there are two, 4|" x 24" electrically 
driven Prescott-Menominee Pumps is delivering, direct 
to the surface, 400 gallons per minute and working 
against a 1700 foot head. 

We specialize in Electric Pumps for deep mines and 
would welcome an opportunity to discuss your pump- 
ing problems with you. 

400 Gallons 
per Minute 

Head 1700 ft 


FRED. M. PRESCOTT, President 

Menominee, Michigan 

July 8, 192] 



In Stock for Immediate Shipment 

imple Strong Durable 

Type "C" Jaw Crusher 

Illustration shows Buchanan 'All-Steel' 
Jaw Crusher, with frame of 'box' con- 
struction, intended for heavy and con- 
tinuous duty encountered in mining 

Jaw plates are made sectional. Upper 
and lower plates are inter-changeable, 
increasing wear obtainable. 

Steel-castings are carefully annealed 
and all shrinkage strains are entirely 
removed. Bearings have double system 
of lubrication, are water jacketed, and 
in the larger sizes are removable. 

Built in sizes from 24"x36" to 66" x 

Write for Bulletin No. 10 

Type "C" Crushing Rolls 

Built in all sizes and types from 18" x 
12" up to and including 72"x30". 

Buchanan Crushing Rolls are furnished 
with rolled chrome-steel shells, phos- 
phor bronze bearings, fleeting device for 
preventing grooving of the shells, patent 
swivel pillow blocks, and every known 
improvement of value, to date. 

Write for Bulletin No. 13 

C G. Buchanan Co., Inc. 

West and Cedar St., New York 

Western Representative: 

W. H. Moore Jr., Trustee for COLLINS & WEBB, Inc. 

314 East Third St., Lot Angeles, Cal. 



July 2, 1921 

After twenty months of service- 


What a large metallurgical company wrote 
us April 19, 1921: 


We unhesitatingly recommend the DFC 
Oil Fired Assay Furnace. 

A two muffle furnace, which was in place 
when we took over the laboratory, has been 
operated by us for a period of twenty 
months. During this time the only repairs 
necessary were two muffles — the last being 
still in place and probably good for two 
months more use. 

The oil consumption is very reasonable. 
We have kept no accurate record, but the 
consumption is probably about two gallons of 
fuel oil per hour. 

No trouble is experienced in feathering 
cupels or in controlling the temperature at 
any time. 

Yours very truly, 

The A. H. Jones Company 

(Signed) A. H. Jones. 

A record to be proud of: 

"Unhesitatingly recommend" .... "Only repairs necessary were 
two muffles — the last being still in place" .... "Oil consump- 
tion is reasonable" . . . •• "No trouble in feathering cupels or 
controlling temperature." 


Send for Bulletin 425 


Salt Lake City F»T£ «] New York City 

July 2, 1921 



"Caterpillar" Power 
is Flexible and Economical 

In erection of mine buildings, structures, 
head frames, ore bins — in hauling timbers, 
ore wagons, supplies the flexible, economi- 
cal "Caterpillar" 5-Ton Tractor (with or 
without winch attachment) is the handiest 
form of power. 

Liberal surplus over rated power, lowest cost 
per working hour, long life because of 
accurate standards of construction — all of 
these plus "Caterpillar" adaptability and . 

dependability make it one of the most useful 
pieces of machinery in mine work. 

Where greater power is required the 
"Caterpillar" 45, the "Caterpillar" 10-Ton and 
"Caterpillar" 75 supply it abundantly. The 
last is by far the most powerful tractor on 
the market today. 

Send right now for complete information 
about "Caterpillar" Tractors. 


It is built right in the Holt shops from the casting of cylinders 
to final inspection — built to exceptionally exacting standards 
of design and construction. This engine is doing heavy duty 
in every kind of service. 

It is particularly valuable on new and small properties. It will 
operate the compressor, mill, stamp batteries, rock breaker, 
concentrating tables, pumps, central station and do a dozen 
other jobs economically. 

The "Caterpillar" Motor is the vaive-in-head type — made in 
four sizes, 30 hp., 45 hp., 55 hp., 75 hp. Write at once for 
complete information. 

The Holt Manufacturing Company 

Los Angeles, Calif. 

Stockton, Calif. 

Spokane, Wash. 

Peoria, 111. 

San Francisco, Calif* 



July 2, 1921 




Take advantage of this generous 

offer immediately. Prices subject to 

change without notice. 

Mining Engineer's 

By Robert Peele 

2375 Pages Index 

Every engineer's encyclo- 
paedia, without its bulk. A 
pencil, a piece of paper, a slide 
rule, and Peele 's, and the min- 
ing engineer can start for any- 
where, confident with the knowl- 
edge that he is equipped to meet 
any emergency. 

Price $ 7.00 

Mining and Scientific 
Press one year 4.00 

Prospector's Field Book 
and Guide 

By H. S. Osbom 

Revised by M. W. von Bemewitz 

This book tells, not merely 
where to go and what to look 
for, but makes it easy to know it 
when you see it, and how to de- 
termine on the ground whether 
or not the prospect is worthy of 
further development. 

Price $3.00 

Mining and Scientific Press 
one year 4.00 

Technical Writing 

By T. A. 

17 a Pages 



The ability to express one's 
self clearly, logically, and con- 
vincingly is an indispensable 
adjunct in the work of every 
man of science. No engineer 
can help but benefit through a 
study of this work, written by 
an engineer who is a master of 
the art of expression. 

Price $1.50 

Mining and Scientific Press 
one year 4.00 

Both in Combination $10.00 Both in Combination $6.00 Both in Combination $5.00 



420 Market Street, 

San Francisco 


Enclosed find ? 

Please j.^" my subscription to the MINING AND SCIENTIFIC PRESS. 

Subscription Rates: 
U. S. and Possessions . . $4.00 

Canada $5.00 

Foreign $6.00 

Please send me a copy of 



Company employed by 

July 2, L92] 





July 2, 1921 


TM§ is ftlhe Ibook yoM Haa^e Ibsom wantiirag fcff„ 



General Offices: 302 Market St., San Francisco 


Los Angeles flOB Trust & Savings Bids. >'evv York 

Salt Lake City 329 Newhouse Bldg. Philadelphia 

Chicago, 165 West Washington St. 

4 Rector St. 
432 Liberty St. 


A. W. ALLEN 1 

A. B. Parsons) 

iiuiiiiiiiiiHimiimimiiHiiiiiiitiiiiiiiiimiiiiuiuiiiiiii iiiiiiiuiiiiiiiiirituiiiiiiiiii: 

Bnafinogj fflM 
mtfiWS® m 

Member Audit Bureau of Circulations 
Member Associated Business Papers, Inc. 







Pubttthed at UO Martd St., San FrandKO, 
bv the Dtu-tv Publishing Companv 

l " 11 "" 11 """ """" """"" nminmi iiinii iiniiiiiiuuiiiiinuiuunuu mi inn i in i i uniuun nun I ininiiuinnim nun milium nun n iiuiiiunn ssaj 


Issued every Saturday 

San Francisco, July 2, 1921 

$4 per Year — 15 Cents per Copy 





Contributions to the discussion columns. Letters 
of approval. Contributions in the current issue. 
The response of the prospectors. The value of 



Metallurgic methods at Johannesburg. Favorable 
conditions. Units of gold content. Assay value. 
Results at the Witwatersrand company's plant. 
Amalgamation and cyanidation. Points of eco- 
nomic and metallurgic detail. The efficiency of 
amalgamation. Treatment of the ore. Leaching 
treatment. The influence of Homestake practice in 
the maintenance of the gold output of South Da- 
kota. Work at the Alaska Juneau property. 



By Algernon Del Mar and Charles V. Craig. . . . 
Senator Borsum's Bill. 


By Milnor Roberts 

Information about old or idle mines. Mining an 
adventure for capital rather than for investment. 
Difficult transportation. An example. 


By T. J. Jones 

Conditions in Russia. Dislocation of economic life. 
Period that must elapse before return to pre-war 
conditions. Conditions of railways, bridges, and 
other national assets. Rehabilitation of industry. 
Need for capital and organizing talent. Conditions 
as reported are exaggerated. 


By S. H. Raine 

Criticism of editorial activities. 

By Albert Burch 

Comment on A. B. Parsons' paper on the subject. 
Revision of the mining law. The value of evidence 
from a 'practical' man. Partisanship. Suggestion 



that all litigation of this kind be submitted to 
limited tribunals. 

By A. B. Parsons 8 

A reply to, and an appreciation of, Mr. Burch's 


By F. H. Mason 8 

Reaction of a physical rather than of a chemical 
nature. The action of peroxide of manganese. 



By Robert G. Cleland 13 

The Colonial period. Mining law. Mining ordi- 
nances. Dimensions of the pertenencia. Royal 
taxes and monopolies. Indirect taxes. Lack of 
capital. Colonial labor. Mita system. Mining 
methods. Extraction of free gold. 


By Frederick Laist 21 

Development of great mining enterprises. Pro- 
fession of mining. The Utah Copper Co.'s opera- 
tions. Story of Chuquicamata. Work at Potre- 
rillos. Preliminary planning. Methods of mining 
and metallurgy. Advice to young engineers. 


By Richard V. Ageton 27 

Growth of the old-time mining camp. The tramp 
miner. Mental attitude of the miner. Care of the 
injured. Recreations. 


By W. E. Gaby 30 











Established May 24. 1860. as The Scientific Press: name changed October 
20 of the same year to Mining; and Scientific Press. 

Entered at the San Francisco post-office as second-class matter. Cable 
address: Pextusola. 

Branch Offlees-s-Chicago. 600 Fisher Bdg.: New York, 31 Nassau St.: 
London. 724 Salisbury House. E.C. 

Price. 15 cents Der copy. Annual subscription, payable in advance: 
United States and Mexico, S4: Canada, $5: other countries, S6. 



July 2, 1921 

yevvdco ~I Pro duce! 

ONE hundred and forty-four years ago Lavoisier coined the 
name Oxygen. 
In choosing the Greek word revvdco "I produce," as 
his main root he had in mind a chemical reaction commonly asso- 
ciated with the gas. 

Had Lavoisier been able to foresee the tremendous part that Linde 
Oxygen is playing in modern industrial development, he would have 
realized the, vast significance of that word Tsvvdco "I produce!" 

The country over, Linde Oxygen is daily making possible greater 
production — everywhere it is saving time and cutting costs. 

A chain of seventy-five Linde plants and warehouses assures 
American welders and cutters of a prompt supply of highly pure 
oxygen — wherever they are, whatever their requirements. 


Carbide and Carbon Building, 30 East 42nd Street, N. Y. 
Kohl Building, San Francisco 

The Largest Producer of Oxygen in the World 

July 2, 1921 


J E, D I T O 

T. A. KlCKARt). .... Editor 

■KUmiiiiiitiiiiiiliiimi uniiiiiiliiiil II Iillllliimiii limit Iiiijiiriiillti1lliliiiliijllil«itlll(liaiaitllil*l1lilllitiliilillli«iailliiliitiiiiiiiiiiiijiiiiiitllltlllljltllltllllilf illiil1ijl(iiiiiiiiiirililtl>llll(l>iritll«l*ltlllltiaillltltlllltlllltulllltlllltlTililtltll3lillliait<timM 

~\l\ EXICO is always a subject of immediate interest 
■*■"■'- to the mining engineer. Therefore we take pleasure 
in publishing the scholarly article by Mr. Robert G. 
Cleland that appears in this issue. Mr. Cleland reviews 
the history of Mexico in relation to the development of 
its mining industry, describing the methods established 
during the period of Spanish dominion. For the beau- 
tiful photographs on the four-page insert we are in- 
debted to Mr. Frank H. Probert, Dean of the Mining 
College in the University of California. 

"TilSRAELI said that there were three kinds of lies: 
*-^ ''lies, damned lies, and statistics". "We are reminded 
of this saying by the discrepancy between various statis- 
tics purporting to give the number of Japanese in Cali- 
fornia. As the subject is controversial, it is inevitable 
that the statistics should be also. In discussing the sub- 
ject of Japanese immigration in our issue of October 16, 
1920, we quoted, with a reservation, the statement of the 
State Board of Control, in California, that there were 
87,279 Japanese in this State at the end of 1919. Now 
comes the U. S. Census and says that the number in 
1920 was 71,592, as against 41,356 in 1910, an increase 
of 42%, as compared «ith the gain, within the same 
period, of 44% in the total population of California. 
Hearst says that 38,000 Japanese failed to register ; 
he is probably wrong, but the fact remains that the 
people of California question the correctness of the 
Census figures. It would be well to confirm them 

T EGITIMATE journalism is hard to kill. On June 1 
■*-' practically all the compositors, pressmen, and bind- 
ery workers at the plant of our contemporary, the ' Cana- 
dian Engineer', at Toronto, went on strike for a 36% 
increase in wages, with a reduction in working hours 
from 48 to 44 per week. The strike for a shorter work- 
ing week was ordered from Union headquarters at Indi- 
anapolis, Indiana. Canadian workmen obeyed the order, 
and demanded more pay and less work at a time when 
the country was expecting a reduction in the cost of 
labor. The publishers could not meet the demand with- 
out advancing subscription and advertising rates, so 
they joined forces with others in Toronto in resist- 
ing the Union. Realizing that the strike might last 
for several weeks, the publishers of the 'Engineer' are 

now producing their magazine in newspaper form; and 
from the first issue in the new style we have obtained the 
foregoing news item. The moral support of the com- 
munity is behind them in their resistance to unionized 
tyranny. We commend our contemporary across the 
border for the plucky fight against international inter- 
ference and dictation, and for its resourcefulness in 
producing the 'Engineer' as a newspaper under present 

/"^ ENERAL satisfaction will be felt among members of 
^-^ the Institute when they learn that Mr. Frederick F. 
Sharpless was selected unanimously by the directors on 
June 24 as Secretary, in succession to Mr. Bradley 
Stoughton, who resigned recently. Mr. Sharpless is a 
native of Pennsylvania and 55 years of age; he is a 
graduate of the University of Michigan, and for five 
years (1888-1893) he was Professor of Metallurgy in the 
Michigan College of Mines. Subsequently he practised 
as a consulting engineer, and was connected profession- 
ally with several important mines in the West, notably in 
California. He has traveled extensively abroad as well 
as in his own country, and enjoys a wide acquaintance 
among those engaged in mining. Besides his honorable 
prominence in the profession and his extensive knowl- 
edge of mining affairs, he is peculiarly fitted for his new 
appointment by reason of having served for several years, 
and until now, as secretary of the Mining and Metal- 
lurgical Society of America. One effect of his appoint- 
ment therefore should be to foster the most friendly re- 
lations between the Institute and the Society, and there- 
by to further an eventual consolidation of these two 
organizations. Mr. Sharpless is a Quaker, that is, he 
belongs to the Society of Friends; we feel sure that to 
him the Institute will be another society of friends, and 
that his record as Secretary of the Institute will be hon- 
orable and successful. 

SLACKNESS is an argument that does not appeal to 
the average Britisher, said Mr. Thomas W. Lamont 
in an address at Union College, Albany, recently; and 
for this reason the miners, in their strike appeal to public 
opinion in England, have lost support. Between the 
miners and the operators there have been the same age- 
old questions as to working hours and wages that we have 
had in our own coal regions. The men have had good 


July 2, 1921 

cause for complaint in Great Britain ; they faced the 
hardships of a reduction in wages that was heavier than 
the lowered cost of living. Their one great and irre- 
trievable point of weakness was their reduced output. 
Figures furnished to Mr. Lainont when he was in Eng- 
land recently showed that the output per man shift in 
1920 was nearly 30% less than it was in 1913. This 
policy of reduced production is condemned by Mr. J. R. 
Clynes, the British labor leader, in a recent issue of 
'Imperial Commerce'. He draws attention to the fact 
that toward the end of last year, which was a time of low 
production in Great Britain, the highest figures of un- 
employment were recorded. "Wage earners still clung to 
the belief that increased output merely adds to the gains 
of the capitalist class. This idea must be controverted, 
and no change in the attitude of the worker toward the 
problem of production can be anticipated until the men 
are safeguarded against unemployment, and until proof 
is given that additional output is not of greater benefit 
to employers than to the operative classes. The conclu- 
sions of Mr. Clynes, as coming from a Labor leader, are 
worthy of serious attention in this country as well as 
in Great Britain. Greater output, he says, would con- 
fer more benefit upon wage earners than upon any other 
class of the community, whereas decreased production 
increases the burdens of the worker and diminishes the 
purchasing power of his wages. 

TN his address to the students at the Colorado School 
•*• of Mines, which we reproduce in this issue, Mr. Fred- 
erick Laist made a number of pertinent suggestions that 
are worthy of a wider audience. Inter alia, he drew 
attention to the important fact that the failure of large- 
scale operations, when blamed on the assumption that 
the results of laboratory tests did not materialize, is too 
often due to the circumstance that the preliminary work 
was planned and executed improperly. The tendency, 
as the manager of the Anaconda reduction works re- 
marks, is to allow the wish to be father to the thought ; 
the laboratory work is done under conditions that could 
not possibly be duplicated in practice. This is particu- 
larly true in connection with the wet metallurgy of gold 
and silver. Since the beginnings of cyanidation, the 
most absurd methods of anticipating the results of prac- 
tical operation have been in vogue. A common labora- 
tory test is to agitate the ore with cyanide solution in a 
stoppered bottle ; the ore is then washed with an indefi- 
nite amount of water, the amount of gold in the residue 
being taken as an index of what may be expected if 
cyanidation be adopted. Another common plan is to 
subject the pulp of ore and cyanide solution to prolonged 
action in a model pebble-mill, under conditions that it 
would be impossible to duplicate in practice. Tests are 
too often made with solutions of pure water and cyanide, 
instead of with those that carry the normal amount of 
impurities found in the liquor that circulates in a cya- 
nide plant. The consumption of cyanide is often esti- 
mated incorrectly and by means of a difference of cya- 
nide content before and after a bottle-test in which clean . 

water has been used to prepare the solution, instead of 
working liquor; the exposure of immense areas of solu- 
tion, the effect of violent agitation in the presence of 
excess of air, and the consumption of the cyanide that is 
used in dissolving a precipitant are seldom anticipated. 
And so it is that when results on a working scale do 
not approach the estimates of extraction, the excuse is 
made that laboratory tests seldom agree with full-scale 
operation; and another blow is dealt at scientific re- 

WE refer elsewhere to the amenities of 'discussion'. 
In this issue there appears a short note, from Mr. 
S. H. Raine, that calls for further comment, because 
otherwise it might leave an impression that we , accept 
his friendly jibe that the criticism of 'experts' in apex 
suits is the "favorite indoor sport" of our editorial staff. 
On the contrary, we are engaged in serious work and not 
the least is an effort to bring about reform in the meth- 
ods of mining litigation. The editorial opinion of the 
decision in the Tom Reed v. United Eastern case ap- 
peared in our issue of May 14. Our Mr. Parsons wrote 
an article that was partly in disagreement with that 
editorial, and it was interesting for that reason among 
others. Our policy is to encourage the ventilation of in- 
dividual views on controversial subjects. Mr. Raine ad- 
mits that "the law is inadequate", then let him bring 
forward a helpful suggestion, as we have, more than once. 
The article by Mr. Parsons has been justified not only by 
its intrinsic merit but by the fact, that it has elicited a 
courteous and useful rejoinder from Mr. Burch. Mr. 
Raine concludes his note by suggesting that we give ' ' the 
subject a rest" unless we can "suggest a practical 
remedy". "We refer him to our issue of May 14 and May 
28 of this year. In the latter we refer to Mr. D. "W. 
Brunton's suggestion, as in our issue of August 28, 1920, 
we discuss the matter apropos of the interview with Mr. 
Burch. Our issue of April 24, 1920, contains an editorial 
on 'Geologists in the Courts', and in it we make sundry 
proposals. "When Mr. Raine has read these we shall be 
glad to hear from him again, for we feel assured that he 
can help forward the purpose in hand. 


The pages set aside for 'discussion' constitute an im- 
portant part of the 'Mining and Scientific Press'. "We 
can readily suppose that, to many, it is the most inter- 
esting portion of our paper. In the first place, the av- 
erage man likes to get the views of various people instead 
of the opinions of one person, such as the Editor. To a 
member of the congregation there is something piquant 
in the sight of one in a neighboring pew arising to con- 
trovert the minister in the pulpit — not that we suggest a 
close simile, for we editors claim no heaven-sent mandate, 
much less a celestial inspiration for our sayings. In any 
event, the average reader is given the editorial views on 
current topics so frequently that he can almost anticipate 
the stand that may be taken on a given subject, whereas 
the opinions of his fellow-readers have a variety and 

July 2, 1921 


vagrancy ttutt gives them the ohaxm of the unexpected. 
Frankly, the editor Buds them interesting and is glad to 
bave them, especially if they express disagreement in a 

form permitting of publication. We receive numerous 
letters of approval and endorsement, of course, but we 
rarely publish such letters because they are not inter- 
esting to other renders; they are like the recommenda- 
tion brought by the office-boy from his mother, they are 
interesting only to the family. On the other hand, when 
a reader objects to some editorial utterance, and gives 
reasons for his objection, we know that such a letter will 
be read with keen interest, because, among other reasons, 
the average engineer, whom we suppose now and always 
to be an intensely human and altogether intelligent per- 
son, likes to see a 'kick' recorded and to feel that thus he 
also is represented in the forum of public opinion. 
However, there is an even better reason for placing a 
high value on the 'Discussion' columns: they enlist the 
assistance of the busy men, usually the very ones whose 
ideas are most dynamic. For example, in this issue the 
subject of 'Valuing Partly Exhausted Mines' is discussed 
by Mr. Milnor Roberts, Dean of the School of Mines in 
the University of Washington, and one of the leading 
mining engineers of the Pacific Coast. 'The Rehabilita- 
tion of the Russian Mining Industry' is the subject of a 
timely letter from Mr. T. J. Jones, a Calif ornian engi- 
neer prominently connected with the Kyshtim and other 
important copper-mining enterprises in Siberia. Mr. 
Albert Bureh, who needs no description, contributes a 
criticism of the article by Mr. A. B. Parsons on 'Mining 
Litigation and Common Sense', making a useful sugges- 
tion for improving the method for trying apex suits. 
Cur friend and former associate editor, Mr. F. H. Mason, 
sends a note on the 'Coloring of Glass', in reply to the 
recent letter on this subject from Mr. Francis Drake. It 
will be acknowledged that discussion on such subjects 
by men so well qualified is an honor to technical journal- 
ism, and we accept it as such. Recently the volume of 
discussion has been unusually large, and we hope it may 
continue to maintain a vigorous amplitude, as well as 
good quality. We take an opportunity of thanking our 
friends the prospectors for their response to our invita- 
tion to 'chip in'. In a measure it is the duty of members 
of the profession to contribute corrections or confirma- 
tions of important statements on technical subjects in 
which they are versed — and more particularly correc- 
tions, for an error is hard to overtake if it gets a good 
start. The editors, of course, keep a watchful eye on 
unintentional blunders appearing in the text of the 
manuscripts sent to them, but such errors are of less im- 
portance than the larger ones of fact or inference that 
are inevitably present occasionally in a large mass of 
technical writing. Criticism, frank and fair, is the very 
life of technical journalism, particularly of the kind de- 
voted to the interests of a specific profession ; therefore 
we welcome contributors to 'Discussion', especially when 
they find reason to disagree with the Editor or his asso- 
ciates. In these days of deflation and depression, when 
mining affairs are moving at a rate that musicians de- 

scribe as piano, but not pianissimo, it may be that some 
of our friends have time to sit down and read with more 
than customary deliberation. This is a good time for 
reviving current theories and accepted ideas, as well as 
for incubating new ones. Gentlemen of the profession, 
we shall be glad to hear from you. 

Influence of Metallurgic Methods on Gold 

In these days of declining gold production it is inter- 
esting to review the metallurgic methods in vogue at the 
premier gold-producing centre of the world, in account- 
ing for the tenacity with which Johannesburg has re- 
tained the lead for so many years. Conditions have been 
favorable, the deposits are large, and are distributed in 
a manner favorable to centralized control. Another im- 
portant influence is seen in the advantages that accrue 
from friendly rivalry between the staffs of a large num- 
ber of companies, all of which are working in the same 
district and on ore of practically the same character. 
No disguise of technical results is possible; operating 
expenses are reduced to a low level; metallurgic losses 
are compared, with much gain to all concerned. Fur- 
thermore, the statements of results conform to a uniform 
plan that aids comparison and gives the information in a, 
direct and straightforward manner. The statistics in 
the annual reports permit an accurate accounting of 
the results at various phases of the metallurgic opera- 
tions ; the final estimate is made on the basis of the yield 
of gold, as well as upon a comparison of assays — a prac- 
tice that in many cases proves, incidentally, the accuracy 
of the sampling and assaying methods in vogue. It is 
unfortunate that the reports of operations at some of the 
important reduction works in this country show no uni- 
formity of presentation ; in many cases it is no easy mat- 
ter to determine the actual outcome of the work or to 
make comparison of the efficiencies of different processes. 
This is due largely to the custom of reporting the metal 
contents of ore, of intermediate products, of tailings, 
and of residues in terms of the national currency. In 
South Africa all the companies use the pennyweight 
(dwt.) and decimal fractions as the unit of gold content; 
here, the troy ounce has been adopted for use in all sta- 
tistics relating to gold and silver bullion, but the dollar 
is frequently taken to represent the amount of gold and 
silver in the material under consideration. In attempt- 
ing to justify the practice of confusing currency units 
with weight of metal we are accustomed to refer to the 
'assay-value' of an ore. A statement to the effect that a 
gold ore has an 'assay-value' or even a 'value' of $1 is 
an example of current phraseology that is lamentably 
deficient in logical justification. However, the custom is 
deep-rooted, and its persistence appears to be inevitable. 
The disadvantage is that in many instances this method 
of appraisal fails to give the information desired. A 
residue sometimes contains a proportion of silver in 
economic amount sufficient to warrant calculation, and 
the 'value' is estimated on the basis of the average price 


July 2, 1921 

received for silver throughout the year. The selling price 
of silver has varied considerably in the recent past ; it will 
doubtless fluctuate in the near future. Whether the sell- 
ing price of gold will also vary will depend on govern- 
mental action or inaction. Suffice to say that at some 
future date, when the re-treatment of what are now con- 
sidered as valueless residues is being considered, some 
additional calculating will be necessary — if no more in- 
formation is available than the 'assay -value' in terms of 
dollar currency — to determine the metal content of the 
dumps or other rejects from former operations. 

The recording of metallurgic results in terms of troy 
weight makes it easy to review, with added interest, the 
economics of the Rand. At the Witwatersrand Gold Min- 
ing Company's plant, for example, we learn from the an- 
nual report that 416,200 tons of ore was treated during 
the past year. This was reduced by stamps and tube- 
mills to a size suitable for amalgamation and cyanidation. 
The gold in the original ore (as determined by amal- 
gamation yield plus the gold-content of the resultant 
tailing) was 5.807 dwt. ; after amalgamation it assayed 
1.597 dwt. The sand, representing about 60%. of the 
tonnage, was then leached; it carried 2.099 dwt. before 
treatment and 0.333 dwt. afterward. The slime, treated 
by the usual method adopted on the Rand, contained 
1.118 dwt. before treatment, and 0.183 dwt. afterward. 
Such a concise statement of metallurgic results renders 
it easy to re-calculate the figures in terms of percentages, 
and to visualize the minute amount of precious metal 
present, in proportion to the quantity of valueless ma- 
terial, both before and after treatment. It is then found 
that the ore entering the plant contains less than one- 
thousandth of 1% of gold; when discharged, the average 
residue contains less than one-half of one ten-thousandth 
of 1% — 0.000046%. These figures convey some idea 
of the amazing success of the cyanide process when 
operated on a scientific basis; they compel attention to 
points of economic and metallurgic detail that, in view 
of the general decline of gold production, should be ac- 
corded careful study. The first important fact is the 
comparative poverty of the ore. Economical treatment 
is essential ; all-sliming is avoided, the total milling, 
amalgamating, and tube-milling costs amounting to 2.676 
shillings per ton, which is about 53 cents at the present 
rate of exchange, and considerably less than when crush- 
ing and grinding to a slime are practised. Amalgama- 
tion plays an important part in the scheme of treatment 
on the Rand, about 72% of the total gold in the ore 
being recovered by this method at the Witwatersrand 
mill. The ratio of stamps to tube-mills (215 : 4) in this 
particular instance is also noteworthy, as indicating a 
tendency to retain, so far as possible, the fundamentals 
of the early practice of plain stamping and amalgama- 

The pulp after amalgamation is exceptionally low- 
grade (1.597 dwt. per ton). Conditions are highly favor- 
able for the production of a low average residue (0.269 
dwt.) after cyanidation. The pulp is classified, the 
major proportion of the sand being leached by the 

gravity method. Two features may be emphasized: the 
comparative fineness of the grains that comprise the 
charge — it is not usually realized that an exceedingly 
fine but slime-free sand can be leached successfully — and 
the homogeneity of the mass. Leaching is a cheap and 
simple process; a large volume of ore, as sand, can be 
impoverished of its gold at little expense above that in- 
curred by the operation of a pump and the consumption 
of chemicals. The metallurgic efficiency of leaching has 
been amply demonstrated in connection with copper 
practice as well as in the treatment of gold ores. An- 
other important factor is that the loss in dissolved metal 
(so far as can be ascertained, and assuming that all the 
undissolved gold in the residue has avoided dissolution 
and re-precipitation) is more or less in proportion to 
the grade of the solution in contact with the ore when 
displacement, with weaker solution or water, is com- 
menced. After efficient amalgamation in the plants of 
the Rand, the pulp, as well as the resultant cyanide so- 
lution, is low-grade ; the dissolved loss, therefore, is small, 
often negligible. The major loss is in the form of un- 
dissolved gold, against which must be credited the saving 
in the cost of grinding, to produce a maximum of fine 
sand rather than a maximum of slime. In the case of the 
Witwatersrand company's operations, the total loss of 
gold per ton in the residue of classified slime is no more 
than the dissolved-gold loss per ton in the total residue 
of the United Eastern plant in Arizona, where all the 
ore is reduced to a slime, where the pulp contains a large 
proportion of crystalline grains, but where preliminary 
amalgamation, apparently, is impracticable, or was dis- 
regarded in the original plan, for economic reasons. No 
actual comparison is possible, of course, but the advan- 
tages to be gained, wherever practicable, by impoverish- 
ing the ore by amalgamation and before cyanidation 
appear to be obvious. Thanks to the recognition of this 
important metallurgic principle, the Homestake mine 
continues to treat, with considerable success, an excep- 
tionally low-grade ore, and aids in maintaining the re- 
markably uniform production of gold from South Da- 
kota, in contrast to the decline that has occurred in 
practically all the other States of the Union. The work at 
the Alaska Juneau property, in Alaska, is another indi- 
cation that initiative, confidence, large-scale operation, 
and a realization of economic conditions are the funda- 
mentals that will ensure an increased production of the 
precious metal in this country, and from the low-grade 
deposits. In considering a scheme for the treatment of 
gold ore, due consideration should be paid to a process 
that will make a financial success of the beneficiation of 
ore of the lowest average that can be mined; selective 
mining is expensive — it costs gold ; the rejection of low- 
grade ore results in waste of gold. The subject is one of 
vital national concern at the present time. In view of 
the economic and metallurgic success that has attended 
large-scale leaching and concentrating operations during 
recent years, a new departure may be made when similar 
methods are applied more generally to the treatment of 
low-grade deposits of gold ore in the United States. 

July 2, 1921 


Assessment Work 
The Editor: 

Sir — We hope you will use every means to kill the bill 
recently introduced in Congress by Senator Bursum of 
New Mexico. For the sake of a languishing industry, for 
the prospector, miner, millman, and mining engineer this 
bill should not be allowed to pass. Through our Insti- 
tute, through other societies, and through Mr. Hoover we 
desire to voice our protest. 

Algernon Del Mar, 

Nayarit, Mexico, June 2. Charles V. Craig. 

Valuing Partly Exhausted Mines 

The Editor: 

Sir — The recent articles by Mr. Morton Webber on this 
subject, together with the editorial comments on them, 
are very interesting both on account of the valuable in- 
formation they contain in clear and emphatic form and 
also because they bring forward the importance of the 
human element in mine valuation. The subject is one 
that cannot be reduced to formulas nor proved in every 
particular. In spite of man's best technical efforts he 
remains in the dark as to what might have been found by 
deepening mines that apparently failed at certain levels, 
but this fact need not deter us from establishing prin- 
ciples for mine valuation. Already devices are being 
tried that may yield information regarding ground 
beyond the workings. 

To secure full and reliable information concerning an 
old or idle mine is often a hard task, as Mr. Webber 
points out. The difficulty of obtaining the general facts 
regarding former operations is in part unavoidable, since 
it is inherent in the nature of mining, especially that 
which has taken place in distant localities. As to records, 
omissions of the past cannot be helped, but we can at 
least combat the tendency to discard anything and every- 
thing that savors of the past. The way can be smoothed 
for the coming generation, and perhaps for ourselves in 
later years by keeping more thorough maps, sections, 
accounts, and statistics and also by making the mine show 
its own historical record in the form of specimens. A 
collection made as the mine develops can be made to 
show typical examples of the wall-rocks and the ores in 
their various phases and modifications from the outcrop 
to depth. Such a collection is always convenient for 
reference and some day it may prove invaluable. Too 
often an interesting piece of ore that might yield an im- 
portant clue to an expert finds its way to the curio 
cabinet of some stockholder rather than to a well- 

arranged working collection at the mine. A visiting 
engineer has enough to do when examining a property as 
a whole and studying its most vital parts without having 
to make a search of the surface and the old workings for 
type specimens of the ores of bygone days. 

The plan of dividing proposed expenditures for de- 
velopment into stages, with an estimate of the cost of 
each step, appeals to engineers and to men experienced 
in promoting or backing mining operations, but does not 
always strike the fancy of the investing public, which 
needs constant education on this point. Many investors 
if told that they might have to wave good-bye to their 
first stake in a certain mine, and worse still their second, 
would lose interest in the scheme before it started. At 
the convention held in Vancouver, B. C, in 1919, Mr. 
Rickard in his address* pointed out clearly that the 
history of mining shows it to have been an adventure for 
capital rather than an investment. 

An additional cause may be mentioned that has ac- 
counted for the closing of some mines in the rugged 
regions of the North- West, especially in the early stages 
of mining. It applies to properties situated in distant 
localities where transportation is difficult or costly, and 
the case may be summarized as one in which a mine rises 
and falls with a district. Such a mine will bear watch- 
ing. To illustrate: An out-of-the-way camp may have a 
period of prosperity covering a few seasons when roads 
are in order, a public transportation system is operating, 
supplies are available, general stores are open, men are 
on hand, and conditions in general are easy. Sooner or 
later the weaker prospects fade out, the drifting popula- 
tion leaves the camp, and work is concentrated on one or 
two claims, resulting perhaps in a going mine. But the 
common carrier when dependent upon a mere handful of 
people fails to meet expenses and ceases to operate. A 
hard winter comes along and the 'Lone Hand' mine is 
forced to shut down, temporarily it is hoped. But when 
the snow has gone, the road is found to be greatly 
damaged. The mine-owners hesitate to risk the whole 
burden of opening the camp, and a likely mine remains 
idle. In later years another period of interest in the 
district, called by one old prospector a 'spasm', may per- 
mit the fortunes of the Lone Hand to rise with the gen- 
eral prosperity of the camp. 

An entirely new chapter may be suggested with the 
title, 'Examining Mines Partly Exhausted by Nature', 
referring to operations in deposits that have been partly 
removed by erosion. This case is common in many north- 

*'M. & S. P.', April 19, 1919. 
Speculation, or a Gamble?' 

'Mining: An Investment, a 


July 2, 1921 

era regions and in the high altitudes, especially in 
glaciated areas. Although the condition is due to geo- 
logic forces rather than to past mining, the result is so 
nearly the same and the case contains so much of human 
interest that it deserves a place in the discussion. The 
fact that an ore deposit was formed at a depth of thou- 
sands of feet below the surface then existing, and that 
*iie overlying rock has since been eroded, leaving the ore 
sxposed at the present surface, seems to many persons 
connected with mining to be a difficult idea to absorb. 
The small proportion of such cases that the average engi- 
neer is called upon to examine, and the lack of general 
realization of the great speed with which glaciers and 
debris-laden streams perform erosion, partly account for 
the failure to recognize the condition described, but, 
whatever the reasons, the fact remains that it commonly 
receives little attention. 

In the Pacific North- West and in the mountains north- 
ward through British Columbia and Alaska are found 
many orebodies exposed at the present surface in canyons 
and on valley-walls, yet bearing every mark of origin at 
moderate or great depths. Sulphides at the actual sur- 
face are not uncommon. Here Nature has done a vast 
amount of preparatory work for the prospector by remov- 
ing thousands of feet of rock-covering from an ore de- 
posit. She may even have done preliminary development 
and cut into the upper portions and outer edges of the 
mineralized area, which is most fortunate for man. 
Often, however, erosion has progressed to a stage corre- 
sponding to the working out of the upper levels of a 
mine, for the upper portion of the deposit and the 
country-rock enclosing it have been wholly removed, 
leaving the orebody exposed at its heart. In this case 
the mine-dump, that useful indicator mentioned by Mr. 
"Webber, is rarely present in such amount as to be a gauge 
of quantity removed, although qualitative evidence is 
found in such forms as placer gold occurring in gulches 
where it has accumulated from veins in the adjacent 
hills, or as float lying in the talus and moraines of 

Now as to the mine-valuer 's interest in the case : "When 
he inspects a prospect showing unaltered chalcopyrite at 
the outcrop of a vein occurring in a granite batholith at 
the foot of a canyon-wall, with granite cliffs towering 
above for thousands of feet, the total lack of an oxidized 
zone in the vein is evident. But on a developed mine in 
a corresponding situation the unusual nature of the sur- 
ficial ore may be less noticeable, especially if, as often 
happens, the mine is opened by an adit started at a con- 
venient point, while the outcrop occurs on some almost in- 
accessible cliff, or is covered by a snowbank, or is worked 
out. The attention of the men on the ground is centred 
on the lower workings, without thought of the history of 
the mine's early development. The fact that the wide 
and strong outcrop showed sulphides glistening under 
the blue sky is forgotten, or its significance has become 
dimmed. The position of the present workings with 
reference to the outlines of the ore deposit as it was 
originally formed, is not emphasized, and is commonly 

overlooked, with the result, to summarize briefly, that the 
orebody is assumed to have an average chance of depth 
below its present outcrop, whereas the outcrop in a 
typical case really exposes the orebody at its heart. 

Seattle, "Washington, June 14. Milnok Roberts. 

Rehabilitation of the Russian Mining 

The Editor: 

Sir — Many articles have appeared in the public press 
recently, most of them doubtless from inspired sources, 
but all foreshadowing some kind of political change that 
might bring about a condition favoring the safe employ- 
ment of foreign capital for the resuscitation of industry 
and the profitable development of the vast resources of 
Russia. It seems as if the present so-called government 
has at last realized that there is no way out of its diffi- 
culties other than by a return to old-fashioned co-opera- 
tion between capital, brains, and man-power. Lenin and 
his associates are grasping around in the darkness of 
their world isolation for some practical method of bring- 
ing this about. This, of course, is a political question, 
and it is not my purpose to discuss how it will be ac- 
complished except to express the opinion that definite 
actioD may he anticipated, and that soon it will be possi- 
ble to regard Russia as the greatest field for industrial 
and mining development the world has ever known. 

There is a general impression abroad that so much de- 
struction has been wrought and the economic life of the 
country dislocated so completely that a return to pre- 
war conditions must, even under the most favorable 
auspices, require a very long time for its consummation. 
I have heard men say that it would take twenty years to 
restore business and industry, after all existing barriers 
were removed. There is also a general impression that 
Russia in pre-war days was, on account of great dis- 
tances, lack of rapid transport, rigors of climate, and the 
lassitude of its people, a slow and tedious country in 
which to work. Any engineer who has had the super- 
vision of mining or industrial development in Russia will, 
T think, bear me out in the statement that both these im- 
pressions are erroneous. All sources of information agree 
that the destruction of property, especially of industrial 
plants, has been small. It is well known that, though 
some of the industrial centres have changed hands many 
times during the past four years of civil strife, the mills 
and factories are still standing. They suffer only from 
lack of usage and repair. The condition of the railways, 
so far as trackage, bridges, and other fixed property are 
concerned, is reported, by American engineers who have 
traveled over them within the past year, to be good. 
Russia and Siberia, with an area approximately four 
times that of the United States, has less than one-fifth as 
many miles of railway ; but it has a far greater mileage 
of navigable rivers upon which traffic could quickly re- 
gain its former importance. The steamers and barges 
were all built in Russia, and from domestic material. 

Outside the great centres of population the economic 

-Tulx 2, 192] 


■ the people has more or less adapted itself to exist- 
ing circumstances. In many districts a general revival 
of the ancient home industries has provided linen and 

woolen cloth, leather, Celt, and other p aanries. There 

is a general reversion to the primitive life of a hundred 
ago. The desire for commodities of modern life, 
however, and the willingness to work for them if oppor- 
tunity were afforded still retrain. It is certain that the 
mass of the people is ready and anxious for the employ- 
ment thai would enable them to live as they did before 
the War. 

\'o difficulty would arise and no time would be lost in 
the rehabilitation of industry on account of labor. In 
all of the building trades, the Russian workmen were 
highly skillful. Their slow and primitive methods made 
it necessary to employ larger numbers than is usual in 
this country, but remarkably rapid progress on all kinds 
of construction work was the rule. Large operations in 
Russia were generally much more self-contained and 
independent in the way of facilities for construction and 
repair than in almost any other country. A copper mine, 
for instance, had its own foundry and machine-shops, 
where not only repairs of every kind were done, but 
where a large part of the mechanical equipment was de- 
signed and built. Special alloys of steel were made. 
Electrical equipment of all kinds, including generators, 
motors, and transformers, were built on the property. 
Structural steel such as is needed for head-frames, build- 
ings, and traveling cranes were fabricated from sections 
that were rolled in the district. The Russian staff in- 
cluded some of the best mechanical and electrical engi- 
neers to be found anywhere ; there were artisans of every 
kind, with a skill and pride in their work comparable to 
that of any country. The great majority of these people 
are still in the country and would be available. 

Generally speaking, the only arguments for the success 
of industry in Russia were, and again will be, capital and 
organizing talent. The Russians of the intelligent class 
were capable and brilliant in many respects, but in- 
herently weak in the matter of organizing ability. For- 
eign companies commenced their operations with special- 
ized heads of departments from abroad, but usually 
found that in a year or two these could be dispensed with, 
without detriment to the business. The situation in 
Russia is, of course, bad, but it is far from hopeless ; esti- 
mates of the time that would be required for the resusci- 
tation of industrial activity can easily be exaggerated. 

London, May 20. T. J. Jones. 

Mining Litigation and Common Sense 

The Editor: 

Sir — Mr. Parsons, in his discussion on ' Mining Litiga- 
tion and Common Sense', indulges in the favorite indoor 
sport of the editorial staff of your journal. 

No good purpose is served, so far as I can see, in 
criticizing the geologists and engineers who appear as 
expert witnesses. They did not make the Law. As a 
matter of fact, they all agree that the law is inadequate ; 

that the system is wrong; that it does not, and cannot, 
cover situations which have arisen in the past or which 
will arise in the future. 

I have observed that a mining company, unfortunate 
enough to have an apex suit on its hands, sinus to be 
perfectly willing to retain the best talent in the country 
to help it out of its difficulty. This is really good busi- 
ness on the part of said mining company. 

If you are unable to suggest a practical remedy for the 
law itself don't you think it would be good sportsman- 
ship to give this subject a rest? 

Butte, Montana, June 13. S. H. Raine. 

The Editor: 

Sir — The article by Mr. Arthur B. Parsons in your 
issue of June 11 shows the results of much study and 
thought by an amateur. He starts with an assumed 
premise that decisions in mining cases should be based 
upon common sense, whereas the fact is that such de- 
cisions must be based upon the law and the evidence, no 
matter how much they may conflict with anyone's defini- 
tion of common sense. 

Just how far the mining law of the United States de- 
parts from a sane man's definition of common sense is 
evidenced by the constant efforts during the past few 
years of such organizations as the A. I. M. & M. E. and 
M. & M. S. of A. to obtain a revision of the law. Those 
who have been classified by Mr. Parsons as geologists, 
mining geologists, and court geologists have been among 
the leaders in this movement because they realize better 
than any amateur can the difficulties encountered in the 
administration of the existing law. But so long as the 
law exists it must be enforced and probably ' court geolo- 
gists' will continue to be called upon to assist the courts 
in arriving at their decisions. How some of the judges 
view the law was tersely put by a Federal judge many 
years ago when he said : " As long as 1 am called upon to 
administer this iniquitous law I must find in favor of 
the plaintiff". 

But a judge must do more than decide in accordance 
with "this iniquitous law", he is also bound to decide 
in accordance with the evidence, and whenever he de- 
parts from this rule and goes outside the evidence for 
facts, common sense or otherwise, to support his de- 
cision, he is quickly over-ruled by a reviewing court. 
The particular point cited by Mr. Parsons in the decision 
of Judge Bollinger was gained from the evidence, and 
not the evidence of a 'practical' man either, but that of 
a very clever mining geologist. It would be manifestly 
improper for me at this time to express any opinion as 
to whether both the law and the evidence tend to sup- 
port his decision upon that point, and I will therefore 
refrain from doing so. 

Coming now to the question of testimony by 'prac- 
tical' men, one must first find a definition of the word 
'practical' as used by Judge Bollinger and determine 
whether a 'court geologist' may not also be 'practical'. 
Evidently Judge Bollinger thought so, for as I remember 
the trial of the case, there was almost no testimony given 


July 2, 1921 

on structural questions (which were the governing 
points) except by the geologists and mining engineers. 

If by 'practical' Mr. Parsons means the honest prac- 
tical miner, I have no quarrel with him, for the testi- 
mony of such a man is entitled to great weight. But in 
this world of competitive effort the practical miner who 
used to be frequently employed in mining litigation has 
been almost entirely eliminated, and the reasons are not 
far to seek. In the first place, but for exceptional cases, 
his powers of expression and description are limited and 
he is unable to tell the Court what he really knows. In 
the second place, he is usually quite as strongly preju- 
diced in favor of his employer as the 'expert' witness, 
and is much less adroit in concealing that prejudice. 

In the matter of partisanship on the part of expert 
witnesses, it may be said that it is partly due to loyalty 
to the employer and partly to a desire on the part of the 
witness to see his honest opinions regarding geological 
structure prevail. In this respect his partisanship is 
usually no more pronounced than that of the man who 
argues for his pet theory in any purely scientific dis- 
cussion. Geology is not an exact science and there is 
always a chance for honest differences of opinion; and, 
while some one must be wrong, it is not always possible 
for a human being, be he judge or geologist, to determine 
which one. 

Because there are usually two def endable sides to every 
mining case there are comparatively few cases in which 
an expert witness having accepted a retainer from one 
side declines to proceed after an investigation of the 
facts. But to say that there are none is entirely wrong, 
as every one knows who has had much practice of that 
kind. It is doubtless true that there is no "record" of 
such cases, for naturally no one wishes to have them 
recorded. The employer does not, for he thinks (and 
rightly too) that his case would be prejudiced in court 
if it became known that a competent man had refused 
after investigation to support him. The expert witness 
does not, because he does not wish to injure a man who 
has had sufficient confidence in his ability and integrity 
to engage his services. The suggestion that the Court 
employ competent men for independent investigation 
appears to be a good one and is somewhat along the lines 
of suggestions which I have made before. Sad to relate, 
however, in the onlv case where I have heard that this 
was done the judge is said to have finally decided ex- 
actly opposite to the findings of his own independent in- 
vestigator. But there were other 'experts' for both sides 
in that case and he was probably too strongly swayed 
by the side which held views contrary to those of his 

I have suggested that all litigation connected with 
extra-lateral right questions be submitted to tribunals 
consisting of one mining lawyer, one mining geologist, 
and one mining engineer; but I do not know that this 
would be a panacea for all extra-lateral right troubles. 
The real remedy, so far as the future is concerned, would 
seem to be the repeal of the "iniquitous law". 

San Francisco, June 17. Albert Burch. 

The Editor: 

Sir — Mr. Burch possibly has misapprehended the point 
of view and the spirit of the article in question. An 
"amateur" must necessarily be a participant in a game, 
whereas the article merely discussed sundry aspects of 
mining litigation from the standpoint of a casual spec- 
tator, only superficially versed in the ways of the courts 
and the vagaries of 'justice'. In the first paragraph of 
his letter Mr. Burch infers that I would substitute 
"common sense" for "law and evidence"; on the con- 
trary, I simply point out that Judge Bollinger has ap- 
parently used practical common sense instead of tech- 
nical theory in interpreting the evidence and in con- 
struing the law. However, I feel gratified to have 
aroused the interest of one whom we all know to be 
among the foremost and most honorable of the 'pro- 

San Francisco, June 18. 

A. B. Parsons. 

Coloring of Glass 

The Editor: 

Sir — In your issue of June 11 Francis Drake com- 
ments on the discovery that white glass under certain 
conditions will turn purple. If Mr. Drake were to walk 
down any of the main streets of San Diego, a city blessed 
with an unusually large proportion of sunny days, he 
would find that a large number of the electric-light globes 
have a distinct amethyst tint, and some quite a deep tint. 
The chemical reactions that bring about this change in 
white glass are, I believe, no more understood than the 
reason why high-grade native peroxide of manganese is 
used in the manufacture of white glass to correct the 
color that otherwise would be imparted to the glass by 
the oxides of iron, almost invariably found in some pro- 
portion, in the silica used. Inasmuch as ferric salts 
almost always are of a deeper color than ferrous salts, 
one would have expected the addition of peroxide of 
manganese to have exactly the reverse effect to that 
which it has. The probabilities are, therefore, that the 
reaction is a physical rather than a chemical one, and 
that a color is produced by the peroxide that kills the 
color produced by the iron. Be that as it may, the 
prolonged action of sunlight brings about chemical 
change in the manganese salt that causes the amethyst 
color. This, of course, only clears the matter up to the 
extent that the amethyst color due to the prolonged action 
of the sun's rays on white glass is caused by manganese 
salts, originally introduced to make the glass white. 

It is a long time since I had occasion to study glass 
manufacture, and it is possible that by now some better 
explanation may be forthcoming. 

Victoria, B. C, June 14. F. H. Mason. 


The lead produced in Alaska in 1919, according to 
the U. S. Geological Survey, is estimated at 687 tons, 
valued at $72,822, compared with 564 tons, valued at 
$80,088, in 1918. The output of lead in 1919 was de- 
rived from the concentrates of the mines at Juneau. 

July 2, l"--'l 






July 2, 1921 

■'"^^^^^^i-- %^k&&*& i t : ; 




-Inly 'J. 192] 







July 2, 1921 

.^-C^— — 



July 2, 1921 



The Mining Industry of Mexico: A Historical Sketch 

Part I 

By Robert G. Cleland 

The Colonial Period 

"When a bonanza has been discovered, the fame of the 
discovery spreads through the whole kingdom, and the 
odor of its richness brings crowds from the most remote 
parts to the newly discovered districts. What was before a 
waste becomes on a sudden an inhabited neighborhood."— 
Gamboa, 'Commentaries on the Mining Ordinances of New 

Introduction. Mexican history is full of striking de- 
velopments. The most significant of these was the re- 
markable rapidity with which the Spanish colonists 
over-ran the vast area known as New Spain and estab- 
lished settlements, and in many places flourishing cities, 
where only the wilderness or Indian villages had existed 
before. Behind this dramatic story of exploration, vig- 
orous conquest, and permanent occupation lay many 
motives. Religious zeal, the haste to forestall any ad- 
vance of rival nations, an age-long desire for Oriental 
trade, the eager search for those alluring creations of 
Spanish imagination — the island of the Amazons, Cibola, 
Quivira, the mysterious and fabled straits of Anian — 
these were all factors in the rapid subjugation of Mexico 
to Spanish rule. 

But more far-reaching than any such influences were 
the discovery of precious metal, especially of silver, and 
the subsequent development of the mining industry. 
Indeed, with few exceptions, the history of Spanish ad- 
vance, after the conquest of Mexico City by Cortez, is 
simply the story of the opening of fresh mining districts, 
one after another, and of great rushes to the new finds, 
which in point of magnitude were not greatly inferior to 
the Klondike and Goldfield stampedes of our own time. 
To trace each of these 16th and 17th century rushes 
(for, as already indicated, the mining rush in Mexico 
was nearly a century old before the voyage of the 'May- 
flower') could require much more space than the limits 
of this article permit. It is enough to point out that the 
founding of Zacatecas, Pachuca, San Luis Potosi, Parral, 
Chihuahua, Nuevo Leon, Monterrey, and a score of other 
cities of importance in Mexico dates back to the dis- 
covery of some rich silver deposit and the establishment 
of a mining camp, which, almost over-night, grew to be a 
populous and permanent city. Indeed, from Mexico City 
to the Rio Grande, outside a few port towns on the Gulf 
or the Pacific, such as Tampico or Acapuleo, one can 
scarcely find today a Mexican city of any size that was 
not established as a direct result of a mining boom. 

The mines of New Spain not only served as a great 
stimulant to exploration and settlement; they also con- 
stituted the very centre of economic activity through- 

out the colonies. Aside from the proprietors and labor- 
ers who obtained their living directly from the industry, 
nearly every othpr business in Mexico, as well as many in 
Spain itself, depended upon the prosperity of the mines 
for its existence. The Crown likewise derived the greater 
part of the revenue received from the colonies cither 
from taxes levied directly upon the product of the mines, 
or from tariffs upon goods and materials used by the 
mining communities, or from the royal monopoly of the 
sale of mining necessaries, such as gunpowder and 
quicksilver. The merchants were also dependent upon 
the mining centres for markets; and agriculture, espe- 
cially in the interior, was carried on almost wholly as an 
adjunct to the industry. The hordes of laborers and 
animals employed at every large mine had to be supplied 
with food ; and, in furnishing the corn, beans, pulque, 
and meat, as well as the horses, mules, and hides neces- 
sary for the business, Mexican agriculture found its chief 

Social distinction also came from the mining business, 
especially as the King created a number of noble fami- 
lies from among the wealthier proprietors. The mines of 
Real del Monte made a poor store-keeper, Pedro Terre- 
ros, one of the richest men of his generation, and finally 
made him Count of Regla. The fortunes derived from 
the bonanzas of Guanajuato made famous Jose de Sar- 
daneta, Francisco Mathias, who was created Marquis of 
San Clemente, and Antonio Obregon, the Count of Val- 
eneiana, whose fortune was not far from a hundred mil- 
lion dollars. The Bustamentes were ennobled, thanks to 
the wealth of Batopilas; and the Fagoagas came into 
prominence through the Pavilion bonanza at Sombrerete. 

The church also derived great revenue from the mines. 
Sometimes this came from special levies, such as the one 
that was used to build the magnificent cathedral at 
Chihuahua; but more commonly it took the form of 
donations or bequests from generous individuals. Pedro 
Terreros, already spoken of, not only sent an expedition 
of sixty monks to the Apache Indians at his own expense, 
but gave $20,000 monthly for two years and a half to 
the church of the College of San Fernando, and some 
$70,000 for other religious purposes. The Bordas, Joseph 
and Francisco, having made an unbelievably large for- 
tune after various ups and downs, donated more than a 
million dollars to build and furnish a church at Tasco, 
where one of their mines was situated. 

Mining Law. Mining played a significant part in 
every branch of colonial life, and contributed largely to 



July 2, 1921 

the royal treasury ; it was, therefore, an object of great 
solicitude on the part of the Spanish Crown. An elabor- 
ate and in many respects admirable mining code gov- 
erned the conduct of the industry and regulated its 
affairs to the most minute detail. This code, which in 
fact furnishes the basis of Mexican mining law today, 
consisted, in colonial times, of five parts, as follows : 

1. The mining ordinances in effect in Spain prior to 

2. The so-called Code of Philip II, promulgated in the 
colonies in 1584; 

3. Royal decrees, of various dates, generally dealing 
with specific and sometimes purely local matters ; 

4. Regulation of individual colonies or provinces ; and 

5. The systematized and scholarly body of laws issued 
by Charles III in 1783 and known as the New Code. 

Under the code of 1584, and in all laws thereafter, 
deposits of gold or silver, whether located on public or 
private ground, were declared the property of the Crown 
and thrown open to public denouncement. Anyone ac- 
cordingly could prospect on public or private land 
"without any hindrance or interruption from the own- 
ers, or from any other person whomsoever", subject only 
to the obligation of paying for such damage as his pros- 
pecting or 'trial-pits' might cause. The process of de- 
nouncement was hedged about with certain technicali- 
ties, which need not detain us here ; but it is interesting 
to note that, under colonial law, a concession to the 
claim was not issued until the denouncer had sunk a shaft 
three estados, or approximately 20 ft. in depth. If this 
were not done within three months, the concession was 
forfeited, and the claim was again thrown open to de- 
nouncement. An official inspection had to be made when 
the shaft was finished ; and at the conclusion of this (in 
all probability a mere formality), the inspector stood at 
the mouth of the shaft and called three times for prior 
claimants to appear and prove their right to the prop- 
erty. If none came, the proceedings were closed by 
throwing a handful of grass or a few stones into the 
open pit. 

The dimensions of the colonial pertenencia,or unit of 
mining • concessions, varied under the different codes. 
The older laws made it rectangular in shape and of uni- 
form size, covering a surface area of 50 by 100 varas. 1 
Later, although the size of the ordinary claim remained 
the same, a discoverer's pertenencia was created, 60 by 
120 varas in size. Under the law of Philip II, these last 
dimensions were given to the ordinary claim and the 
dimensions of the discoverer's pertenencia were in- 
creased to 80 by 160 varas. In all colonial laws, the 
pertenencia was considered indivisible : and, as its planes 
ran vertically, the boundaries of a claim were definitely 
fixed both above and below ground, in marked contrast 
to the uncertainty of boundary limits in the United 

The law also contained specific regulations to prevent 

iA vara is 33 inches. Under modern Mexican law. a per- 
tenencia is 100 metres square, equivalent to a hectare, or 
2.47 acres. 

the careless or reckless working of mines, and sought 
especially to minimize damage from flood or caving, by 
detailed provisions for timbering, supporting pillars, 
and unwatering. It is scarcely to be inferred, however, 
that these elaborate precautions were always zealously 
or intelligently enforced by the officials charged with 
the inspection of the mines. 

Another interesting feature of colonial law, which has 
been abandoned and re-adopted with modifications more 
than once in later Mexican history, was the requirement 
that all claims should be worked or else become forfeited 
to the Crown. The Code of Philip II provided that four 
men, at least, must be kept employed on each pertenencia, 
and that failure to keep such persons at work for a period 
of four successive months destroyed all rights of owner- 
ship and again threw the property open to denounce- 
ment. Only war, pestilence, or famine, occurring within 
20 leagues of the mine, could be offered as an excuse for 
failure to meet this requirement. 

In all these laws, the purpose of the Spanish sovereign 
was to develop the mineral resources of Mexico through 
individual initiative and at the same time to protect the 
ore deposits from reckless or careless exploitation. Be- 
sides allowing the widest freedom for denouncement, 
various other privileges were held out to stimulate the 
industry. Proprietors were granted the use of forests 
and water to carry on their operations, and were per- 
mitted to expropriate either public or private land for 
mine plants or reduction works. In many other respects. 
too, the industry was placed on a more favored basis 
than were other colonial enterprises, but the lot of the 
Mexican mine-owner was not always a happy one, even 
with the royal favor behind him. Aside from the natural 
difficulties incident to his business, there were other 
obstacles of an equally formidable nature. One of these 
was the heavy burden imposed by taxes and other gov- 
ernment exactions. 

Royal Taxes and Monopolies. 

deere, for here is almost none 
worke in the gold mynes; lor w 
not refine out gold. And no m 
bring any from Spaine hither 
King's account; and so the Kin 
exceeding great gaine therein. 
Mexico, the 30 of May 1590". — 

Quickesilver is here very 
to be had for any money to 
ithout Quickesilver wee can- 
an upon paine of death may 
but all must come for the 
g doeth sell it here; there is 
And thus I rest: From 
Bartholomew Cano. 

The Spanish government, as already indicated, sought 
in many ways to encourage the mining industry, an in- 
terest that arose primarily from a desire to increase the 
royal revenue by stimulating the output of precious 
metals and the sale of mining supplies. Taxes, both 
direct and indirect, were many and burdensome ; and, 
too frequently, in its desperate need for funds, the 
Crown imposed such heavy levies that the mines fell 
into decay and the exports of silver greatly decreased. 

The most important of the direct taxes was the royal 
fifth, or qtiinto, a 20% royalty levied upon gross output. 
The fifth was afterward reduced to a tenth ; but in addi- 
tion there were assay fees and coinage dues, which 
brought the total in direct taxes to something over 16% 
of the gross production. Under the law, gold and silver 
bullion could not be used in trade until coined at the 

.Julv I'. 192] 



mint in Mexico City, but this regulation was impossible 
of enforcement, and in the northern districts, especially, 
unstamped silver < pint a pasta) was the chief medium of 
exchange. The practice, however, was carried on al a 
serious loss ti» the miners, because goods given in ex- 
change Por bullion commanded double price, arid a marc 
of silver, worth eight dollars at the mine, brought only 
four dollars and a half in Chihuahua or Sonora. 

Indirect taxes, in the form of import duties and the 
royal monopoly on gunpowder arid quicksilver, were a 
more serious handicap than the direct levies. At the 
close of the 18th century. Mexico required fully 1,300.000 
lb. of gunpowder annually to keep her mines in opera- 

te increase it in another. As the quicksilver mines of 
Spain (Almaden) looked to the colonies for a market, 
such pressure was brought to bear upon the king that 
the mining of quicksilver in Mexico was forbidden. 2 
However, while most of the quicksilver came from Spain 
or from Germany by way of Spain, Mexico also drew 
upon the mini's of Peru, and to some extent derived her 
supply from China and the Philippine islands, by means 
of the Manila galleon. The price of the metal varied 
from time to time, depending upon the will of the in- 
dividual sovereign. In 15i)0 it was fixed at 187 pesos per 
quintal, or 1.87 pesos per pound. By 1750 the price had 
been reduced to 82 pesos per quintal; in 1767 to 62 


tion. The manufacture of this was under royal control, 
but many illicit factories existed and much powder was 
also smuggled in through Vera Cruz, so that the royal 
monopoly was far from complete. The price ranged from 
six to eight reales per pound, and even the lower figure 
represented a profit of 200%. 

The royal monopoly on quicksilver was far more suc- 
cessful than that on gunpowder, and furnished one of 
the most troublesome questions in the history of colonial 
mining. Quicksilver was an absolute essentia] in the 
business, and its scarcity or abundance, its cheapness or 
dearness, largely determined the yearly output of the 
mines. In the conduct of the monopoly, accordingly, the 
king was frequently "between the devil and the deep 
sea". If he fixed the price of quicksilver so as to assure 
a large profit, he reduced the production of silver, and 
cut off the roval revenue in one direction while seeking 

pesos; and by 1778 to approximately 41 pesos. The an- 
nual consumption toward the close of the 18th century 
was over 1.500,000 pounds. 

Lack op Capital. Another serious difficulty that re- 
tarded colonial mining was a lack of the capital neces- 
sary to finance the industry in a manner at all commen- 
surate with its needs and opportunities. The joint-stock 
company, which played such a vital part in England's 
commercial and industrial expansion during the latter 
16th, 17th, and 18th centuries was not known in Mexico. 
Partnerships were common enough, it is true, and the 
form of lease known as the avio to some degree met the 
needs of co-operation. Under Charles III also, a mining 
bank, supported by a percentage of the coinage dues, was 
established to finance mining ventures ; but although this 

^Occasionally this decree was relaxed, but generally 
speaking, the prohibition stood. 



July 2, 1921 

proved beneficial for a number of years it came to an 
end with the outbreak of the French wars in Europe, 
when its funds were sequestrated by the Spanish govern- 
ment and became lost forever to the mining business. 

The commonest method of obtaining operating capital 
in colonial days was a sort of tripartite affair, in which 
mine-proprietor, ore buyer or rescatador, and wealthy 
merchant took part. The rescatador, securing an ad- 
vance of funds from the merchant, supplied the miner 
with capital by buying the ore at the mine. He then 
reduced the ore and sold the silver to the merchant, in 
whose debt he stood, for a sum much below the market 
price. Under such an arrangement, operating mines 
could obtain funds to meet current needs, but the rates 
of interest were oppressive, and the supply of capital 
was too limited for large-scale operations. 

Of course, where a mine was in bonanza the question 
of capital took care of itself. But the proprietor, when 
such good fortune was his, made little provision for the 
lean years of development necessary when the bonanza 
ended, or to meet unexpected disaster from flood or fire. 
Instead of the proceeds of the mine going back into the 
industry, they went too largely to gratify the lavish 
tastes of the proprietors or to build and adorn cathe- 
drals, or for other unproductive purposes. As early as 
1582, Henry Hawks, an English merchant who spent 
five years in Mexico, thus described the ostentatious 
life of those whom the mines were making rich: 

"The pompe and liberalitie of the owners of the mines is 
marvellous to beholde; the apparell of both of them and of 
their wives is more to be compared to the apparell of noble 
persons than otherwise. If their wives go out of their 
houses, as unto the church, or any other place, they go out 
with gTeat majesty, and with as many men and maids as 
though she were the wife of some noble man. I will assure 
you I have seen a miners wife goe to the church with an 
hundred men, and twenty gentlewomen and maids. . . 
They are princes in keeping of their houses, and bountifull 
in all maner of things." 

Similarly, about the middle of the 18th century, Don 
Francisco Gamboa, greatest of all authorities on colonial 
mining, found that the miner's chief enemy was the 
miner himself, because, commonly speaking, he was 
"prodigal, unlimited in his indulgence in expense, luxu- 
ries, and vices" — all of which seriously hurt the indus- 
try by depriving it of the capital it so greatly needed. 

Colonial Labor. Other difficulties, such as lack of 
fuel, primitive transport facilities," banditry, and dan- 
ger from Indian attacks, all retarded the industry. But 
probably the most serious problem of the proprietor was 
the labor question. The lack of machinery in Mexico 
made necessary the use of the other forms of power — 
man or mule. The difficulty of securing labor in early 
colonial times was partly overcome by the adoption of a 
form of slavery known as the mita system, by which the 
inhabitants of native villages could be transported forci- 
bly to the mining districts and the Indians compelled to 
work the mines. Negroes and condemned captives were 
also used freely; but even under such conditions there 
was continual complaint of a shortage of labor. Condi- 
tions in the earlier years, from the laborer's standpoint, 
were terrible beyond description. Abuse, privation, ac- 

cident, and disease carried off thousands of the poor 
wretches, whom the Spanish conquerors forced into an 
occupation that bore the reputation of being "attended 
with every pain which hell itself could inflict ' ' ; and, 
according to some authorities, with inflicting some forms 
of punishment of which hell itself had never heard. 

The following quotation from a Spanish writer, while 
perhaps somewhat of an exaggeration, gives at least a 
vivid picture of these conditions : 

"The Indians came from seventy leagues and upwards 
bringing provisions and whatever was needful. And when 
they had arrived, the Spanish mine-masters would detain 
them for several days to do some specific work. The pro- 
visions they had brought for themselves were soon ex- 
hausted; and then the poor wretches had to starve, for no 
one would give them food, and they had no money to buy it. 
The result was that some died on their way to the mines; 
some at the mines; some on their way back; some just after 
they reached home. 

"The number of deaths was so great that the corpses bred 
pestilence, and for half a league around a certain mine and 
on the greater part of the road to it, one could scarcely 
make a step except upon dead bodies or the bones of men; 
and the birds of prey, coming to feed upon these corpses, 
darkened the sun." 

But gradually the mita system died out, and slave 
labor, except here and there, gave place to a semi-free, 
semi-peonage system, under which negroes, Indians, and 
mestizos furnished the great bulk of the labor-supply 
and passed the occupation down from father to son. 
Conditions, however, were still far from satisfactory. 
There were plenty of laws, it is true, to protect the 
laborer from unnecessary danger (for instance, there 
was an ordinance of Charles III, requiring the installa- 
tion of proper steps and ladders, and the keeping of 
these in sound repair) , but the enforcement of such laws 
was seldom taken seriously, unless the safety of the mine 
itself was involved ; and even then, inspectors were not 
always either conscientious or competent, so that dis- 
aster and accidents were of appalling frequency, even at 
the close of the colonial era. 

The labor itself, even barring accident, was still op- 
pressive and ruinous to health. The tenateros, or pack- 
ers, who carried ore and water in rawhide bags sus- 
pended on their backs by straps across the forehead, ac- 
cording to Humboldt, "remained continuously loaded 
with a weight of from 225 to 250 pounds, and constantly 
exposed to a very high temperature, ascending eight or 
ten times successively, without intermission, stairs of 
1800 steps". Severe as this labor might be, however, it 
was not so unhealthful as that of the bareiiadores, or 
powder-men, whose span of life seldom exdeeded 35 
years if they continued their occupation beyond a cer- 
tain period. 

Above-ground, conditions were equally conducive to 
disease. The dust and glare of the patios brought blind- 
ness to many of the women and children who broke up 
the ore for amalgamation. And a large part of those 
engaged in carrying on the actual process of amalgama- 
tion spent their lives "in walking barefooted over heaps 
of brayed metal, moistened and mixed with muriate of 
soda, sulphate of iron, and oxide of mercury". Hum- 
boldt records that persons so engaged seemed to enjoy 
perfect health, but one may well question the accuracy 

July 2, 1921 



of his statement. In smelting operations, at any rate, 
the testimony lies all the other way. Here the laborer 
was compelled to breathe the poisonous fume and vapor 
that arose for nearly an hour after water had been 
poured on the hot slag. The men drank unlimited quan- 
tities of water, became bloated, suffered acutely from 
fluxes and stomach cramps, and lost the use of hands and 

In the matter of wages, however, the mine employee 
fared better than any other laborer in Mexico. At the 
close of the colonial period, he received from five dollars 
to five dollars and a half, per week of six days, whereas 
ordinary labor on the haciendas was paid about a dollar 
and a half. These high wages, however, were somewhat 

Humboldt's record of thirty thousand underground 
laborers, and five or six thousand engaged in various 
capacities above ground, appears to me to be below the 
mark. But no other figures can be offered as a sub- 

In many respects, the miner of colonial days was much 
the same as his descendant of today. Prom most of the 
literature of the time, he appears to have been a super- 
stitious, thieving, gambling, licentious, drunken, careless, 
improvident, and lazy rascal, with a few remarkable and 
counter-balancing virtues. He would sometimes buy 
rich cloth or fine cambric to gratify his love of display, 
only to use the holiday material next day for wadding 
or as a pad to protect his hands. Saints' days and church 


offset by the common practice of paying in goods instead 
of money. Prices were exorbitant, and not infrequently 
the laborer was compelled to accept articles for which 
he had no use. So serious had become the abuses under 
this system that the Code of Charles III (1783) made 
the practice illegal, and forbade the payment of wages 
in "merchandise, effects, fruits, or provisions". The 
same ordinance required the proprietor to pay his men 
«ach week in ore, coin, or bullion and imposed a severe 
fine if any reduction were made in the rate of wages 
* ' established by long usage and adopted in all the mining 
■districts". Accounts were kept by the rayador, or pay- 
master, who was required to see that each man had a sort 
of tally-sheet upon which the amount of his wages was 
indicated by circles, lines, and half-lines, to represent 
the dollar and its various fractions. 

Of the actual number of persons employed in the in- 
dustry during colonial days, there is no accurate record. 3 

festivals were continually calling him off to celebrate. 
Whenever possible, he got riotiously drunk, especially 
as the ore-buyers to whom he sold his share of the mine's 
product (pepena), and whatever he had been able to 
steal during the week, often paid him in liquids instead 
of coin. The vingarrote and chingirito, which formed 
the chief medium of exchange in these transactions, had 
a kick that the consumer of the strongest of modern 
jackass brandy might well admire, and led to frequent 
violence and bloodshed, and an endless amount of lost 

Even more annoying, from the operator's standpoint, 
was the ingrained habit of theft among the employees. 
This trait, which the mine superintendent in Mexico has 
always to deal with, has its roots in a long forgotten past. 

'At Guanajuato, 5000 men were employed above and be- 
low ground; while the single mine of Valenciana carried 
3100 laborers on its payroll in 1803. 



July 2, 1921 

Two hundred years ago, the miners were searched as they 
left the mines, even as they are to this day in many parts 
of Mexico, and rather a disgusting process it must have 
been, from contemporary accounts of the proceedings. 
The best characterization I have yet seen of the Mexican 
miner in this respect was given by Gamboa in 1761. In 
speaking of the mine laborers, he wrote: 

"They steal the iron picks and crows; they steal the 
candles; they steal the ore, by means o£ very subtle and 
dexterous contrivances and stratagems; they steal the silver 
from the smelting works and from the vats and washing 
places in the amalgamation works, with no less dexterity, 
under the very eyes o£ the overseers. Upon one occasion, 
in the mining district of El Monte, the amalgamator being 
present, and the workmen shut in, several ingots of silver 
disappeared from the room, and on the circumstances being 
investigated, it was found that they had fastened a string 
to the ingots, which being carried out by the gutter through 
the force of water, the party posted outside for the purpose 
was enabled to drag away the silver. They steal clothes and 
money from each other, and if they continue to elude the 
searcher at the mouth of the mine, they will afterwards 
boast in his presence of the thefts they have committed. 
They steal the rich ore by throwing it among the rubbish. 
In a word they conjugate the verb 'rapar' in all its moods." 

Evidently Gamboa, who was a man of practical ex- 
perience in the business of which he wrote, spoke from a 
full heart. He naively added, after this description, that, 

"Miners of discreet and Christian spirit generally pro- 
claim a pardon for all thefts every Lent" — because, as they 
knew there was no chance of recovering the stolen ore, the 
pardon cost them nothing, and if "every transgression were 
visited with severe chastisement, the mines would soon be 
abandoned by the workmen." 

Methods. As already mentioned, Mexican miners 
made but scant use of machinery. Ore was generally car- 
ried in rawhide sacks on the backs of the tenateros, three 
of whom, it was estimated, were commonly required, in 
large mines, for each powder-man employed. These 
packers ascended from the lowest levels of the mine by 
crude steps cut in the rocky wall, or more commonly by 
means of chicken ladders or poles, notched deep enough 
to allow a precarious hold for their bare feet. When 
water became a serious problem, as it did in most mines, 
an adit (socdbmi) was driven into the hillside to drain 
the workings. Some of these showed great engineering 
skill. At Tasco, where silver was first discovered, there 
was said to be one over a third of a mile long, in which 
&, man might ride a considerable distance on horseback. 
In the mines of Rayas, at Guanajuato, there was one of 
similar dimensions; the great adit that unwatered the 
famous Viscaina lode, was 7 ft. wide by 8| ft. high and 
over a mile long. It required more than 12 years for 
its construction. 

Where an adit was not feasible, the mines were un- 
watered by tenateros with their rawhide bags, or by the 
crude horse-whims, known as malacates. These were also 
used to bring ore to the surface, and served both pur- 
poses reasonably well where conditions were favorable. 
In most instances, however, they were both inadequate 
and costly. The rawhide bags, constantly rubbing 
against the rough walls of the shaft, wore out rapidly ; 
and as they cost from one to two dollars each, the con- 
tinuous replacement of them constituted a considerable 
item of expense. One such bag full of water would weigh 
more than half a ton : consequently, a great number of 

horses or mules were required to operate the whims in 
every large mine. The Ramon pit on the Viscaina lode, 
for example, in 1783 employed 28 whims, each of which 
required 40 horses to keep the lower workings free from 
water. The cost of the operations exceeded $10,000 per 

The use of so many whims made it necessary, of course, 
to sink very much larger shafts than would otherwise 
have been required, thus entailing a heavy expense, 
which could have been avoided by the use of less cumber- 
some machinery. The tiro general, or main shaft, of 
the Valenciaiia was a striking illustration of this point. 
Octagonal in shape, its walls lined with masonry for a 
hundred feet from the surface, and with a diameter of 
33 ft., this huge shaft represented the acme of Mexican 
skill. Twelve years were required to sink it to a depth 
of 600 ft. ; the estimated cost of the entire undertaking 
was more than a million piastres. When completed, it 
had a depth of 1730 feet. 

In some respects, the colonial operations were carried 
on with remarkable skill. The common miner was an 
expert judge of ore and had an abnormal faculty for 
estimating its value. He was also a great prospector, so 
that few new districts of any magnitude have been 
opened in Mexico since colonial days. On the whole, 
however, the industry suffered severely not only from 
an insufficiency of capital but also from crude and waste- 
ful methods, and from a lack of technical skill. Hum- 
boldt, for example, estimated that two-thirds of the pow- 
der used in the mines was wasted ; Gamboa, a trained 
engineer himself, spoke of the mine surveyors and chief 
alcaldes, who had oversight of mining operations, as 
"strangers to the profession and ignorant of its rules". 
The ordinance of 1783 sought to remedy this lack of tech- 
nical training by establishing a School of Mines, in which 
young men might receive a scientific course, to be fol- 
lowed by three years of practical experience before 
graduation. Unfortunately, the success of this experi- 
ment was destroyed by the revolution. 

The metallurgical processes were many and various, 
but in the case of silver only two axe worthy of mention. 
These were smelting and amalgamation. The great 
wealth of the Mexican mines lay not so much in excep- 
tionally high-grade properties as in the almost unlimited 
quantity of medium-grade ore produced. 4 The extrac- 
tion of this was made possible by the famous patio proc- 
ess, discovered in 1555 by Bartholomew Medina, a min- 
ing engineer at Pachuca. To this process, by which at 
least 75% of the colonial output was obtained, Mexico 
owed her phenomenal mineral development. Its char- 
acteristic features are too well known to my readers to 
require repetition. 5 Certainly, it was the most distine- 

■»Aceording to Humboldt, the average silver content of 
Mexican ore was three or four ounces per quintal, or between 
sixty and eighty ounces per ton. At Guanajuato, where the 
patio process reached its highest development, ore yielding 
about three-quarters of an ounce per quintal was profitably 

"See T. A. Rickard, 'Journeys of Observation', pp. 129- 
147, for a full description. 

July 2, l!iLM 



ti\c feature of Mexican mining, not ouly during colonial 
days, but during most of the 19th century as well. In 
the great silver districts, the hacit ndas <l, In neficio, with 
their high white walls, built as a protection against rob- 
bery and theft, their courtyards covered with montons 
or tortas of metal in various stages of amalgamation, the 
innumerable laborers breaking ore for the arrastres or 
grinding-mills, and the half-naked men and boys, or 
droves of animals, treading the huge slime-pits, Struck a 
ehance visitor as nothing else connected with the in- 

Salt, magistral, lime, and quicksilver constituted the 
ehief essentials in the patio process. The quicksilver has 
already been spoken of as a royal monopoly. Salt was 
also an item of very serious expense and could be pro- 

of waste eighl times higher than that incurred in Euro- 
pean mines during the same period. The amounl of 
magistral used in the process varied with the character 

Of the ore. but seldom exceeded live times the weight of 

the mercury. 
Ores that could not be treated by the patio method 

were calcined or smelted, and then refined. In this pro?- 
ess. the Mexican used a variety of methods and furnaces. 
One of the commonest of the primitive smelters was the 
homo or adobe furnace, which differed somewhat in type 
from place to place. That in common use in the Santa 
Eulalia district was about 18 in. wide at the top, 16 in. 
across the bottom, and stood nearly 4 ft. high. The blast 
was supplied by bellows at the back, which might be 
worked by hand or mule, depending on the size of the 


duced in relatively few places. Between San Luis Potosi 
and Zacatecas, there was a famous salt lake — the Laguna 
del Penon Blanco — which dried up during several 
months of each year, allowing the salt to be scraped from 
its bed. The salines of Vera Cruz, Tampico, and Colima 
also furnished the article in an impure form ; the product 
of various salt springs was similarly utilized. The cost 
of the salt varied largely with the distance required for 
its transportation, but even in the place of production it 
was worth half a piastre per bushel. 

The copper pyrite used in the preparation of magistral 
sometimes costs as high as ten dollars per carga. Quick- 
silver was used in varying quantities, depending upon 
the amount of silver contained in the mixture. Generally, 
the proportions adopted were six parts of quicksilver to 
one of silver. About as much quicksilver was lost in each 
amalgamation as there was silver recovered, a percentage 

furnace. The furnace just described held a charge of 
something more than 100 lb. The chief cost of operation 
in this method lay in the difficulty of securing charcoal, 
especially where wood was scarce, and the proper fluxes 
to be used with the ore. 

For extraction of free gold, the machinery in common- 
est use was an arrastre. This was a crude drag-mill built 
usually near a stream of water and turning in a rock and 
clay or log-wall pit, some 12 ft. in diameter and 3 ft. 
deep. The bottom of this pit was lined with flat stones 
and wherever cracks occurred, these, were filled with clay. 
The grinding apparatus consisted of two flat-bottomed 
stones, weighing five or eight hundred pounds each, at- 
tached by rawhide or grass ropes to the lower cross-piece 
of an upright wooden shaft, set in the centre of the floor. 
Another bar higher up made a sweep-like arrangement, 
to which horses or mules were hitched. As these were 



July 2, 1921 

driven around, the stones were dragged across the floor 
and the ore, broken to walnut size before being put into 
the mill, was ground to powder. A small stream of water 
flowing into the mill kept it filled to a depth of five or 
eight inches, the pulp being carried off by the overflow. 
The gold, sinking to the bottom, combined with quick- 
silver. About half a pound of this was required per ton 
of ore, and under favorable conditions as much as 50% 
of the gold was caught. 

Production. The figures of production during the 
colonial period, for reasons which cannot be explained 
here, are much more likely to be legendary than exact. 
The yield of certain great bonanzas, however, is fairly 
well authenticated and may prove of" interest. The 
Canada, one of the famous properties in the Real de 
Tlapujuhua, yielded close to 2,000,000 oz. of silver an- 
nually when in bonanza. La Bsperanza, on the Veta 
Grande of Zacatecas, produced nearly 4,000,000 per 
annum. The mine of La Purissima yielded a net profit 
of over $200,000 annually for nearly two decades, and in 
1796 produced six times that amount. Another mine in 
the Catorce district had a yearly output of nearly 
$2,000,000. The mines of Sombrerete gave a net profit 
of $4,500,000 in a few months of bonanza. Quebradilla 
produced more than $200,000 in a single week ; the mines 
of Paehuca, Bolanos, and Batopilas, to mention only a 
few at random, were all producers of the first rank. But 
the mines on the Viscaina lode at Real del Monte, and the 
great Valenciana, probably surpassed anything else in 
Mexico. The Viscaina was mined from the 16th to the 
early part of the 17th century. The workings then became 
flooded and were not re-opened for half a century. About 
1740, however, a miner named Bustamente conceived the 
idea of running an adit to cut the vein at a lower depth. 
He died before the enterprise could be completed, but his 
partner, Pedro Terreros, finished the undertaking in 
1762. Before 1774, he had made a net profit of over 
$5,000,000, and was recognized as one of the wealthiest 
men in the world. Thirty years later, the mine was still 
producing close to 500,000 oz. per annum. The Valen- 
ciana first came into bonanza in 1768. Within three 
years, it was producing about $3,000,000 per annum, and 
for more than a generation continued this phenomenal 

The total production of silver in Mexico, from 1690 to 
1803, was estimated by Humboldt at slightly over 1.200,- 
000,000 ounces; the gold and silver together, produced 
and coined during the same period, had a value of about 
$1,500,000,000. The output of the two metals for the 
whole of the colonial period (1525-1810) Humboldt fixes 
at approximately $2,000,000,000. The average annual 
yield during the reign of Charles III, when the industry 
was at its height, was close to $22,000,000, or nearly 20,- 
000,000 oz. of silver' and some 60,000 oz. of gold. Con- 
sidering the purchasing power of money in that day, the 
Spaniards' lack of machinery and technical skill, and the 
generations of exploitation already accomplished before 
the dawn of the 19th century, one can readily under- 
stand the significance of Humboldt's apt and often 

quoted phrase — "Mexico, the treasure-chest of the 
world ' '. 

(To be Continued) 

Aluminum is almost the only metal available for the 
manfacture of light alloys, according to W. Rosenhain, 
whose lecture before the Royal Society of Arts appears 
in a recent issue of the 'Journal' of the Society of Chemi- 
cal Industry. Of other possible metals, alloys consisting 
mainly of magnesium are disappointing; beryllium is 
not yet available. After describing briefly the process 
for the production of aluminum by electrolysis of pure 
alumina dissolved in molten cryolite, it was pointed out 
that there is no satisfactory method for refining alu- 
minum, and that its purity is dependent on that of the 
materials used in its manufacture — notably the alumina 
and the carbon electrodes. Consumption of the latter is 
approximately equal, weight for weight, to the metal 
producd, and special petroleum coke having a low ash 
is essential for their manufacture. The necessity for 
cheapening the cost of aluminum was emphasized. In 
this connection mention was made of the new nitride 
process whereby bauxite, carbon, and nitrogen are made 
to react at a high temperature with formation of alu- 
minum nitride, which on treatment with soda yields 
sodium aluminate, with ammonia as a valuable by-prod- 
uct. The cost of preparation of pure alumina by this 
process is said to be very much less than by the present 
method. In dealing with the properties of aluminum, it 
was pointed out that its weakness lay in its mechanical 
properties, and therefore, for structural purposes where 
strength is required, alloying with other metals is neces- 
sary. The alloys of aluminum present the difficulty that, 
with the exception of zinc, and possibly magnesium, the 
range of solubility in the solid state for other metals — 
such as copper, nickel, manganese, iron, and tin — is low, 
and the addition of comparatively small percentages of 
these metals leads to the formation of hard compounds as 
free constituents, causing rapid decrease in ductility. 

Some years ago it was discovered that many of the 
laterite deposits of India were highly aluminous, and 
consisted of bauxite, states an Imperial Mineral Resources 
Bureau bulletin. Systematic field work b}' the Geologi- 
cal Survey has proved the existence of extensive deposits 
of bauxite in many parts of India, and chemical investi- 
gations have shown that certain of the Indian bauxites 
compare favorably with some of the best bauxites of com- 
merce. The richest areas yet discovered in India are the 
Baihir plateau in the Balaghat district, and the vicinity 
of Katni in the Jubbulpore district, both in the Central 
Provinces. Bauxite of good quality has also been found 
on the laterite plateaux in the western parts of Chota 
Nagpur and in Sarguja, Bihar, and Orissa; in Bhopal 
and Rewah States, Central India; in the Satara district, 
Bombay, and in various parts of the Madras Presidency. 
The deposits to which most attention has been paid up to 
the present time are those of Balaghat and Jubbulpore. 

July 2, 1921 



An Address to Mining Students 

On the Occasion of the Commencement of the Colorado School of 
Mines at Golden on June 10, 1921 

By Frederick Laist 

It was with a most profound sense of responsibility 
and many misgivings that I accepted the invitation ex- 
tended to me to address you on this, the occasion of your 
Commencement, and if what I am going to say may 
prove to be of the slightest help to any one of you in 
shaping your course on the uncertain and oftentimes 
stormy sea of professional life, I shall feel that my pres- 
ence here has not been utterly futile. 

I have no desire to stand before you in the capacity of 
adviser, nor do I feel qualified to do so if I so desired. 
Young men have often come to me asking advice as to 
some immediate step they contemplated, and even under 
such comparatively easy circumstances I have found it 
difficult to say, "You should do this, or so". How in- 
finitely harder, therefore, would it be to advise an assem- 
blage such as you young men with all your diversity of 
tastes, ambitions, and abilities. Nevertheless those of us 
who have been through the mill have seen changes and 
brought away certain impressions and experiences which 
it may be useful to pass on to you. Outstanding among 
the changes of recent years is the passing, to a large ex- 
tent at least, of the individual engineer — the free lance, 
as it were — and his gradual replacement by, or absorp- 
tion in, that greater unit known as 'the organization'. 

Through my talk today I hope to leave with you a 
picture of what it means to develop a great mining enter- 
prise nowadays and of the human machine or organiza- 
tion upon which the successful outcome of the project 
depends. Perhaps this will aid you to make selection of 
your course with better chance of arriving at your de- 
sired goal. 

You are at the commencement of your professional 
career. You have finished a course of study which is ad- 
mirably adapted to serve as a foundation or groundwork 
upon which to build. So far you have done well, and I 
assure you that you will never regret the time you spent 
at school. Your four years here have placed you in a 
similar position with respect to your chosen profession as 
four years at West Point or Annapolis place the man who 
selects an army or navy career. You are the commis- 
sioned officers, as it were, of the great organization upon 
which humanity depends for its supplies of metals. In 
other words, you are presumed to have the basic knowl- 
edge which will enable you to become good leaders after 
you have acquired a practical knowledge of men and 

When you were in high-school and were making up 

your mind as to what kind of career to follow, whether 
business or professional, and if the latter, what profes- 
sion, you knew that whatever choice you made would de- 
termine the course of your lives for years to come, and so 
now again you must make a choice between the various 
branches of your profession, and the choice once again 
made, you must carry on, or stand to lose what may well 
be years of effort. 

To begin with, the profession of mining, as it is com- 
monly called, may be divided into two main branches : 
mining and metallurgy. Mining has to do with the min- 
ing of ore. Metallurgy has to do with the treatment of 
ore. Mining and metallurgy go hand in hand and yet 
they appeal so differently and require so much knowledge 
of a special character that in most schools the student is 
permitted to specialize in one or the other during at least 
a part of his course. 

The mining engineer, aided by his knowledge of ge- 
ology, concerns himself with the finding of ore, and with 
the mining of it to the best advantage. The metallurgical 
engineer receives the ore, and with the aid of his knowl- 
edge of physics and chemistry, as exemplified in the va- 
rious ore-treatment processes, separates the valuable 
metals from the gangue and from each other. 

In the early days of mining, only the richest ores were 
made use of, and only the simplest methods, both of min- 
ing and metallurgy, were known and applied. A com- 
paratively modest capital was sufficient to start a mining 
enterprise. Those days are past, generally speaking, and 
now enormous capital is needed for the beneficiation of 
the comparatively low-grade and complex ores from 
which our present supplies of metals are derived. 

We hear much nowadays about the exploitation of the 
natural resources of the country — of the people being 
robbed of their birthright, and so on. This agitation is 
even extended to include water-power sites, as though 
water, once over the fall, could ever again be of use to 
the Nation. Modern mining and metallurgy are so 
largely dependent upon cheap power that agitation of 
this sort becomes properly of concern to the mining en- 
gineer, quite apart from the self-evident fact that the 
disuse of water-power constitutes a very serious economic 
waste, and every engineer as a good citizen should set his 
face against waste of every kind. Every horse-power we 
allow to run down our streams means hastened depletion 
of our limited supplies of oil and of coal, not to speak of 
the waste of human energy indirectly involved. 



July 2, 1921 

It goes without saying that the rights of the people — 
all of us — must be protected, and it is highly important 
for our representatives to enact legislation designed to 
prevent waste of our resources and to protect us from 
extortion and profiteering. At the same time, it is wrong 
to hedge around the resources of this country with red- 
tape so as to repel the capital which must be forthcoming 
before any benefits can accrue. 

Very few people realize how relatively valueless is raw 
material, in the ground, and what an enormous expendi- 
ture of money, effort, and time is required to make it 
useful to mankind. For example, let us review the de- 
velopment of the so-called 'porphyry coppers', whose 
growth during the past fifteen years has been one of the 
marvels of modern mining and metallurgy. As is well 
known, these properties, practically without exception, 
were known to mining men and geologists for many years 
but were considered too low-grade and therefore value- 
less. In other words, they were, not 'ore'. Abortive at- 
tempts had been made to work a number of them, but in 
vain. The Utah Copper Co.'s property was offered for 
sale in the late '90s for $250,000, and was refused. 

About 1900 experimental work had demonstrated to the 
satisfaction of some of the more far-sighted and venture- 
some mining engineers that these low-grade disseminated 
ores might be profitably worked, provided that the opera- 
tion were carried out on a tremendous scale. The flota- 
tion process was unknown in those days, except for the 
old Elmore oil process, which had attracted some attention 
but was not taken very seriously. The copper-leaching 
process was also unknown, or at any rate undeveloped. 
Water-concentration, therefore, was the only process that 
offered prospects of commercial success and at best it 
could only be counted on to recover a comparatively low 
percentage of the copper minerals. This meant a very 
small yield from an already low-grade ore in the form of 
concentrate that would suffer further loss in smelting. 

Agreement as to the successful outcome of the first 
porphyry undertakings was by no means general, and I 
know of a number of able mining and metallurgical en- 
gineers who were exceedingly doubtful as to the possi- 
bility of building up a successful business on the basis 
of such low-grade and difficultly treatable ores ; and it re- 
quired a good deal of courage to undertake the invest- 
ment of the many millions of dollars' needed to determine 
definitely the value of the deposits and bring them to 
the producing stage. It was possible to go slow up to a 
certain point, after which it was necessary to take what 
was little short of a leap in the dark. However, to the 
everlasting credit of the American engineer and finan- 
cier, the leap was taken and successfully spanned the 
gap, with the result that tremendous reserves have been 
added to our copper resources, and hitherto worthless 
rock became valuable ore. 

Probably many of you remember, not long ago, in what 
universal disrepute the oxidized silieious ores of copper 
were held. Even by the engineers who were developing 
the first porphyry coppers, the cap of oxidized ore, often 
referred to, rather contemptuously, as "copper-stained 

rock", was of necessity excluded from the estimates or 
ore-reserves, as being of no value. In South America 
enormous masses of this character of ore were known to 
occur in the Atacama desert of Chile without attracting 
the favorable attention of mining engineers, although 
their copper content equaled and even surpassed that of 
the porphyries that were being worked with such mar- 
velous success in North America. Finally, their develop- 
ment was undertaken, again by American capital and 
American engineers. After painstaking experimentation, 
a process of treatment was devised and then again it be- 
came necessary to expend untold millions in an unknown 
country on a new and relatively untried process. Such 
is the story of Chuquieamata, and the same is true of the 
great property of the Anaconda company at Po- 

When the engineers of the Anaconda company came to 
Potrerillos they found nothing but a few shacks, tunnels, 
and drill-holes in the heart of the Andes mountains at an 
elevation of 10,000 ft. Sixty miles from the nearest rail- 
road, and that a railroad only by courtesy, as we under- 
stand the word in this country. Thirty miles from water. 
Thousands of miles from a base of supplies. 

The first thing that had to be done was to prove the 
existence of a sufficient mass of ore. Although the ore- 
body had been roughly outlined, and, reasoning by an- 
alogy, the drill-holes and other workings indicated the 
presence of an enormous amount of ore, the correctness 
of this reasoning had to be more definitely established 
and move accurate information had to be obtained as to 
grade, character, and composition of the ore before going 

This work took considerably over a year and had to be 
done under adverse conditions; all supplies had to be 
brought thousands of miles by water, unloaded at the 
port by lighters, hauled over a very poor railroad to a 
station called Pueblo Hundido, 40 miles in the interior, 
then hauled from there by means of mule-carts a dis- 
tance of 56 miles over miserable roads, arriving finally at 
Potrerillos, 10,000 ft. above sea-level. The country being 
a desert, it was necessary to haul water for every con- 
ceivable purpose, and this water was so poor in quality 
that wherever it had to be used for generation of steam 
it caused a great deal of trouble in the boilers. 

This preliminary work having been completed, opera- 
tions could be commenced on the development and equip- 
ment proper. Remember that there was absolutely 
nothing to start with. The problem was entirely differ- 
ent from that of establishing a plant or factory in or near 
one of our cities. The first thing to be done obviously 
was to construct port works so that unloading of ships 
would be attended with less loss and could be done more 
expeditiously. A site called Barquito was selected, and 
a pier, warehouses, oil-tanks, and a small temporary 
power-plant were planned and built. 

At the same time, work was commenced on a railroad 
to connect the mine with the existing Chilean railroad. 
The new railroad was in itself quite an engineering feat, 
in that it had to ascend from an elevation of about 2000 

.luiv a, 192] 


ft. to an elevation of 10,000 ft. in a distance of about 
."iii miles, and at the same time it was fell thai in order 
to make it reasonably economical from the operating 

standpoint, a grade of 3$i ought not to be ex< iled at 

any point. It is quite impossible to convey to anyone 
familiar only with American mountain scenery, any idea 
of what it means to build such a road in the Chilean 
Andes, and I will not attempt to do so here. Suffice to 
say that at one point it was necessary to get from one 
side to the other of a canyon 2000 ft. deep, with moun- 
tain slopes on either side so steep that it was difficult in 
places to obtain a foothold for the roadbed. 

In order to lighten the loads to be hauled to the mine 
as much as possible, it was decided to generate whatever 
power was needed, both in preliminary work, and later 
for operations, at the sea-coast. This necessitated the 
construction of a power-line almost 100 miles long. 

A site for reduction works was selected about six miles 
from the mine and at an elevation about 1000 ft. lower. 
In order to tap the orebody and convey the ore to the 
crushing-plant, a railroad, running chiefly underground, 
had to be constructed and electrified. The tunnels on 
this road aggregate approximately three miles in length, 
and the last tunnel ends under the main orebody at a 
depth of 1000 ft. beneath the surface. 

While all this was going on, surveys were made and 
plans were perfected for bringing in an adequate supply 
of water for milling and leaching operations. This water 
has to be brought from the Ola river, a distance of over 
30 miles, over rough desert country, to the brink of the 
Pasto Cerrado, across which it will have to be brought 
in a siphon capable of withstanding a pressure of about 
000 lb. per square inch, finally ending at the millsite, 
three or four miles farther on. 

All of this work had to be guided and directed from 
administration offices established at Potrerillos, and in 
order to accommodate the staff and the workmen it was 
necessary to build a town. Houses had to be provided 
for people of the most diverse tastes and ways of living. 
A commissary had to be established where everything 
needed, not only to sustain life but to provide the com- 
forts of life, could be purchased. Hospital, medical, and 
surgical . attendance, police protection, amusements, 
churches, even a cemetery, had to be established. Ob- 
viously it was desirable to maintain good relations with 
the Chilean government and keep on good terms with the 
various officials, and this, oftentimes, is not as easy as it 
might seem, owing to differences in customs and ideals. 

While all this was going on, a method of mining and a 
method of ore-treatment had to be decided upon. The 
two necessarily go hand in hand, and the mining engi- 
neer and the metallurgical engineer must each view his 
own problem to some extent from the standpoint of the 
other. This is particularly true when the orebody to be 
treated is a complex one and contains masses of both 
oxides and sulphides, as well as mixed ores. 

Having settled on the system of mining to be used 
and the plan of treatment, the necessary stripping must 
be done, underground bins, cross-cuts, and raises must 

be excavated, and carefully detailed plans of the reduc- 
tion works must be mi 

The planning of a plan! of this kind is in itself a mat- 
ter of many months and must be followed by the erection 
of thousands of tons of concrete, brick, and steel under 
anything but favorable circumstances. Plans have to be 
made with extra care and attention to detail, owing to 
the great distance from the base of supplies. As at ot her 
porphyry mines, the quantity of ore treated daily will 
be very large. The plant will be, necessarily, a huge 
affair and will contain many different departments. 

Some of the individual operations involved in the 
treatment of oxidized or mixed ores require such a de- 
gree of technical skill that only a few years ago mining 
men hesitated to apply them even in the mining districts 
of this country. For example, the manufacturers of sul- 
phuric acid. Other departments are as follows : coarse- 
and fine-crushing plants, leaching-plant, precipitation- 
plant, surphur-dioxide plant, concentrator, smelter, to- 
gether with such auxiliary departments as power-plant, 
sub-stations, boiler-plants, foundry, machine, carpenter, 
and blacksmith shops, and even a brickyard, for the 
haulage of brick to a point so remote as Potrerillos would 
be very costly. 

Now it must be apparent to you from this outline that 
the man in charge of a modern mining and metallurgical 
enterprise must have not only a good technical knowledge 
but must also be a capable administrator and executive, 
and the men whom he employs on his staff must have 
the qualities of loyalty and trustworthiness in somewhat 
more than ordinaiy measure. It is obvious that the 
efforts of the individual can accomplish little in an enter- 
prise of this magnitude. Team-work is the only thing 
that can win, and this implies on the one hand a chief 
who has the respect and co-operation of his staff, and on 
the other hand an organization that will not only carry 
out orders but is alert and interested and is in itself 
harmonious in so far as relations between its individual 
members are concerned. 

You have doubtless heard the terms 'centralization' 
and 'decentralization', and know in a general way what 
they mean. As a matter af fact, in every successful or- 
ganization the centralization of authority on the one 
hand and its distribution among subordinates on the 
other, or decentralization, must be carefully studied and 
worked out. 

At the head of the local organization stands the gen- 
eral manager, who in turn is responsible to the president 
and vice-president, whose headquarters are usually else- 
where. Under the general manager come such officers as 
mine superintendent, reduction-works superintendent, 
mechanical superintendent, railroad superintendent, 
chief accountant, purchasing agent, legal and medical ad- 
visers. Each of these men in turn has a staff, depend- 
ing in number on the size and complexity of his de- 
partment. For example, the mine superintendent will 
probably have several superintendents under him, each 
in charge of an individual mine or region. The reduc- 
tion-works superintendent will have in his department 



July 2, 1921 

several superintendents, sueh as concentrator superin- 
tendent, leaching-plant superintendent, superintendent 
of acid-plants, and so on. 

This staff is generally built up of technically trained 
men, that is, men who have had a course such as yours. 
Under them come foremen, shift-bosses, machine-opera- 
tors, and others, all without special training. The 
young engineers generally start in the engineering or 
laboratory departments under the immediate supervision 
of the chief draftsman, chief surveyor, or chief chemist. 
They are generally promoted according to fairly well 
recognized principles, taking into consideration ability, 
dependableness, and length of service. 

In addition to departments of the kinds just enumer- 
ated, which concern themselves wholly with problems 
directly connected with operation, the larger companies 
are devoting more and more attention to building up and 
maintaining research laboratories, which have nothing to 
do with operation or production, but whose functions are 
of a more purely scientific nature. The research depart- 
ment attracts to itself engineers of a scientific rather than 
an administrative turn of mind and offers a career in 
pure science with unlimited possibilities. The research 
department of the New Jersey Zinc Co. and of the Gen- 
eral Electric Co. each employs more than 200 men. You 
can see from this what an important factor organized 
research has become in modern industry. In these de- 
partments are to be found men of the highest and most 
diverse scientific attainments. Here we find mathema- 
ticians, physicists, chemists, geologists, and specialists of 
all kinds. 

The rate of progress that can be attained by organized 
research is surprising when compared with the accom- 
plishments of the individualistic methods of the past. 
As an example I might cite the development of the elec- 
trolytic-zinc process in the research laboratories at Ana- 
conda. The development of this process did not require 
the discovery of new scientific principles, but rather the 
combination of old and well-known principles of chem- 
istry and physics with modern engineering. It had been 
known for many years that a solution of zinc sulphate 
could be eleetrolyzed with deposition of zinc at the 
cathode and formation of sulphuric acid at the anode, 
but it is a far cry from making a few grammes of elec- 
trolytic zinc in the laboratory without regard to cost by 
skilled chemists and producing regularly millions of 
pounds of metal under commercial conditions, implying 
low cost and the use of relatively unskilled workmen. 
This was the task of the research department, aided, as 
the work progresses and assumes larger proportions, by 
the operating staff. 

The electrolytic-zinc process was developed in order 
to permit of mining certain complex ores that occur in 
considerable quantity in Butte. These ores contain zinc, 
lead, copper, silver, and gold. The metals are so dis- 
tributed, however, that a treatment method which ig- 
nored any of them could not be profitable. The lead- 
smelter could not treat them advantageously owing to 
the fact that the zinc not only was not recovered but was 

a serious detriment. The copper-smelter made no re- 
covery of either zinc or lead ; and the copper, silver, and 
gold were in themselves not of sufficient value to pay the 
expenses of mining and smelting. Selective concentra- 
tion gave indifferent results, because the minerals con- 
tained in the ores were not separable by mechanical 
means. It was evident, therefore, that an entirely new 
mode of attack would have to be devised if they were to 
be made useful. 

In work of this kind it is always wise to build on the 
experience of the past in so far as this is possible. A 
thorough search of patent and technical literature was 
therefore made before any laboratory work was started. 
This search revealed many proposals and tentative pro- 
cesses. Some of these could be eliminated as impracti- 
cable or unsuited to local conditions, but some of them 
seemed worthy of laboratory investigation. Such in- 
vestigations were made on three processes before defi- 
nitely deciding on the electrolysis of zinc-sulphate solu- 
tions. All of this preliminary work took the time of 
probably a dozen men two or three months. 

We were now ready for the next step, which consisted 
of operating the process in the laboratory on a small 
scale under conditions as nearly as possible identical with 
those that later would be encountered on a large scale. 
In this work the cells were operated day and night and 
the solutions were used over and over again exactly as 
would have to be done in the large plant. The same acid 
strength and methods of purification were used and the 
effect of various impurities on the electrolysis were care- 
fully noted. Exact measurements, with calibrated in- 
struments, were made of the amount of current needed to 
deposit a pound of zinc, of the roasting temperatures that 
gave the best results, and in short all the data that could 
possibly be obtained from a small-scale operation were 

It is important to note that this work was done with 
the process operating in a continuous manner and as 
nearly as possible duplicating large-scale conditions. You 
often hear it said that such and such a process worked 
alright in the laboratory but failed on the large scale. 
This is due generally to laboratory work that has been 
planned and executed improperly. The tendency of in- 
ventors, and, in fact, most people, is to allow the wish to 
be the father of the thought and to do their laboratory 
work under conditions that could not possibly be met in 
practice, salving their consciences meantime with the 
utterly false notion that on the large scale they can ac- 
complish what they could not do in the laboratory. This 
is like the prospector who invariably expects to have his 
vein widen and grow richer with depth, whereas often- 
times a little unbiased reflection would convince him that 
the reverse was much more likely to be true. Our West- 
ern mining districts are strewn with monuments to man's 
tendency to self-deception. 

Having operated our toy plant for several months 
without serious difficulties, that is, difficulties that could 
not be overcome, because difficulties continually kept 
cropping out, we were ready for the next step. This was 

July 2, 1921 



to const nut and operate a small plant containing single 
units of machines, as nearly as possible of standard size. 
The experimental or pilot plant had a capacity of 10 tons 
of zinc per day. It contained a full-sized roast in sr- fur- 
nace, leaching, settling, and filtering equipment of stand- 
ard design modified to meet the peculiar conditions of 
zinc-leaching, full-sized electrolytic cells, and a small re- 
verberatory furnace for melting cathodes. Various kinds 
of metals were used in the construction of this plant in 
order to study the effect of the solutions on them under 
working conditions and thus determine the structural 
materials for the large plant. This is very important, as 
many a plant has failed or required costly alterations 
owing to the selection of faulty structural materials. 
Many a so-called acid-proof metal or material has proved 
to he a snare and a delusion. 

In this plant the laboratory data as to roasting-tem- 
peratures. acid-strengths, current-efficiency, and so on, 
were verified or modified, and much adidtional informa- 
tion was collected that could not be obtained from a 
laboratory operation. 

The value of an experimental plant as the predecessor 
of a large operation may be illustrated by an incident 
that gave us a great deal of concern at the time, and illus- 
trates the necessity for extreme care when engaged in 
new work. When the test plant was started, only about 
one-fourth of the cells were in commission and for the 
first few days everything went smoothly. As more cells 
were put in service poorer results were obtained, and 
after a week or ten days when all of the cells were work- 
ing the results were extremely poor. The current effi- 
ciency fell off to 40% and very meagre and ragged de- 
posits of zinc were obtained. 

The research staff made every effort to find the seat of 
the trouble, but it was a month before it was finally traced 
to the aluminum cathodes, with which the later cells were 
equipped, and which, instead of being pure aluminum, 
were found to contain about 3% copper. At that time 
no one suspected that such a percentage of copper in the 
aluminum cathodes could possibly affect the zinc deposit, 
for in the zinc process the function of the aluminum 
plate is similar to the function of the starting-sheet blank 
in copper refining. It accumulates a deposit of zinc 
which is stripped off when sufficiently heavy without 
itself taking any part in the reaction. 

Also, and equally important, this operation enabled a 
number of men to be trained to serve subsequently as. a 
nucleus in the final commercial plant. These men be- 
came the superintendents, foremen, and skilled operators 
without whom the large plant would have had hard sled- 
ding no matter how good the process and how excellent 
the design. 

Only after all these preliminaries could the large plant 
be undertaken with fair certainty of success. So far the 
work had been under the supervision of the research en- 
gineer, but. now it had outgrown the bounds and facilities 
of the research department. A separate organization was 
formed to carry out the construction and operation of 
the large plant, the research engineer acting in the ca- 

pacity of adviser, and the men who operated the small 
plant became prominent members of the new organiza- 

Doubtless it is now apparent to you why T started out 
by saying that you must make your choice as to what 
branch you wish to follow soon after leaving school. 
Given sufficient ability and capacity for hard work, all 
the paths lead to the top, but, obviously, if you get half- 
way along one of these paths and decide you want to 
switch over to another, you will probably have to start at 
the bottom again. 

Most large mining and smelting companies prefer to 
train their own men for their higher executive positions. 
They prefer to have men come to them while they are 
young and only recently out of school. The new em- 
ployee's work is closely scrutinized, particularly for the 
first six months or a year, and his immediate superior is 
supposed to determine within this time whether he will 
fit into the organization or not. If he seems to have the 
necessary qualities, he is gradually given more and more 
responsibility and after awhile is placed in charge of in- 
vestigations of increasing importance. 

Now there is one thing right here that I cannot impress 
on you too strongly. First : Your future in the organiza- 
tion will depend on how well you accomplish each and 
every task that may be given you, however insignificant 
and unimportant it may, at the moment, seem to you. 
Second : Your advancement will depend on how well you 
get on with your associates and with men who may be 
working under you. You must cultivate a spirit of fair- 
ness and a willingness to co-operate. You must treat the 
men who may be working under you with consideration 
and must recognize their fundamental rights. No matter 
how brilliant and able you may be, if you are a 'crab' 
and constantly fighting with your associates or subor- 
dinates you will get nowhere. 'Big stick' methods are 
out of date. At the same time you cannot afford to allow 
things to be 'put over' on you. Also if, when you reach 
a minor executive position, you endeavor to build up 
your own department at the expense of another depart- 
ment, you are not serving the best interests of the work 
as a whole, and ultimately you will only injure yourself. 
All managers realize that a certain amount of wholesome 
rivalry between departments is a fine thing. The rivalry 
must, however, be fair and must at all times take into 
consideration the general good. 

When you have reached the position of department 
superintendent, or what corresponds to it, you are the 
chief in your department in so far as all matters pertain- 
ing solely to your department are concerned. In such 
matters you have as much authority as the manager him- 
self, and if he is wise he will carefully avoid inserting 
himself in any way, shape, or form between you and your 
men. On the other hand, authority brings with it re- 
sponsibility. You must make good. You must, yourself, 
carry the burdens connected with the operation of your 
department and must make your own decisions and see 
that they are properly carried out. The young executive 
who constantly calls up his superior and asks him what 



July 2. 1921 

to do next instead of using his own head, as a rule doesn't 
last long. 

The theory on which large enterprises are conducted 
assumes the division of the work of supervision into 
units, each of which is small enough so that the average 
man with proper training can grasp and oversee it prop- 
erly and in considerable detail. The units or departments 
are brought together into groups or divisions and the 
aggregate of these constitutes the entire enterprise. The 
manager at the top of the pyramid is dependent for his 
success and peace of mind upon each and every one of his 
lieutenants, and the performance by him of his allotted 
part of the task, and so you will find that the qualities 
of trustworthiness and reliability are even more valued 
than cleverness and brilliancy. 

And now, just a few more general observations before 
bringing my remarks to a close. Accuracy is obviously 
of great importance and should be cultivated to the ut- 
most. I don't meau the kind of accuracy that insists on 
reporting an analysis to the third decimal place when 
you know perfectly well that the method you use is only 
accurate to the first decimal. That sort of accuracy is 
actually untruthful and misleading. When reporting 
on any phase of your work, the report should be clear 
and concise and, as nearly as you can make it, a true 
picture of what you arc reporting on — well balanced and 
correct in its proportion and perspective. 

Be enthusiastic, about your work, make it your hobby — 
I don't mean to the exclusion of everything else. On the 
contrary, cultivate an interest in wholesome amusements 
and good-fellowship, but take an active, not merely a 
passive, interest in your work. Above all. don't be a 
clock-watcher or attempt to dole out the amount of ser- 
vice you give your employer according to your idea of 
the value of the salary you happen to be receiving. 
Rather, go home each day with the comfortable feeling 
that you have given more than value received. 

Don't get the idea that everything that can be done 
has been accomplished and that no further improvements 
can be made. Realize the value of past experience, but 
don't let yourself be bound hand and foot by precedent. 
Be constantly on the look-out for opportunities to stop 
waste, to make use of by-products, to develop new re- 
sources, to do things better than thi-y were being done 
before. Realize to start with that you can only make an 
exceptional success by putting forth exceptional efforts 
and knew that "He profits most who serves best", and 
then, as Kipling has so wonderfully phrased it: 

"If you can keep your head when all about you 

Are losing theirs and blaming it on you; 
If you can trust yourself when all men doubt you 

But make allowance for their doubting too: 
If you can wait and not be tired by waiting, 

Or being lied about, don't deal in lies, 
Or being hated don't give way to hating. 

And yet don't look too good, nor talk too wise; 
If you can dream — and not make dreams your master; 

If you can think — and not make thoughts your aim. 
If you can meet with Triumph and Disaster 

And treat those two imposters just the same: 

If you can bear to hear the truth you've spoken 

Twisted by Knaves to make a trap for fools. 
Or watch the things you gave your life to, broken. 

And stop and build 'em up with worn-out tools; 
If you can fill the unforgiving minute 

With sixty seconds' worth of distance run. 
Yours is the Earth and everything that's in it. 

And — which is more — you'll be a man, my son!" 

Although 85% of the world's supply of asbestos is 
produced in Canada, it all comes from a comparatively 
small district about three hours journey from Montreal, 
states the 'Journal' of the Society of Chemical Industry. 
There are fourteen principal producers, at Coleraine, 
Black Lake, Thetford, Bast Broughton, and Danville. 
The mining and milling of asbestos consists of quarrying 
proper, and the cobbing or separation of the fibre from 
the rock. The first operation in opening a quarry is the 
removal of the surface soil, usually from 5 to 25 ft. deep, 
for which steam-shovels are employed. The exposed rock 
is drilled by hand, machine, or electric percussion-drills. 
This is followed by blasting with dynamite, every pound 
of which brings down about five tons of rock. Hand- 
cobbing separates the crude material into three grades: 
(a) The long asbestos fibres and pieces of rock containing 
them ; (b) the milling material or rock containing the 
shorter fibres; and (e) barren rock which goes direct to 
the dump. The material specified in (a) is sent direct to 
the eobbing-sheds, where the fibres axe separated into 
different grades both by hand and machinery. The rock 
containing the shorter fibres is crushed, and the asbestos 
is separated from the waste by exhaust fans. The asbes- 
tos is now ready for the market, and is classed into two 
grades, termed respectively the crude and the fibre. The 
crude is divided into two grades. No. 1 having fibres 
over 0.5 in. long, and No. 2 containing fibre under 0.5 in. 
These grades are used for asbestos cloth, pipe-covering, 
and other articles of which asbestos is the principal con- 
stituent. The material of shorter fibre is used in other 
manufactures, chiefly as a filler. The production of as- 
bestos has grown from 1400 tons, valued at £30,000, in 
1885, to 120,000 tons, valued at £2,250,000, in 1919. 

Statistics recently issued by the Bureau of Domestic 
and Foreign Commerce show the increase of the mercan- 
tile marine of this country as regards trade with Great 
Britain. The net tonnage of American ships that en- 
tered British ports with cargoes during the first three 
months of 1913 was 152,653 ; for the same period of the 
present year it was 534.004. It is, however, pertinent to 
note that the net tonnage of American ships that were 
cleared with cargoes from British ports during the latter 
period was only 238,166. One-way merchandise move- 
ment may indicate national prosperity, but it militates 
against the economical operation of the vessels. 

Chrome-ore production in South Africa during 1920 
was 60,269 tons, valued at £245,378, as compared with 
35,282 tons, valued at £142,541 in 1919, states a consular 

,1iiI.n -V 1921 



Industrial Morale 

By Richard V. Ageton 

Morale has been defined as "that mental state which 
Tenders a man capable of endurance and of exhibiting 
courage in the presence of danger". The dictionary fur- 
ther informs us that the word is of French derivation 
and is particularly applicable to the state of mind of an 
army. We frequently hear references to our army of 
industry, or to our industrial armies, and the comparison 
is a very apt one when one considers the morale of each, 
the methods used in obtaining and maintaining this 
morale, and, finally, the ease with which morale can be 
completely destroyed. 

Particular attention has been given to the morale of 
•our armies, for a serious defeat on the field of battle 
"would be a national disaster. It has not been until the 
past decade that serious attention has been given to our 
industrial morale; this despite the fact that a more se- 
rious disaster threatens the country, should we suffer 
defeat to our industrial armies. 

In our army-training camps, during the late War, 
every effort was made to foster and support the morale 
of the individual recruit so that the troops as a whole 
would have the proper mental attitude toward their 
"work. The medical corps, under the direction of the 
camp commander, made it their duty to see that the 
troops were furnished with proper food, sanitary camp- 
grounds, and orderly barracks. Numerous societies vol- 
unteered to equip and maintain suitable places and forms 
•of amusement. Show-houses, club-houses, libraries, and 
pavilions were built, and many of the foremost actors and 
musicians of the country donated their services to carry 
on with the entertainment. The result of these endeavors 
was made evident to all of us. 

In civilian life everthing is different. It is our own 
morale which we must strive to build up and maintain ; 
consequently, unless we receive assistance from others, 
we are liable to fall short of our highest attainment. 

The safety engineer's work not only includes the actual 
inspection of working-places, with the view of maintain- 
ing safety, but in many of the smaller towns theirs is a 
tacit leadership in the amusement and recreation enjoyed 
"by the inhabitants. In the larger cities they lead by 
suggestions that have a tendency toward the development 
of civic pride. 

The old-time mining camp, like Topsy, "just growed". 
The result was fearful and wonderful to behold. String 
towns, three, five, and sometimes ten miles long, were 
built along either side of a dirty and literally stinking 
little creek. There was absolutely no thought of sanita- 
tion. Each individual had to care for his own water- 
supply, and a systematic garbage-disposal system was 
unheard of, unless one could call the universal practice 
of dumping the garbage in the aforementioned creek 

systematic. Houses were placed side by side, butting 
into each other in such a manner that privacy was im- 
possible; modern two-story dwellings side by side with 
two- and three-room shacks, built from the leavings of 
the mine-timber dumps; no trees or grass plots, except 
an occasional one around the company 's office. The food- 
supply was in many instances nearly impossible. If 
more than one company were operating in the town, one 
had to trade at the store operated by the company for 
which he was working, or 'get his time'. Such were the 
conditions to be endured by the married miner; for the 


single man, there was the choice of living with one of 
these families, or in the company's boarding-house. 
Many of the children, owing to their environment, were 
unclean and sickly. The public schools, when they had 
such institutions, were held in buildings that no longer 
would serve for any other purpose. 

The disorderliness of the town was reflected in the 
mines. Costly and intricate pieces of machinery were 
housed in ramshackle buildings, little care or attention 
being given to their up-keep until they wore out through 
misuse, when they were replaced ; a costly procedure for 
the mining company. The dry-house or change-house 
consisted, in many individual cases, of two or three nails 
driven up behind the boiler in the vain hope that one's 
clothes would dry over-night. The tools, such as drilling- 
machines, saws, axes, shovels, picks, and drill-steel, were 
more often to be found in the waste-piles than at the 
working-places ; and everywhere one found a tired, dis- 
gruntled, and decidedly discouraged bunch of men. They 
would come to work tired in the morning; would put in 
most of their time grumbling at the lack of tools, lack of 
air-pressure, lack of ventilation, or general cussedness of 
the shift-boss, as the case might be ; working along so as 
barely to exceed the minimum acceptable amount of work 
necessary to draw a day's pay; and go home no more 
tired than they came to work in the morning. In the 



July 2, 1921 

evening, for rest and relaxation, there were the saloons, 
gambling-houses, or similar forms of amusement. There 
was no thought of the morrow, or if at all it was to find 
forgetfulness of the work and surroundings, if only for 
a few moments. 

This program would be continued day after day, until, 
if the miner were single, he would leave for some other 
camp; eventually developing into a 'tramp' miner, or 
'ten-day' man. The tramp miner is, in many instances, 
a good miner and the ODly thing to be said against him 
is that he does not stay long enough to become acquainted 
with the company's methods of operation; consequently 
it never receives as much value from him in return for 
the money invested as it would were the company to de- 


velop in him a desire to remain in that particular locality. 

If the miner were a married man with responsibilities 
that would not allow of his leaving for other camps, he 
would often develop into a chronic grouch and kicker. 
Frequently such men were the only ones available for the 
positions of less responsibility and their disgruntled atti- 
tude was reflected by all the men under them with whom 
they came in contact. 

In the army we would say that an outfit in which con- 
ditions approximated those just described had a decid- 
edly low morale. 

Imagine then the difference in the mental attitude of 
a miner, both, toward his work and his home life, when 
living in a town such as the one just described and when 
living in a town where the operating company has taken 
pains and care to build clean well-appointed houses ; 
where there are wide and well-lighted streets ; where the 
sanitary conditions are good; where the water is clean 
and purified before it is allowed to enter the mains; 
where the disposal of garbage is a daily ritual ; where the 
supply of food is the best ; and where the best obtainable 
instruction and care is given to growing children. 

He goes to work from a clean home, or an equally clean 
boarding-house; changes clothes in an airy and well- 
appointed drying-chamber; and goes underground with 
the impression that the surface conditions around the 
mine are clean and orderly, and consequently he will un- 
consciously try to maintain those same conditions under- 
ground. Arriving at his working-place he finds his tools 
sharpened and the shift -boss has a 'Good morning' for 
him. Things begin to pick up, even for the tramp miner ; 
he can do more work with less effort, and the funny part 
of it is he will do more and better work; he has a high 

When he goes off-shift he again changes his clothes, 
hangs up his digging-clothes in the locker or on a chain, 
sure that they will be dry 
for the morning. 

The care of the injured 
miner has always received 
more or less attention. Now- 
adays the miner in such a 
mine knows that every pre- 
caution has been taken to 
prevent his being hurt, but, 
that should an accident hap- 
pen, every arrangement has 
been made to take care of 
him. Perhaps he himself 
has been instructed in first- 
aid and mine-rescue work; 
in any event, some one work- 
ing near him has, as it is a 
rule in many larger mines 
that at least 20% of the men 
must have had first-aid 
training. Arriving at the 
surface he is immediately 
taken to a dispensary, where 
his dressings are completed 
by a nurse, and, in some instances, a physician ; and from 
there he goes to a hospital. In many cases the nurse on 
duty at the dispensary, called the visiting nurse, looks 
to the health and welfare of the miner's family, thereby 
relieving him of worries in that respect. 

In the evening, after work, he has at his disposal a 
club-house, where he will be sure to find some congenial 
soul ready for a game of pool, or a good talk. If he so 
desires, he can go to the company's library, where he will 
find many books dealing with any subject in which he 
may be interested. In the club-house there is generally 
a room that is used for motion-pictures, open to the pub- 
lic. Two or three times a week in the summer the town 
band will give concerts in the park, and in the winter 
there are dances. 

The old adage, that "all work and no play makes Jack 
a dull boy" is applicable to all lines of industry, but 
especially to mining, where one spends practically one- 
third oi his time underground. Many of the safety en- 
gineers appreciate this fact and act accordingly. 

The Chambers of Commerce, in the more progressive 
mining camps, realizing the call of youth for more and 

July 2, 192] 



diversified forms of industry, are inviting the establish- 
ment of faetories in order that both the younger and 
older generations may find congenial employment and 
remain at home. 

Of course, neither of the conditions described are to be 
found in their entirety in any one mining camp. How- 
ever, in the old days there were more camps to which the 
former description would apply. Nowadays conditions 
are rapidly changing, and there are many camps to which 
t he latter description could be applied. A visit to one 
of these newer camps is indeed a revelation and they must 
be seen to be fully appreciated. 

Industrial morale, then, is obtained and maintained 
by the proper attention to the miner's work, his living 
accommodations, and his recreations. Regarding the 
first, he will generally accept dictation from the company, 
as he feels that this is the company's right, as they pay 
him for his work. Any interference with his home life, 
living conditions, or recreation is a subject rife with 
trouble. Too often the choice of the occupant for the 
safety engineer's position has not been a happy one, as 
he has sometimes left the impression that the company 
was adopting a patronizing or charitable attitude toward 
the miner. This was regrettable, for the subject must be 
approached from the right angle of pride in their work 
and pride in the town. 

Mining in Bolivia 

Bolivia is the third largest of the South American re- 
publics, states a consular report, having an estimated area 
of 708,195 square miles; some of the frontiers have not 
yet been definitely established so that the exact area is 
not known. It has an estimated population of 2,820,000, 
or about four persons per square mile, being one of the 
most sparsely settled of the South American countries. 
About 80% of the population is said to be native Indian, 
10% mixed blood, and 10% white, of Spanish descent. 
Most of the population is found in the plateau region, 
which covers an area of about 40,000 square miles and lies 
at an elevation of 12,000 ft. above sea-level. 

La Paz, with a population of 107,000, is the seat of 
government, is the largest city and most important dis- 
tributing centre in the country, and has an elevation of 
12,000 ft. above sea-level; Oruro, with a population of 
31,360, is 12,000 ft. above sea-level, is the centre of the 
mining district, and ranks second commercially and as a 
distributing centre ; Potosi, with a population of 30,000, 
lies at an elevation of 13,000 ft., and is immediately sur- 
rounded by important and productive mines for which it 
is the distributing centre ; Cochabamba, with a population 
of 30,800, lies on the eastern slope of the Andes, 8000 ft. 
above sea-level and, being the terminus of the railway, is, 
to a certain extent, the distributing centre for eastern 
Bolivia, though most of the imports for that region are 
brought in through Brazil and Argentina ; Sucre, the 
nominal capital of Bolivia, has a population of 29,437, 
lies on the eastern slope of the Andes at an elevation of 
8500 ft., and is of little commercial importance; Santa 

Cruz, with a population of about 30,000, is in the low- 
lying region of eastern Bolivia at an elevation of 1500 ft., 
and is in the midst of a region that has a great agri- 
cultural future, but at the present time, owing to lack of 
transportation facilities, is cut off from the rest of the 

The principal wealth of Bolivia at the present time is 
its mines of silver, tin, copper, wolfram, antimony, and 
bismuth. The principal exports are tin, rubber, copper, 
silver, bismuth, wolfram, antimony, lead, and wool. The 
principal imports are machinery, foodstuffs, live stock, 
and textiles. The normal rate of exchange is 2.57 
bolivianos to the dollar. Bolivia is not a country that 
could live on its own resources; therefore, its foreign 
trade is of vital importance. There is no home market for 
its mineral production, practically all of which must be 
exported. Few manufactured articles are made in the 
country and not enough foodstuffs are produced to sup- 
ply the home demand, so that for both manufactured 
articles and foodstuffs it is dependent upon imports. It 
has no direct outlet to the sea, so that all its foreign trade 
must go through the four surrounding countries, Peru, 
Chile, Argentina, and Brazil. A greater part of both the 
exports and imports passes through Chile, which offers 
the best transportation facilities, and the shortest and 
easiest outlet to the sea. Great Britain in 1919 still held 
first place in Bolivian export trade, taking 31% of the 
volume and a little over 49% of the value. The principal 
articles exported to Great Britain were tin and silver. 
The United States, which in 1913 held sixth place, has 
held since 1915 second place in the export trade. In 1919 
the United States took 45% of the volume and 41% of the 
value of the entire export trade of Bolivia. The prin- 
cipal articles purchased were tin, valued at $16,186,798, 
and rubber, valued at $2,660,110. Tin has always occu- 
pied the most important position, representing, in 1913, 
72% of the value of all exports and, in 1919, 69% of the 
value of all exports. Until about 30 years ago silver 
was the chief article of export ; but, since the development 
of the old silver mines as tin mines, silver is no longer of 
such importance, though it is still a leading industry of 
the country. During 1919 tin ores, concentrates, and 
bars valued at $3,794,363 were purchased by the United 
States. This item is greatly in excess of any other item 
of export. Copper ore ranked next in importance, and 
wolfram held third place. Very little wolfram- or tung- 
sten-bearing ores have been exported during 1920. Silver 
products held fourth place in point of value. 

To provide fuel for the use of the Alaskan Engineer- 
ing Commission, coal mining was continued in 1919 in the 
Matanuska field, Alaska, on about the same scale as in 
previous years. Near this field and also tributary to the 
Government railroad, is the Willow Creek gold district, 
where large auriferous lodes are being exploited. These 
mining developments are described in a pamphlet by 
Theodore Chapin entitled 'Mining in the Matanuska Coal 
Fields and the Willow Creek District, Alaska, ' issued by 
the U. S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior. 



July 2, 1921 

Sampling of Bullion 

By R. R. Kahan 

*The three methods of bullion sampling that are com- 
monly employed are: (1) by means of a dip-sample; 
(2) by means of clip- or chip-samples; (3) by drilling 
the bar. 

Dip-Samples. If the bullion is melted at the correct 
temperature and properly stirred, the dip taken should 
represent the mass of the bullion, provided the bullion 
is poured immediately after dipping. This is important ; 
there should be no time for further refinement of the 
bullion by the fluxes, or reduction of oxides by the 
plumbago crucible. The dip-sample may not represent 
the mass of the bullion because, compared to the resulting 
bar of bullion, the dip has a large surface ; oxidation has 
a greater effect on the dip than on the bar during the 
time that elapses before quenching. Again, if the ox- 
ides are dissolved in quenching, the dip is partly refined ; 
if the oxides are not dissolved, the dip is debased. A 
little slag adhering to the dip will vitiate the assay if not 
carefully removed from the assay piece. 

Clip- or Chip-Samples. These can only be taken from 
bullion which is homogeneous ; if any liquation has taken 
place they are unreliable. As a preliminary to taking 
the sample it is advisable to clean the outer surface of 
the bar with a file or scratch brush; the sample should 
be taken over a moderate depth and large area. 

Drill-Samples. These are similar to elip-samples, but 
are more difficult to take, particularly when a large 
number has to be taken. Unless great care is exercised 
contamination is liable. Drill-samples are suitable in 
the case in which a bar is suspected of being non-homo- 
geneous, and which it is not convenient to re-melt. A 
sufficient number of samples can be made to give a fairly 
accurate result. 

No single method of sampling is applicable to all 
classes of bullion produced. A dip-sample usually gives 
a slightly high result, and a clip-sample a slightly low re- 
sult ; drill-samples are not used to any extent where 
large numbers of samples of all classes of bullion are 
taken. The word 'slightly' has been used because it is 
only by examining a large number of results that the 
difference can be noticed. With fin'e gold it is a different 
matter, as it makes no difference if a dip-, clip-, or a 
drill-sample is taken, provided all precautions are ob- 
served with each kind of sample. 

At the proposed refinery the bar will be melted with 
suitable fluxes; when at the correct temperature it will 
be thoroughly mixed with a specially shaped plumbago 
stirrer, which has the effect of lifting the molten metal 
from the bottom of the crucible, not simply setting up a 
circular motion in the molten metal. Dip-samples will 
then be taken with a dipping-iron so constructed that 
the samples will be taken simultaneously from different 

•Abstracted from a contribution to the discussion ot a 
paper on the subject, read before the Chemical, Metallurgical 
& Mining Society ot South Africa. 

depths of the molten metal. The dips will be quenched 
in water, and the bullion, after pouring into ingots of 
300 to 350 oz., will be quenched in water slightly acidified 
with sulphuric acid. 

The bars, after cleaning, will be sampled in the pres- 
ence of two persons, by taking elip-samples from different 
ingots. Half the number of elip-samples and half the 
number of the dip-samples will be sent to one assayer, 
and the remainder of the samples will be sent to another 
assayer. Each assayer will obtain his results by using 
different furnaces, different apparatus, and even different 
methods of weighing, and different proof gold for obtain- 
ing the surcharge corrections. In fact, the assay reports 
will be obtained in different assay offices using methods 
as different as is possible in bullion assaying. Then if, 
when the reports by each assayer are finally brought to- 
gether, it is found that the clip-assays agree within limits, 
and the dip-assays agree within limits, and finally if the 
mean of the clip-reports and the mean of the dip-reports 
agree within certain limits, the mean of the clip- and 
dip-reports is taken as the fineness of the bar. If for 
any reason the assay report on any sample is suspected of 
being inaccurate, a repeat assay is made on the same 
sample ; and if the inaccuracy of the original report is 
confirmed, the new result is substituted before obtaining 
the final result. 

"When the various assay reports considered do not 
agree, the bar is subjected to further treatment, which 
may consist of re-melting the bars or of subjecting them 
to a preliminary refining. Generally, when concordant 
assay results are not obtained, the cause is due to the 
presence of an excess of base metal, which must be re- 
moved ; this is done by preliminary refining. It is im- 
portant to notice that reliance will not be placed entirely 
on dip-samples. The dip-samples become separated from 
the bars before final dispatch to the assayers, and there 
are possibilities of transposition. Clip-samples are al- 
ways sent in conjunction with dip-samples, so that an 
error of this nature is easily detected. 

I agree with the .suggestion that, with the establish- 
ment of the Rand refinery, an effort should be made to 
standardize methods in all assay offices. It may be taken 
for granted that the refinery staff will at all times be 
prepared to discuss standard methods. A portion of the 
equipment of the refinery consists of sets of troy weights 
and assay weights standardized by the National Physical 
Laboratory; in due course it should be possible to ar- 
range for the periodical checking of weights. Also the 
refinery will have a fine-gold trial-plate certified by the 
Board of Trade, England. 

The refinery will use platinum parting trays to part 
72 assays at one time. With platinum at £26 per ounce 
such a tray, without the cups, cost £257 ; a full set of 72 
platinum cups for such a tray costs another £221. A 
satisfactory arrangement is to have a platinum tray and 
silica cups. The silica cups cost about 3s. each, against, 
say, £3 each for platinum cups, and are probably better 
for working; the gold cornets never adhere to the silica 
as they sometimes do to the platinum. 

Juh 2, 1921 










According to a recent report the Calumet & Hecla Co. is 
in position to make 1.500,000 lb. of copper per month at a 
cost not in excess of 7c. per pound at its 'reclamation' plant. 
It Is in this department that the sand from Torch lake is 
treated — sand that in the 50 years of mining prior to 1915 
was considered waste and was discarded. It averages 
over 10 lb. of copper per ton, but in the old days when 
Calumet & Hecla was mining 'rock' that ran 50 to 100 lb. 
per ton and above, it was not considered wcrth saving. 
In 1913 when the company began to prepare for the treat- 
ment of this sand, its engineers estimated there was 40,- 
000,000 tons on the lake bottom which would yield at least 
500,000,000 lb. of copper; or, based on a treatment of 
slightly under 4000 tons per day, it would take 30 years to 
exhaust the deposit. 

In 1920 over 1,378,000 tons of this sand was treated, 
an average of 3775 tons daily, resulting in a production of 
14,138,240 lb. of copper, or an average of 10.26 lb. per ton 
of sand. This metal was recovered at a total cost of but 
6.6c. per pound, or lc. per pound less than in the preceding 
year. In 1915 when operations were first started, 181,73 2 
tons was treated, producing 1,582,000 lb. of copper at a 
cost of 4c. per pound. The following table shows the record 
to date: 

Sand treated. Production. Production, 

tons lb. lb. per ton Cost 

1920 1.378.500 14.138.240 10.28 6.6c. 

1819 915.659 9.082.952 9.93 7.6 

1918 715.007 9.245.388 12.93 7.2 

1917 730.543 9.075,457 12.42 6.9 

1916 545.737 5.412.649 9.93 4.5 

1915 181.733 1.582.803 8.71 4.0 


That the Ontario government will give substantial aid to 
the construction of the Northern Light railway is regarded 
as certain, the only question being whether it will take the 
form of a subscription to bonds or a straight cash bonus. 
The matter is under consideration by the Cabinet and a de- 
cision is expected in about two weeks. In the meantime 
13 miles of the route through the townships of Teck, Lebel, 
and Ganthier, in the Kirkland Lake district, have been sur- 
veyed. The probability of the construction of the road has 
given a great impetus to prospecting, and many claims near 
the projected route which would have been of little value 
without transportation are being staked. A rush of pros- 
pectors has set in to Holmes Township, 20 miles west of 
Kirkland, on the proposed line where a discovery of gold 
was made last fall. 


Chloride. — The most recent report of S. F. Eaton, super- 
intendent of the Dardanelles mine, says "further work on 
the new ore-shoot to the extreme north shows a foot-wall 
streak of quartz averaging $40. One lense toward the hang- 
ing wall assays over $300. A raise has been driven 15 ft. 
on the foot-wall and some lateral work has been done here. 
We have ore in both these faces. The vein shows a distinct 
split on the level just beyond this raise and we are now 
driving north to determine its course. Ore-platforms are 

practically full and we will soon have to build an addition. 
We have on hand nearly $2000 worth of shipping ore. Ari- 
zona copper-smelters having closed down for the time being 
it is best to hold this ore. The total cost of freight to and 
treatment at a Utah smelter would be nearly $3 per ton 
This decreases our profit on $45 ore from $30 to $15 per 
ton. For this reason we are accumulating shipping ore at 
the surface and in the mine, thus building up a tangible 
liquid asset which can be realized on as soon as the Arizona 
smelters resume operations. 

Jerome. — The passing of its dividend for the second 
quarter of 1921 by the United Verde Extension company 
was not necessitated by the condition of its treasury. With 
about $3,000,000 government bonds and $500,000 cash the 
financial position of the company is at once apparent. It 
also has coming due within the next few weeks some $3 00,- 
000 for copper sold, while other items swell the current 
assets to above $5,000,000. And by including its copper 
surplus, running above 20,000,000 lb., the company has an- 
other current asset which would increase the total to around 
$8,000,000. United Verde Extension fared relatively well 
in May, with sales aggregating 5,000,000 pounds. 

Oatman. — Fire swept the town on June 27, leaving only 
half a dozen buildings standing among the smoldering ruins 
of the commercial district. The damage will run from 
$250,000 to $500,000, with practically no insurance. None 
of the mines or mine buildings was damaged. Important 
among the business houses burned were: St. Francis hotel, 
Grimes hotel, Oatman hotel, Kittleaon hardware store, Far- 
row-Stockpool Auto Motor Co., Fisher building, garage, ice- 
plant, Oatman Theatre, and numerous warehouses. The fire 
was discovered at 2:15 p.m. in the annex of the St. Francis 
hotel, and it spread to adjoining buildings, most of which 
were structures of from one to three stories. As far as is 
known no lives were lost, but several persons were painfully 

Oatman. — Operations are to be resumed by the Nancy Lee 
Mining Co. The main vein is opened by an adit from which 
$20 ore was stoped some years ago. A compressor will be 
installed for the work about to be done. 

Pearce. — Floyd Rash and Joe Mathews have opened a 
large body of high-grade silver-lead ore in the mine owned 
by George Bignon and Joe Dickstein, which they are work- 
ing under bond and lease. Two cars of $50 ore have already 
been saved. The mine is 15 miles from here and adjoins 
the old Golden Rule property. 

Tucson. — T. H. O'Brien, general manager for the Inspira- 
tion Consolidated company, expresses the belief that the 
mines of the company will not be re-opened before the first 
of next year. He is quoted as saying: 

"Our company at Inspiration is at present developing the 
west orebody known as the Live Oak. We are preparing to 
sink the Live Oak shaft as well as the Porphyry shaft of the 
Porphyry Consolidated Copper Co., which we recently ac- 
quired and which will connect up with the lower levels of 
the Live Oak orebody." 


Angels Camp. — The Carson Hill Gold Mining Co. has 
established a new record for ore treated. During the month 



July 2, 1921 

of May 15,070 tons of ore was crushed in the 30-stamp mill, 
making an average stamp-duty of 18.5 tons per stamp. The 
sinking of the Melones winze below the 3500-ft. level is 
progressing steadily. 

CarTville. — Axel Carlson and Julius Love have taken a 
contract to drive a 1200-ft. adit and a 400-ft. raise in the 
Golden Jubilee mine on Coffee creek. The property has re- 
cently changed hands and the new owners plan energetic 

Colfax. — The Rising Sun Consolidated Mines Co. has sus- 
pended production and will unwater the mine below the 
700-ft. level. Sinking will be resumed in the main shaft. 

Placer operations at the Glenn mine, six miles east of 
Last Chance, are giving good returns. Owners state that 10 
carloads of gravel, of an estimated value of $20 per car, 
have been extracted this season. About 8000 ft. of tunnel 
and drifts has been driven by the present management. 

Grass Valley. — After six years of work, during which 
$600,000 was spent, the Grass Valley Consolidated Mines Co. 
has decided to abandon the Allison Ranch mine. The pumps 
are being withdrawn and the mine will fill with water. 

W. S. Tevis, prominent San Francisco capitalist, has ac- 
quired a large interest in the Alcalde gold mine, situated 
about four miles below Grass Valley. Preparations are being 
made to sink a vertical shaft and for installation of a mod- 
ern mine-plant. 

The Mineworkers' Protective League has offered to accept 
a reduction of 50c. per day in wages, but refuses to consider 
the $1 cut made by the operators. Conferences are being 
held in an endeavor to reach a compromise and prevent a 
threatened walkout. Many of the leading companies have 
already cut their forces and are apparently preparing for a 
total suspension of operations. 

Haydon Hill. — H. P. Anderson, owner of the Consolidated 
mine, situated near the Juniper, where rich ore has recently 
been found, announces that he will commence development 
on his property. 

Murphys. — E. C. Norris, of Los Angeles, states that he 
has $400,000 available for the development of the Murphys 
Flat and Ora Plata mines. It is planned to run a long adit 
from the San Domingo side of the hill. 

Redding. — Rehabilitation of the famous Black Bear mine, 
near Yreka, has been undertaken by F. A. Gowing of Pied- 
mont and associates. The old tunnels are being cleared and 
the surface equipment overhauled. The Black Bear was a 
prominent producer of gold in the pioneer days of Siskiyou 
county and for several y^ars was one of the leading gold 
mines of California. 


Coenr d'Alene. — Another find that may prove Important 
Is reported in the Alhambra mine. The shoot is said to be 
three feet wide, showing high-grade gray-copper ore, on the 
hanging-wall side, which is about 29 ft. wide. The east 
drift on the property is some 4000 ft. long and in that dis- 
tance three different ore-shoots have been cut. One shoot, 
200 ft. long, carrying gray copper, was opened some time 
ago and another shoot 40 ft. long was exposed recently. 
The company is overhauling its mill. 

Galena ore has been found in the property of the Red 
Monarch Consolidated Mining Co. adjoining the Callahan in 
the Beaver district. The body is said to be 22 in. wide. At 
the point of discovery its width was little greater than that 
of a knife-blade. The winze followed ore for 15 to 20 ft. 
Development was started at a point 50 ft. from the main 
cross-cut. This is at a depth of 1000 ft. and near the 2900- 
ft. point in the tunnel. 

George Austin, manager for the Rainbow Mining & Mill- 
ing Co., has let a contract for 50 ft. of sinking on a showing 
of silver-lead-zinc ore at a point in the tunnel 250 ft. from 
its portal. The company also will raise on copper ore ex- 

posed in the last 209 ft. of drifting to a point 1300 ft. from 
the portal of the tunnel. 

The Rex Consolidated Mining Co. is proceeding with the 
development of its property in the Nine Mile section, ac- 
cording to B. P. Murray, superintendent. A drift on the 
Okanogan vein has been advanced 60 ft. at the 400-ft. depth. 


Houghton. — The Quincy is one mine that will be in splen- 
did shape to resume operations when the copper market 
revives. With the improvements that have been made in 
the mills and smelters, and underground conditions never 
better, Quincy will be in a position to effect a considerable 
saving in cost. Quincy's new furnace, having a capacity of 
150,000 lb. of copper daily, will be completely equipped 
within a month's time. It has been partly in use, but its 
casting equipment has not been wholly installed. The fur- 
nace is of a type similar to those in use at the Michigan and 
Calumet & Hecla smelters, with certain improvements which 
contribute to economy of operation. All material to com- 
plete the furnace is on the ground, but the work is being 
proceeded with leisurely, as there is no particular necessity 
for speed. 

In the milling plant all but one of the five units have 
been equipped with re-grinding machinery, which resulted 
last year in a 10% saving, increasing the copper yield by 
that much. The one unit not so equipped has been re- 
modeled, however, and is ready for the installation of re- 
grinding equipment. 

Underground, Quincy 'rock' is showing increasing rich- 
ness with depth. Advantage has been taken of the lull in 
the copper demand to extend the openings and deepen the 
shafts, and the mine now perhaps is more extensively opened, 
so far as new drifts are concerned, than ever before. Last 
year the tenor of the 'rock' stamped was 7.36% higher than 
that treated the preceding year. 

Progress is being made with the Calumet & Hecla geo- 
logical survey, although it is yet too early to say whether 
or not its objective will be reached. A corps of eminent 
geologists and mineralogists are engaged in this research, 
which is primarily to discover, if possible, the orign of the 
Lake Superior copper deposits and the manner in which they 
were laid down. Many data are being collected, not only 
in the mines of the Calumet & Hecla, but in other properties 
of the district. It is possible that before the investigation 
is completed that old theories will be shattered. It is the 
hope of Calumet & Hecla to establish certain fundamental 
facts that will greatly aid in the uncovering of new copper 
deposits, therby doing away to a large extent with the 
present hit-or-miss methods of exploration and development 
which have proved so costly in the past. 

No metal to speak of is now moving out of the district. 
No new orders have been received of late and practically 
all copper heretofore ordered has been shipped. Calumet 
& Hecla has one carload of wire bars to go out to a Middle- 
West concern, consisting of 80,000 lb. This completes all 
of its metal orders. Twenty-five men were laid off at the 
Calumet & Hecla smelter this week, but about 200 are still 
employed. Seven furnaces out of twenty-four are in opera- 
tion, but it is possible that some of these will be shut-down. 
The depression in the district caused by the closing of the 
majority of the mines has given an impetus to farming and 
many new farms are being started. It is estimated that 5 00 
new farms will have been taken up here this year. 


Deer Lodge. — The new ball-mill in the concentrator at the 
Champion mine of the Butte-Jardine company is grinding 
12 5 tons per day. The plant is equipped with Dorr classi- 
fiers, Janney flotation machines, and a Portland filter. The 
concentrate averages $280 per ton. Ore rich in silver sas 
been entered in the face of the 1700-ft. tunnel. 

.Julv 2, 1921 



Jens. — At the Forest Rose mine, owned by the Butte & 
Western Mining Co.. sufficient ore has been developed to 
warrant the erection of a concentrator. In addition to 
second-class ore some high-grade Is being saved. 

Moby. — Oscar Nordquist, superintendent of the Lukens- 
Hazel mine, has purchased a new pump which will be In- 
stalled in the shaft at a point about 50 ft. below the main 
tunnel. Sinking is progressing at the rate of about 2 J ft. 
per day. 

N'Hhart. — Ore is being shipped from the Hartley mine 
and from the Ludlum mine, being operated by L. Heitman. 
Lessees are at work at the Big Seven and Gait properties. 


Arrowhead. — Ore 8 ft. wide and estimated to be of mill- 
grade for this width, with an 8-in. seam of rich material, has 

Ixvtdvillc. — The fourth shipment of concentrate has been 
made by the Leadvllle Mines Co., operating in northern 
Washoe county, 40 miles from Gerlach, on the Western 
Pacific. The concentrate Is sent to the Western Ore Pur- 
chasing Co. sampler at Hazen. These shipments average 
about 215 oz. silver and 50% lead per ton, and the net value 
of each shipment is $6500 to $7000. The mill-heads assay 
20 oz. and, treating 30 tons of ore daily, three tons of con- 
centrate is produced. An electric locomotive is used to haul 
the ore through a 1700-ft. tunnel to the mill. The ore is a 
sulphide that is treated by flotation. 

Round Mountain. — The second shipment of bullion from 
the Round Mountain placer mine was sent to Tonopah a few 
days ago. It had an estimated value of $21,000. 

Silverhorn. — A new And of ore that assays $42 per ton 
across two feet ha3 been found near the south boundary line 

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Nordberg Blowing-Engine at the El Paso Smelter 

teen found in a winze at a depth of 3 80 ft. in the Arrow- 
head, the greatest depth at which work has been done. The 
winze is being sunk a short distance west of the shaft. 

Goldfield. — Donald and Giles, Florence lessees, now have 
exposed in the hanging wall of the Reilly stope a 12-ft. shoot 
•of ore. This ore is on both walls of a vein about five feet 
wide, with a 3-ft. width of gangue between. The last sam- 
ples taken gave: Foot-wall, 10 in., from face of drift, $536. 
Hanging wall, 16 in., $112; 2 in., $11,000. An assay taken 
over an area of 5 by 1 ft. in the back of the drift gave $480; 
8 by 1 ft., $2744; 12 ft. by 6 in., $142. The $11,000 ore 
is being sacked for shipment to Selby. The ore is at a 
depth of 265 ft. The Silver Pick has opened a promis- 
ing orebody in the foot-wall of the Red Top vein in ground 
leased from the Consolidated. About 3 tons of ore esti- 
mated to average $50 to $75 per ton has been broken in a 
'3 5-ft. drift. The And was made at a depth of 265 feet. 

of the Silver Dale group, about 600 ft. south of the Huson 
shaft, where the first rich ore was found. Development is 
now under way to determine if the new find is on the exten- 
sion of the main vein, or on an entirely different one. De- 
velopment continues in the north cross-cut on the 50-ft. level 
of the Huson shaft and in the tunnel below which gives 100 

ft. of 'backs' on the vein. Ore running from $11 to $14 

per ton i3 reported from the Nickel group of the Silver Horn 
Mining & Development Co., controlled by Robert Mulford, of 
New Tork. 

Spring Valley. — Rich silver-gold ore has been found in a 
new district called Millick, in south-eastern White Pine 
county. The find was made by John D. Tilford on claims in 
which Richard and Arnold Millick and John Krotzer are 
interested. There has been a rush into the district and 
hundreds of claims have been located. The rich ore was 
found on the surface. 



July 2, 1921 

Xonopah. — The 50-ton mil] of the Consolidated Spanish 
Belt has been nearly completed, 45 miles north of here and 
near Manhattan. Wet concentration and flotation will be 
the processes used in treating ore containing silver, gold, 
copper, and lead. The ore, after passing over the concen- 
trators, where tests indicate 60% of the metallic content will 
be recovered, will be treated by flotation. The crushing 
equipment consists of ten 1050-lb. stamps. The nearest rail- 
road point is Tonopah and all of the mill machinery was 
hauled from here. The mine is in condition for a steady 
production of ore from the workings above the main tunnel, 
which connects with the 525-ft. San Pedro shaft at 2400 ft. 
from the portal. 

A 3 to 4-ft. width of 125-oz. ore has been opened in the 
Olsen lease on the Halifax at a point a short distance above 
the 1000-ft. level. A 1-ft. width assays $750. This is said 
to be the highest-grade ore ever found in equal quantity in 
the eastern part of the Tonopah district and if it develops to 
be more than a pocket it will mean a big jump eastward for 
the line of the proved ore-zone. 

Fifty State policemen, 25 of them in uniform, arrived from 
Reno on June 27 to assume charge of the strike situation 
here. The police were sent following complaints by the 
Tonopah Belmont and Tonopah Extension mining companies 
that their men have been frequently assaulted and intimi- 
dated. They have a total of 350 men working. Governor 
Boyle notified the mine-owners that the workers are en- 
titled to protection and the State will see that it is given 
them. Miners and millmen are said by the owners to be 
arriving in Tonopah to act as strike-breakers. The strike 
ha3 been on since April 16. 

Virginia City. — Guided by R. H. Elliott, Western manager 
for the Metals Exploration Co., and with Henry Rives, secre- 
tary of the Nevada Mine Owners' Association, Roy Hardy 
and Edward Higgings, of the United Comstock Mines Co., and 
G. H. Hutton, manager for the Canyon Dredging Co., sixty 
members of the San Francisco section of the American In- 
stutute of Mining Engineers visited the project of the United 
Comstock Co. on the American Flat, south of Gold Hill and 
the gold-dredging operations near Dayton on June 27. A 
business meeting at Minden and a visit to the North End 
mines completed the program. 


Alta. — R. O. Dobbs, manager of the Louise mine, states 
that high-grade ore has been cut in the connection made 
between two raises from the Maggie tunnel. The ore, 
which is galena, lies along the Cardiff overthrust between 
the Defiance fissure and a minor fault. On June 21. the first 
train to arrive in camp over the Little Cottonwood Trans- 
portation line marked the beginning of the shipping season 
of 1921. 

American Fork Canyon. — John Cleghorn, manager for the 
Globe Consolidated Mining Co., announces that operations 
have been resumed. Last season, 5 50 ft. of development 
work was done. In the No. 2 fissure, a small quantity of 
ore was uncovered last year that averaged 99 oz. in silver, 

$1.80 in gold, and 72% lead. Excellent progress is being 

made in driving the Holden tunnel by the American Leasing 
Co., which is developing the Bellorophon and Live Yankee 
properties, according to C. B. Ferlin, manager. The com- 
pany is driving the tunnel to cut the downward extension 
of a rich shoot opened last year in a raise. 

At the Pittsburgh mine, in the main canyon, a force of 
men is cleaning up the workings, preparatory to resumption 
of development. W. J. Craig is in charge of the work. This 
property is at an elevation of 10,200 ft., and there has been 
snow on the ground until recently. 

Eureka. — The directors of the Tintic Standard Mining Co. 
have declared a dividend of 5c. per share, payable July 9 
to stockholders of record July 1. Last quarter the same 
amount was distributed. This disbursement will bring the 

grand total of dividends to $1,538,332. Ore shipments 

from this district for the week ending June 18 totaled 137 
cars, of which the Tintic Standard shipped 49; Chief Con- 
solidated, 39; Dragon, 14; Eagle & Blue Bell, 7; Iron 
Blossom, 6; Iron King, 6; Colorado, 5; Mammoth, 4; Vic- 
toria, 4; Swansea, 4; Eureka Mines, 1; Martha Washington, 

A night shift, consisting of 50 men, has been put on at the 
Blue Bell and Victoria mines, owned by the Bingham Mines 
Co. This action followed the announcement by the Amer- 
ican Smelting & Refining Co. that it would again receive ore 
from these two mines. Late in March, the mines were in- 
formed that only 50 tons of ore per day would be accepted. 
It is stated that some of the richest silver-lead ore ever 
opened in the Tintic district is now exposed in the stopes of 
the two mines, but on account of the low price of lead, this 
ore has not been marketed. 

Mining operations were started in the Swansea Consoli- 
dated property by the Tintic Milling Co. on June 19, accord- 
ing to Theodore P. Holt, superintendent for the latter com- 
pany. For the past two months a force of men has been re- 
pairing the shaft down to the 500-ft. level of the Swansea, 
and an electric hoist and compressor have been installed. 
The first work will be on the 500-ft. level, where there is 
said to be a large tonnage of milling-grade ore. 

Rapid progress is being made in the sinking of the shaft 
at the Independence mine, in the eastern part of the district 
During the first twenty-one days of June, the shaft was sunk 
72 ft., with but one shift employed. The shaft is now at a 
depth of 400 ft., and will be sunk to the 500-ft. level. 

Moab. — W. S. Skelly and associates of Salt Lake City are 
at Cisco, making preparations to start operations on the 
placer properties there. Operations will be undertaken on 
the Butte and Helen claims. The intention is to put in a 
Walling machine, with a capacity of ten tons per hour. The 
sand is said to average 90c. in gold and 70c. in platinum. 

Ophir. — James Worthing, superintendent of the Ophir 
Silver mine, reports that the shoot of shipping ore in the 
second Buckhorn fissure has widened and grown richer. The 
ore averages now $50 per ton. A new compressor is being 

installed. At the Ophir Hill Consolidated property, about 

150 men are now employed in the mine and mill. One car- 
load of high-grade ore is being mined per day, while the 
concentrate from the mill is being stored. 

Park City. — Shipments of ore from this district for the 
week ending June 18 totaled 887 tons, as against 1109 tons 
for the preceding period. The Judge companies shipped 382 
tons; Ontario, 286; and the Silver King Coalition, 269. 

Salt Lake City. — Ernest Bamberger, general manager for 
the Ontario Silver Mining Co., returned on June 20 from 
Washington, D. C. Mr. Bamberger attended a conference 
there, at which were present representatives of the lead 
mining and smelting industries, regarding tariff on lead 
ores, lead in copper-matte, and other forms. He feels con- 
fident that favorable tariff legislation will be passed early 
in July which will terminate the dumping of foreign metals 
and other raw materials in this country. Mr. Bamberger 
stated that during April, 12,000 tons of shrapnel was im- 
ported under the guise of type-metal, paying the low duty 
of 15% ad valorem. This material is not type-metal, but 
an antimony-lead alloy. This, he believes, in part explains 
the recent drop in the price of lead. 

In spite of the protest of the Utah Chapter of the American 
Mining Congress and numerous citizens against granting 
permit to sell 467,100 shares of stock of the Bingham- 
Galena Mining Co. at a maximum price of 75c. per share, the 
State Securities Commission granted the permission for such 
sale. The decision marks the end of one of the most hotly 
contested cases in the history of the Commission, and the 
opposition was based solely on the fact that George Graham 

.July -J. 192] 


Rice and his associates are to have charge of the selling of 
the stock. 


Northnort. — The Keystone Lead Mining Co. has been or- 
ganized to develop property consisting of a group of 12 full 
claims adjoining the Electric Point mine on the east. 

Springrinle. — Sacked silver ore from the Queen and Seal 
mine in the Deer Trail district is being stored here pending 
shipment to the smelter. The ore is high-grade and hand- 
sorted, and is being delivered by auto-truck at the rate of 
five tons per day. 


Benton. — The Nightingale Mining Co. has shut-down its 
mine on account of the constantly decreasing price for ore. 

furnaces, twelve double compartments to the block, are kept 
warm. Shipments of the manufactured product are made 
but In smaller volume than has been customary in other 

Livingston. — The Yewdall mine, operated by the Vinegar 
Hill Zinc Co.. is producing weekly about 300 tons of 30% 
zinc concentrate, this ore all going to the National Zinc Ore 
Separators, at Cuba City. The ore Is burned for sulphuric- 
acid base, and the high-grade blende recovered is being 
stored, there having been no shipments of 'commercial' zinc 
ore in two months. At the sulphuric acid plant in Cuba 
City improvements in methods have raised the grade of the 
acid, so that shipments are made weekly of three 4 0-ton 
tank-cara of 66°B. A shut-down in the plant will be ordered 
shortly and additional installations will increase the plant 

Unloading-Bridge at the Utah Copper Co.'s Leaching-Plant at Garfield 

Latest quotations put 60% zinc concentrate at $20 per ton. 
The average zinc concentrate for the district is about 30%, 
and at ruling quotations such ore would bring less than $10 
per ton. A discovery of carbonate zinc ore, sphalerite, and 
lead ore was made recently on the Sally Waters tract. The 
property is being developed and will be equipped and ready 
to ship ore when the markets improve. Robert McGuire, of 
Benton, is in charge. 

Day Siding. — The North Unity mine of the Vinegar Hill 
group is operating steadily. Shipments have been regular 
until quite recently. The mine is regarded as one of the best 
zinc producers in the field. 

Highland. — Mining properties owned by the New Jersey 
Zinc Co., have been leased to local operators, who are mining 
for carbonate-zinc ore. The New Jersey Zinc Co. has prac- 
tically abandoned most of its mining properties in the Wis- 
consin zinc-lead district. 

Mineral Point. — Operations continue at the works of the 
Mineral Point Zinc Co., on a restricted schedule. The sul- 
phuric-acid plant is shut-down but two blocks of zinc-oxide 

capacity 25%. When running full blast, this acid plant will 
produce 100 tons of acid per 24 hours. 


Barkerville. — Hydraulicking has been started at the 
Waverly. Lowhee, and First of May properties. John Hopp 
and associates are working on the Mosquito, and will start 
hydraulicking shortly. 

Nanaimo. — A branch of the Canadian Institute of Mining 
and Metallurgy has been formed here, and the following 
officers have been elected: George O'Brien, chairman; F. A. 
Spruston, vice-chairman; W. H. Moore, secretary-treasurer; 
John Johns, C. M. Campbell, C. Graham, and J. Strang, 

Sandon. — The milling capacity of the Silversmith mine 
at Sandon is being doubled. To this end 3 5 men are en- 
gaged in dismantling the Silversmith mill and enlarging the 
Ivanhoe mill, acquired by the company recently. Much of 
the equipment of the Silversmith mill is being used in the 
reconstruction of the Ivanhoe. The Ivanhoe has a capacity 



July 2, 1921 

of 50 tons daily and the Silversmith 150 tons. When altera- 
tions have been completed the Ivanhoe will have a capacity 
ot 150 to 300 tons. The Silversmith tramway will be used 
in transportation between the mine and mill, which are 4100 
ft. apart. Ore-pockets are being built at the terminals. Mill 
construction was started in May of this year and will be 
completed in the fall, it is believed. The last work done in 
the mine disclosed ore to a depth of 120 ft. below the tenth 
level. A carload of ore accumulated in cleaning the old mill 
was shipped to the Bunker Hill smelter at Kellogg, Idaho. 

Slocan. — Clarence Cunningham has been negotiating for 
property adjoining the Standard mine, and it is supposed 
that he is the purchaser ;if the Standard. He has been un- 
usually successful in rehabilitating the mines in this district 
that were considered to be worked out. The Great North- 
ern Railway Co. has notified the people of Rossland that it 
intends to abandon the branch into that town. It has been 
an expensive line to maintain, and the deficit on the operat- 
ing expenses for last year amounted to $48,000. 

Stewart. — The strike at the Premier mine has been 
settled, the men having agreed to accept the reduced wage- 
sca'.e on the understanding that living conditions shall be 
improved at the camp. As there are some 2000 tons of ore 
sacked ready for shipment, which the company was unable 
to transport while the snow laated, little or no work will be 
done in the mine for a time, but all energy will be centred 
on the completion of the mill and aerial tramway. At pres- 
ent about 200 men are employed, but probably this force 
will be doubled within the next month. Between five and 
six thousand tons of ore was sent to Tacoma last winter. 
The company refuses to give any information as to the 
tenor of this ore. The ore shipped in the winter of 1919-'20 
ran 3.175 oz. in gold and 108 oz. in silver per ton, which at 
the present price of 3ilver would give it a value of about 

$125 per ton. It is currently reported that the Guggen- 

heims have bonded the Forty-nine group. The United 

States stockholders in the Algunican syndicate, most of the 
stock of which is held in Belgium, are endeavoring to per- 
suade the Belgian shareholders to continue the work of de- 
veloping the Spider group, which is believed to be a good 
property, and one that can soon be brought to a producing 

The McAllister mine, at Three Forks, will be re-opened on 
July 1. At the start work will be confined to development, 
there being no encouragement for the production of ore at 
the present time. 


Durango. — Ore is being shipped from the old Promontorio 
mines, situated near Chinacates. These mines are owned 
by Maximiliano Dam of this city. They are among the old- 
est producing mines in Mexico. The present shipments are 
being made to the smelter of the American Smelting & Re- 
fining Co. at Chihuahua. In the Tamazula district, W. C. 

Taylor is developing a group of gold claims which are yield- 
ing good quantities of high-grade ore. The Santa Cruz 

Mining Co., an American concern, is shipping silver-lead ore 
from its mine, situated five days by mule-back from Papas- 
quiaro. S. W. Loving is manager. 

El Tigre. — The regular dividend of 5c. per share and an 
extra dividend ' of 2c. have been declared by the Lucky 
Tiger-Combination Gold Mining Co., payable to stockholders 
of record on June 10. The company owns and operates the 
El Tigre silver mine. 

Guanajuato. — A 500-hp. air-compressor for the Guana- 
juato Consolidated Mining & Milling Co. has just arrived, 
together with a number of machine-drills, a drill-sharpener, 
drill-steel, and other machinery. As soon as this compressor 
can be installed, the company expects to increase its de- 
velopment work to a great extent. Since the mill was shut- 
down in February about 750 ft. of development work per 

month has been done; the results are proving satisfactory, 
especially in the lower levels. The company hopes to de- 
velop sufficient ore of milling grade to justify increasing 
the capacity of its mill from about 7000 tons per month up 
to 10,000 tons; by treating a larger tonnage it is expected 
to reduce the cost per ounce of silver. In addition to the 
development work in the mine extensive repairs have been 
made. The tracks, wiring, hoists, etc., have been repaired 
and put in first-class condition; many of the old timbers in 
the mines are being renewed. 

Xorreon. — Two more furnaces at the smelter of the Pe- 
noles Mining Co. at Torreon were recently blown-in, making 
six furnaces that are now in operation. Ore shipments are 
coming to the smelter slowly and they may not furnish suffi- 
cient ore to keep the plant in operation for a long period. 

Zacatecas. — The Guarda group of gold-silver mines at La- 
Noria has been filed upon by Charles E. Snider, who plans to 
start work. Ore will be shipped to the smelter of the Ameri- 
can Smelting & Refining Co. at Aguas Calientes, it is stated. 
In this district George H. Davis is developing the Purisima 

mine. John O. Emerson has made application for title to 

94 mining claims in the Miguel del Mesquital district. In- 
cluded in this list of properties is the old Santa Catarina 
group which was abondoned several years ago. 


Porcupine. — At the annual meeting of the Dome Mines on 
June 14, H. P. De Pencier stated that since the issue of the 
annual report there had been a distinct improvement in the 
outlook, and production had exceeded his expectations. 
On the 10th level an ore-shoot 3 60 ft. in length had been 
developed and diamond-drilling 300 ft. below the 10th level 
gave promise of richer ore than had been so far recovered. 

The Allied Porcupine, capitalized at $5,000,000, which has 
acquired properties aggregating 720 acres, including the 
plant and mill of the Three Nations, having a daily copacity 
of 40 tons, had made plans for the continuance of lateral 
work on the 200-ft. level, including extensive cross-cutting 
to tap outcropping veins, and will also undertake diamond- 
drilling to test the vein system to a depth of 1000 ft. Cya- 

niding equipment will be added to the mill. The E. J. 

Longyear interests are planning a diamond-drilling cam- 
paign on the sand plains lying west of the known gold-bear- 
ing area and in the line of the strike of the ore deposits. As 
the discovei'y of an extension of the Sudbury nickel deposits, 
representing many millions of dollars in value, was due to 
the drilling operations carried on by the Longyear interests, 
the undertaking excites much interest. 

Skead Township. — An important find on the Skead Gold 
Mines property is reported in a pit sunk 6 ft. A channel- 
sample across 15 in. of the vein is stated to assay $79 per 

Sudbury. — The British America Nickel Corporation has 
carried through its re-financing scheme and its capital now 
comprises $600,000 first income bonds, $18,000,000 second 
income bonds, and $20,000,000 common stock. Edgar N. 
Rhodes has been appointed president and managing director. 
A Gronningsater, late chief consulting engineer, has been 
appointed technical director. The company will resume 
operations as soon as conditions are favorable. 

Toronto. — The annual meeting of the Ontario Mining As- 
sociation was held at Cobalt from June 16 to 18 with a 
large attendance. A resolution was adopted strongly 
urging the construction of the projected Northern Light 
railway opening up the mining areas east and west of 
Swastika. Officers were elected as follows: President, R. B. 
Watson, general manager for the Nipissing Mining Co.; first 
vice-president, C. V. Corliss; second vice-president, J. P. 

July 2, L921 




The Editor Invite* members of the profession to send particulars of their 
work and appointment*. The Information la interesting- to our reader*. 

Blarney Stevens is In New York. 

Henry M. Payne, of New York, is on his way to Mexico. 

Morton Webber is on his way from New York to Mexico. 

\\ illiuni K. Wright has left Mexico for Surrey, England. 

F. G. Cottrell sailed from New York for Europe on June 

Edwin Shapley, recently of Philadelphia, is at Redlands, 

J. K. MacGowan, vice-president of the Braden Copper Co., 
is in Europe. 

J. W. Hamilton has moved from Eaton, Indiana, to Hailey- 
bury, Ontario. 

E. H. Xutter, of Minerals Separation, has been in New 
York recently. 

F. W. Denton, of Cambridge, Massachusetts, is at Paines- 
dale, Michigan. 

.1. Morgan Clements is expected in New York on his re- 
turn from China. 

A. D. M. Rain, of the Braden Copper Co., Chile, was in 
New York recently. 

Frank Scheuber has moved from Melrose, Oregon, to 
Livingston. Montana. 

E. A. H. Tays has moved from Nogales, Arizona, to San 
Bias, Sinaloa, Mexico. 

William L. Boos, of San Francisco, has gone to Cam- 
bridge, Massachusetts. 

Jj. H. Goodwin, ol" New York, is in the Black Hills of South 
Dakota for two months. 

S. T. McElroy has returned to Silverhorn, Washington, 
from Mt. Montgomery, Nevada. 

H. C. Bellinger, vice-president of the Chile Copper Co., 
left Chuquicamata on June 10 for New York. 

O. F. Brinton has been appointed consulting engineer to 
the Bingham-Galena Mining Co., at Bingham, Utah. 

J. E. Bamberger, president of the Ontario Silver Mining 
Co. at Park City, Utah, is making a tour of Europe. 

W. L. Whitehead, after an extensive tour throughout 
South America, has returned to Cambridge, Massachusetts. 

F. G. Janney, general superintendent of mills for the Utah 
Copper Co., has returned to Garfield, Utah, after a month in 
the East. 

F. G. CottreU, chairman of the division of chemistry and 
chemical technology of the National Research Council, is in 

John Ij. May, of Salt Lake City, has been appointed assayer 
in charge of the Salt Lake Assay Office. He took up his 
duties on July 1. 

C. W. Newton, general manager and director of the 
Callahan Zinc Lead Co., of Wallace, Idaho, has gone to New 
York to attend the annual meeting. 

Ross E. Mills has returned to his home in Salt Lake City, 
after spending two years in Ecuador as superintendent of a 
silver mine owned by New York capitalists. 

Carl A. Wendell, of New York, has been appointed con- 
sulting engineer of the U. S. Bureau of Mines in matter re- 
lating to coal washing and coal preparation. 

D. D. Moffat has returned to Salt Lake City after a trip to 
the Ray and Chino properties in Arizona and New Mexico, 
and to the Shasta zinc property in northern California. 

Edwin T. Hodge, professor of ore deposits at the Uni- 
versity of Oregon, will spend the early part of the summer 
in the examination of mining properties in British Columbia. 

William Koerner, who has had charge of developing the 
Flin Flon mine in Manitoba, together with Richard N. Hunt 

and R. .1. Neablt, mechanical superintendent at the Maaoo 
Vnll. v Mines smelter at Thompson, were at Silverhorn last 

Boberl G. Wilson, chief of the Tax Division of the Amer- 
ican Mining Confess, has resigned to form a partnership 
with William Huff Wagner, valuation engineer of the 
Bureau of Internal Revenue. The firm will be known as 
Wilson A Wagner, consulting mining engineers, accountants, 
and specialists in the taxation of the mineral industries, with 
offices in the Munsey building, Washington, D. C. 

Frederick F. Sharpless was recently appointed Secretary 
of the Institute in succession to Bradley Stoughton, resigned. 

Frederick F. Sharpless 

Editorial comment, and a brief biography of the new secre- 
tary, will be found on page 1 of this issue. 


James H. Billingsley, president of the Frontier Mining Co., 
died at his home in Galena, Illinois, on June 16. He was one 
of the most prominent zinc-mine operators of the lead-zinc 
district of south-west Wisconsin. He came to Wisconsin in 
190 5, first developing the Frontier mine at Benton. In 
succession he developed and operated, with his associates, 
the Calvert mine, Hird mines No. 1, 2, and 3, the Bull Moose 
and Middie mines, and others. He was honored several 
times with election as mayor of the city of Galena, and was 
a director of the American Zinc Institute. He was well 
known for his kindly and generous treatment of those in his 
employ; at one time 700 men were carried on the payrolls 
of the Frontier Mining Company. 



July 2, 1921 

Book Reviews 

American English. By Gilbert M. Tucker. Published by 
Alfred A. Knopf, New York. Price, $5. 

A frank discussion of the minor differences between the 
two great English-speaking nations is always interesting and 
instructive; the conclusion reached after reading Mr. 
Tucker's book on American English is that it is strange that 
so many obvious phases of the subject have escaped atten- 
tion before. The book is written to disprove the contention 
of the large number of English writers of note that the pro- 
nunciation and spelling of English in America is incorrect 
and is degenerating. The author quotes from various 
sources to prove that this is the general impression in Eng- 
land — as it undoubtedly is; but for every Roland, Mr. 
Tucker produces an Oliver. The result is a collection of 
interesting extracts and comments. 

As regards speech and pronunciation, the author makes 
an excellent point when he states that if the talk of street- 
loafers in American cities, and the verbal peculiarities that 
one may find in the outlying regions of Texas, are to be 
counted as characteristic of American speech, we must also 
take just as careful account of the lingo of the slums of 
London, and Cork, and of the jargon of the less progressive 
counties in the three kingdoms. To compare the conversa- 
tion of a London drawing-room with the talk that one might 
hear in a road-house in Arkansas is manifestly unprofitable; 
nothing can be learned by such methods. Yet this is pre- 
cisely what is done by the average Englishman who has 
never visited America. I remember taking a young friend, 
who had recently arrived from London, to a New York 
club for luncheon. After the meal we adjourned to the 
smoking-room, into which soon strolled a number of mem- 
bers of the club. The conversation of the group first to 
arrive was distinctly audible to us; one man's voice was 
above those of the others; my young friend leaned forward 
and enquired of me, "An Englishman?'! I assured him 
that the gentleman in question had been born in America 
and had never been out of it. Later on, another group 
strolled near us, all of them talking the while in a perfectly 
natural manner. My young friend was now convinced. 
"Those are Englishmen, anyway", he asserted. "No," I 
was obliged to reply, "they are all 100% Americans." This 
explains to some extent the viewpoint taken by many Eng- 

Another fact that the author emphasizes in his book is 
that America has no dialects. In England, as the Dean of 
Ely wrote in the 'Outlook', a west-country peasant can- 
not understand the artisan of Yorkshire. As proof of this 
diversity of language in the old country the author quotes 
the 250 odd glossaries of domestic dialects. A distinguished 
traveler, once chaplain to Queen Victoria, and one who knew 
the United States as few Englishmen know it, mentions as "a 
remarkable fact that the English spoken in America is not 
only very pure, but also is spoken with equal purity by all 
classes — spoken in San Francisco just as it is spoken in 
New York, on the Gulf of Mexico just as on the Great Lakes. 
There is nothing resembling this in Europe, where every 
country, as in England, has a different dialect. Often in 
parts of the country [United States] most remote from each 
other, in wooden shanties and in the poorest huts, I had this 
interesting fact of the purity and identity of the language 
of the Americans forced on my attention, and at such times 
I thought, not without shame and sorrow, of the wretched 
vocabulary, consisting of not more than three or four hun- 
dred words, and those most ungrammatically used, and al- 
ways more or less mispronounced, of our peasantry". Who 
ever heard, asks the author of 'American English', an 
American gamin call paper 'piper' or lady 'lidy', or rain 
'rine'; which reminds me of a story that I heard when I was 

in Australia: a Sunday-school picnic was being held; a small 
boy wanted some grapes, but cake came first on the menu. 
"No", said the teacher, "you eat the 'kike' first; you'll have 
the 'gripes' afterwards." This is no exaggeration of cockney 
pronunciation. To be fair, the speech and average pronun- 
ciation of the whole of the people of the two countries must 
be compared; but no cultured Englishman would allow that 
the dialects of Yorkshire, of Devonshire, and of London are 
part and parcel of the Briton's pronunciation of English; 
yet they are, undoubtedly. 

There is a paraphrased proverb to the effect that people 
who live in glass houses should pull down the blinds. The 
frequent contention of British critics that the language is 
being mutilated in the United States provokes a rejoinder; 
the author of this book gives chapter and verse; even the late 
King Edward's private secretary, (then) Sir Francis Knollys, 
was guilty of a painful exhibition of bad grammar in a 
letter written to Professor Rawson, of the Thirteen Club of 
New York, in 1896. Mr. Tucker criticizes the use of the 
plural after a negation — a usual British error. Ruskin 
said: "A daisy is common, and a baby not uncommon; 
neither are vulgar". The practice is deeply rooted. Even 
Galsworthy makes one of his heroines say, "Who in our 
world would marry me if they knew". Phrases like "these 
sort of people", so common, are also criticized. Anthony 
Trollope favors another anglicism when he says, "I have 
done more than slept on it; I have laid awake upon it". 

As to variations in spelling on different sides of the 
Atlantic, the author goes to considerable pains to justify 
the standard adopted by American dictionaries and Ameri- 
can literature. The British practice of writing 'programme' 
and not 'diagramme', 'honour' and 'honorary', 'armour' and 
'armory' results in a jumble of confusion, he says. America 
has its slang, but so has Britain. The slang of America is 
usually humorous and incisive; it often gives a remarkable 
emphasis to what is said or written. British slang is neither 
humorous nor emphatic. Mr. Tucker quotes from a British 
novel in which a peer of the realm speaks of doing something 
"like those millionaires did"; he talks about a "piffling 
law"; characterizes an approaching wedding as "a beast of 
a nuisance"; offers to sing "the bally thing"; asks his wife 
at table, not to pass the jam, but to "shove it along"; tells 
her to "chuck him another match"; and remarks that some- 
thing "bucks you up". I should say that the difference be- 
tween the slangs of Britain and the United States is that 
here it is the work and thought of authors. I recently came 
across an acknowledgment by Sir Walter Raleigh, the pro- 
fessor of English literature in Oxford University, who said, 
in 1918: "For one thing, we on this side now borrow, and 
borrow very freely, the more picturesque colloquialisms of 
America. On informal occasions I sometimes brighten my 
own speech with phrases which I think I owe to one of the 
best of living American authors, Mr. George Ade, of Chicago, 
the author of 'Fables in Slang' ". English slang is not copied 
in America. The proof of the pudding is in the eating; the 
adoption of slang phrases and words is an evidence that they 
are part and parcel of our present-day literature. American 
slang adds to the gaiety of the nations; even Englishmen 
have an appreciation of its pungency. British slang, on the 
other hand, is neither witty nor apt. 

A large portion of the hook is taken up with a critical 
study of exotic and real Americanisms, with quotations from 
a number of treatises on the subject. One British critic, 
after reading in the Albany 'Journal' of a man who came 
in late one night after an unsuccessful attempt to open the 
front door with his umbrella, and found himself next morn- 
ing, "overcoat, hat, jag and all, stretched out in the bath- 
tub", defines 'jag' as "a slang term for an umbrella, possibly 
from that article being so constantly carried"! A large 
number of so-called Americanisms are found to be of British 
origin. 'Guess' was a favorite expression of Chaucer's; the 

.I.ilv 2, 1921 



authors of 'King's English' — a stupid title, by the way — say 
that "we have It, not from Chaucer, but from the Yankees". 
Mr. Tucker remarks caustically that were these gentlemen 
to compile a glossary to Chaucer they would have an entry 
something like this: "Guess: Americanism for believe, think, 
fancy ". Similarly, if it were a glossary to Shakespeare, 
there would be an item: "Baggage: Americanism for lug- 
gage". The author proves his point that the English lan- 
guage is not deteriorating in America. A large number of 
Englishmen of high standing have declared that the lan- 
gauge spoken in America is, on the whole, purer than the 
English spoken in England. A critic, like the author of the 
Unspeakable Scot' and the 'Unbounding American', who 
admits that he has "never been to the United States", but 
who has the temerity to state that the Americans "having 
Inherited, borrowed, or stolen a beautiful language, will- 
fully and of set purpose degrade, distort, and misspell it" 
should he put in the class of irresponsible persons whose 
one object in life seems to be the fomenting of international 
friction. When the London bus-conductor speaks as do his 
passengers, then it will be realized why nearly all the people 
of the United States adopt a uniform language — why such a 
preponderating proportion use carefully enunciated words. — 
A. W. A. 

Introduction to Qualitative Chemical Analysis. By H. 
Wilhelm Fresenius. 17th edition by C. Remigius Fresenius. 
Translated by G. Ainsworth Mitchell. 954 pp., 57 ill. John 
Wiley & Sens, Inc.. New York. For sale by 'Mining and 
Scientific Press'. Price, $8. 

The seventeenth German edition of the standard work of 
Fresenius, which was first planned in 1840, has been re- 
modeled to make it conform to the modern conceptions of 
chemistry. A chapter dealing with reagents, which appeared 
in former editions, has been omitted as being no longer 
necessary; the notes and additions to the systematic course 
have been tranferred to a separate chapter. The principles 
of the analytical systems used in the course are made clearer 
by the addition of tables and general surveys of each stage. 
The contents of the book are as follows: Part I: General 
chemical principles and methods of analytical chemistry. 
Behavior of substances to reagents. Reactions of cations. 
Reactions of anions. Part II: Systematic course of quali- 
tative chemical analysis. Practical methods of the general 
course. Practical methods for special cases. Explanatory 
notes and additions to the practical process. Appendix: 
Behavior of the most important alkaloids toward reagents, 
and systematic course for their identification. Remarks on 
the correct choice of exercises for practice. Tabulation of 
the results obtained with the substances analyzed for prac- 
tice. Solubility tables. The translator, who is to be con- 
gratulated on having performed a prodigious task, is the 
editor of 'The Analyst"' of London. 

Metallography: Part II, The Metals and Common Alloys. 
By Samuel L. Hoyt. 462 pp., ill. McGraw-Hill Book Co., 
New York. For sale by 'Mining and Scientific Press'. 
Price, $5. 

This book is the second volume of a three-book series of 
which the first volume, on principles, was published last 
year; the third volume, technical practice, is in preparation. 
It describes the more important metals and alloys, the de- 
scription including the constitution and micro-structure, the 
physical and mechanical properties for different conditions 
of heat and mechanical treatment, the effects of impurities 
commonly present, and a brief discussion of the uses. Com- 
positions of particular importance have been treated in de- 
tail, and measured values of the important properties have 
been given. Other features are critical-point diagrams, con- 
stitution diagrams, structural diagrams, and photomicro- 

Recent Publications 

Regulation of Explosives in Hie United States. By Charles 
E. Munroe. Bull. 198, U. S. Bureau of Mines, 1921. 15 pp. 

The .Analysis of Sulphur Forms in Coal. By Alfred R. 
Powell. Technical Paper 254, U. S. Bureau of Mines. 1921. 
21 pp. 

American Industry in the War. A Report of the War 
Industries Board. By Bernard M. Baruch, Chairman. 421 
pp., index. 

Bibliography of Petroleum and Allied Substances in 1018. 

By E. H. Burroughs. Bull. 189, U. S. Bureau of Mines. 
1921. 180 pp. 

Ventilation in Metal Mines. A Preliminary Report. By 

Daniel Harrington. Technical Paper 251, U. S. Bureau of 
Mines, 1921. 44 pp. 

Analyses of Iowa Coals. By George S. Rice, A. C. Field- 
ner, and F. D. Osgood. Technical Paper 269, U. S. Bureau 
of Mines, 1921. 28 pp. 

Pennsylvania Mining Statutes Annotated. By J. W. 

Thompson. Bull. 1S5, Serial 21, U. S. Bureau of Mines, 

1920. 1221 pp., index. 

Report of Committee on Standardization of Petroleum 
Specifications. Bull. 5, Petroleum Specifications, U. S. Bu- 
reau of Mines, 1921. 71 pp. 

Talc and Soapstone in 1919. By J. S. Diller. 11:18, U. S. 
Geological Survey, 1921. 4 pp. From Mineral Resources of 
the United States, 1919 — Part II. 

Quicksilver in 1919. By F. L. Ransome. 1:10, U. S. 
Geological Survey, 1921. 32 pp. From Mineral Resources 
of the United States, 1919 — Part I. 

The Detection and Estimation of Platinum in Ores. By 
C.W.Davis. Technical Paper 2 70. Mineral Technology 31, 
U. S. Bureau of Mines, 1921. 27 pp. 

Underground Conditions in Oil Fields. By A. W. Am- 
brose. Bull. 195, Petroleum Technology 62, U. S. Bureau 
of Mines, 1921. 238 pp., index, ill., plates. 

Flotation Tests of Idaho Ores. By Clarence A. Wright, 
James G. Parmelee, and James T. Norton. Bull. 205, U. S. 
Bureau of Mines, 1921. 70 pp., ill., index. 

Water-Gas Apparatus and the Use of Central District 
Coal as Generator Fuel. By William W. Odell. Technical 
Paper 246, U. S. Bureau of Mines, 1921. 28 pp., ill. 

Accidents at Metallurgical Works in the United States 
During the Calendar Year 1919. By William Adams. Tech- 
nical Paper 280, U. S. Bureau of Mines, 1921. 31 pp. 

Manganese and Manganiferous Ores in 1919. By H. A. C. 
Jenison. 1:9, U. S. Geological Survey, 1921. 56 pp. From 
Mineral Resources of the United States, 1919 — Part I. 

Permeation of Oxygen Breathing Apparatus by Gases and 
Vapors. By A. C. Fieldner, S. H. Katz, and S. P. Kinney. 
Technical Paper 272, U. S. Bureau of Mines, 1921. 24 
pp., ill. 

The Production of Coal and Coke in Canada During the 
Calendar Year 1919. By John McLeish, B. A. No. 548, 
Mines Branch, Canada Department of Mines, 1921. 3 9 pp. 
Ottawa, Canada. 

Permian Salt Deposits of the South-Central United States. 
By N. H. Darton. Bull. 715-M, U. S. Geological Survey, 

1921. IS pp., map. From Contributions to Economic 
Geology, 1920 — Part I. 

The Mineral Industry of the British Empire and Foreign 
Countries. War Period. Zinc. (1913-1919.) Imperial 
Mineral Resources Bureau, 1921. 112 pp. For sale by 
H. M. Stationery Office, Imperial House, Kingsway, London, 
W.C. 2, England. Price, 3s.6d., net. 



July 2, 1921 

San Francisco, June 28 

Aluminum-dust, cents per pound 

Antimony, cents per pound 

Copper, electrolytic cents per pound. 

Lead, pigr. cents per pound 

Platinum, pure, per ounce 

Platinum, 10% iridium, per ounce. . . . 

Quicksilver, per flask of 75 lb 

Spelter, cents per pound. 









Zinc-dust, cents per pound 9.00 — 9.50 

(By wire from Kew York) 
June 27. — Copper is inactive but easy. Lead is quiet and lower. Zinc is 
stagnant but easier. 

Below are given official or ticker quotations for silver in the open market 
ae distinguished from the fixed price obtainable for metal produced, smelted, 
and refined exclusively within the United States. Under the terms of the 
Pittman Act such silver will be purchased by the United States Hint at $1 
per ounce, subject to certain small charges which vary slightly but amount 
to approximately three-eighths of one cent. The equivalent of dollar silver 
(1000 fine) in British currency is 46.65 pence per ounce (925 fine), calcu- 
lated at the normal rate of exchange. 



New York 

21 59.25 

22 58.75 

23 58.50 

24 58.25 

25 58.62 

26 Sunday 

27 68.75 







Average week ending 

Cents Pence 

May 16 60.41 34.42 

•• 23 58.93 33.46 

•• 30 58.15 33.60 

June 6 57.68 33.75 

'■ 13 58.39 35.29 

" 20 68.77 35.18 

" 27 68.69 35.25 


1919 1920 1921 

July 106.36 92.04 

Aug 111.35 96.23 

Sept 113.92 93.66 

Oct 119.10 83.48 

Nov 127.67 77.73 

Dec 131.92 64.78 

Prices of electrolytic in cents per pound. 



21 12.75 May 

22 12.75 

23 12.75 

24 12.62 June 

25 12.62 

26 Sunday 

27 12.62 

Monthly averages 
1920 1921 

19.26 12.94 

19.05 12.84 

18.49 12.20 

19.23 12.50 

19.05 12.74 


Average week ending 

16 12.50 

23 12.89 

30 13.25 

6 13.08 

13 12.91 

20 12.85 

27 12.68 




Mch 15.05 

Apr 15.23 

May 15.91 

Jane 17.53 


July 20.82 

Aug 22.51 

Sept 22.10 

Oct 21.66 

Nov 20.46 

Dec 18.55 



Lead is quoted In cents per pound. New York delivery- 






26 Sunday 



Average week ending 








. . 4.30 
Monthly averages 





Oct. . 

Nov 6.76 

Dec 7.12 



Prices in New York, in cents per pound. 

Monthly averages 









July .. 



Feb. . 




Aug. . . 






Oct. . . 




May . 





June . 





Zinc is quoted as Bpelter, standard Western brands. New York delivery, 

in cents per pound. 



26 Sunday 


















Monthly averages 

Jan. . . 

Feb. . . 

Mch. . . 

Apr. . . 

May 6.43 

June . . 
























Average week ending 

1919 1920 





The primary market for quicksilver is San Francisco. California being 
the largest producer. The price is fixed in the open market, according to 
quantity. Prices, in dollars per flask of 75 pounds. 

Date I June 14 50.00 

May 31 50.00 " 21 60.00 

June 7 50.00 ' " 28 48.00 

Monthly averages 


Jan 103.76 

Feb 90.00 

Mch 72.80 

Apr 73.12 

May 84.80 

June 94.40 



July 100.00 

Aug 103.00 

Sept 102.60 

Oct 86.00 

Nov 78.00 

Dec 95.00 

1919 1920 



Six months ago the Democratic Secretary of the Treasury was criticized 
for proposing a new budget of 84,653,856,769. But on the basis of Secre- 
tary Mellon's latest estimates the budget for the new fiscal year will exceed 
the old administration's proposal by over 3400.000.000, according to 'The 
Index', published by the New York Trust Co. The new estimates disclose 
a rate of spending practically five times as great as the expenditure in 

There may possibly be something to be said in extenuation of the large 
army and navy appropriations, while other costly legacies of the World 
War cannot yet be eliminated. But it would seem to be within the ability 
of an able administration to economize more effectively in an item of civil 
expenditure that is now running three timea larger than in pre-war days. 

Receipts and disbursements in the fiscal year 1914 compare as follows 
with Secretary Mellon's estimates for the new year, begi nnin g July 1 : 
Receipts 1914 1922 

Customs 8292.320.000 8300.000.000 

Corporation excise 10.671.000 

Individual and Corp. income and profits 

taxes 60.709.000 2.350.000.000 

Miscellaneous taxes 308.661.000 1.350.000,000 

Sale public lands 2,571.000 1.500.000 

Miscellaneous receipts 59,740,000 546.143,000« 

Postal revenue 287.934.000 500.000. OOOt 

Total receipts 81.022.606.000 85,047.643,000 


Civil and miscellaneous 8364.186.000 Sl.201.628.000 

War Department 173.522.000 569.750.000 

Navy Department 139.682.000 645.225.000 

Public debt interest 22.862.999 975.000.000 

Postal expenditures 283.558.000 543.512.000 

Shipping Board 124.200.000 

Panama Canal 34.826.000 10.000.000 

Debt redemption 109.000 421.354.000 

Bank note cancellation 6,949.000 130.000.000 

Railroads 545.206.000 

Total disbursements ?1.025.694,000 $5,065,875,000 

Total receipts 1.022.606.000 5.047.643.000 

Deficit S3.088.000t 818.232.000 

•Includes 8265.026.000 anticipated interest on foreign obligations held by 
the United States Treasury. 

^Arbitrary estimate, the same amount being added to the net estimated 
deficit to arrive at total disbursement 

tin 1914 the sale of 83.118.000 bonds not included in receipt above left 
and actual surplus of 828,000.000. 


Foreign quotations on June 28 are as follows: 

Sterling, dollars: Cable 2'ZZ % 

Demand *-'° 

Francs, cents: Cable g-Jr 

Demand °-** 

Lire, cents: Demand *-98 

Marks, cents 1AA 

July 2, 1921 



Eastern Metal Market 

New York. June 12. 

Improvement of any consequence is difficult to find in 
any of the markets and prices in some are lower. 

Buying of copper is no better and the little business going 
is being taken at concessions. 

The tin market is quiet and fairly steady. 

There is little demand for lead and prices are lower. 

The zinc market is stagnant as to buying but steady as to 

Antimony is a little softer. 


In many lines of steel consumption business seems to have 
adjourned for the summer, but meanwhile liquidation of 
steel products in the hands of users is proceeding in a most 
unusual way. Practically all large manufacturing con- 
sumers have turned jobbers and are selling bars, plates, 
structural shapes, or whatever they have on hand, at prices 
close to the warehouse basis, says 'The Iron Age'. Thus 
while the mills are being called on for less steel than at any 
time this year, the process of 'cleaning-up' all accumulated 
rolled products is going on, against a day when the country 
will be more nearly bare of steel than in many years. 

The operation of blast-furnaces and steel works is slightly 
below the rate of last week. In the past two months the 
Steel Corporation's ingot production seems to have fallen 
off more relatively than that of the leading independent 
companies. The Carnegie Steel Co. has blown-out another 
blast-furnace and now has only 14 in operation out of 59. 

There is no longer any strict adherence to the prices an- 
nounced by the Steel Corporation as effective April 13. 
Reports have gone through the trade that a formal an- 
nouncement of lower prices would be made July 1. How- 
ever, market developments appear to be making any such 
formality unnecessary. All producers are meeting compe- 
tition as it develops. 


Sentiment in this market varies according to the interest 
interviewed. In some quarters, gloom is apparent while in 
others a fair business is reported, but in much reduced 
volume as compared with May. One interest reports con- 
tinued orders in moderate volume from Germany, France, 
and some other countries, but almost none from Great 
Britain, due to the coal strike. Domestic buying is flat 
though reports from some sections early this week were to 
the effect that manufacturers using copper were fairly busy. 
Most of the large producers of electrolytic copper do not 
quote June-July delivery under 13.25c, delivered, with some 
as high as 13.50c, but there are a few sellers who are taking 
the business offered at as low as 13c, delivered, or 12.75c, 
New York. Reports of sales of small lots at 12.75c, de- 
livered, or 12.50c, New York, are not confirmed. Lake 
copper is quoted about the same as electrolytic, depending 
on the seller. 


The week for the most part has been a quiet one with 
trading between dealers light and with consumers doing 
very little buying. One June 15 it is estimated that about 
200 tons of future shipment metal was sold at around 30c. 
The course of the market has been but little changed from 
that prevailing for some weeks — those wanting to buy have 
had difficulty in securing the metal at the time and when 
sellers have been ready to do business there have been few 
buyers. Spot Straits, New York, has hovered around 29 to 
30c. during the past week with the quotation yesterday at 
28.75c The London market has declined during the week 

with quotations yesterday about £3 per ton below those a 
week ago, spot standard being quoted at £164 10s.. future 
standard at £167 5s., and spot Straits at £165 5s. Arrivals 
thus far this month have been 930 tons with 2000 tons re- 
ported afloat. 


Stagnation is reported with no business and no inquiries 
reported either by big or little producers and sellers. The 
leading interest continues its quotation at 4.50c, New York 
and St. Louis, but in the outside market it is possible to buy 
without difficulty at 4.20 to 4.25c, St. Louis, or 4.40 to 
4.4 5c, New York. One seller reports that the trade feels 
that lead will not go lower unless foreign conditions force 
the market down. American conditions do not warrant a 
decline. Production is not large and stocks are light with 
the statistical position the strongest of any of the metals. 


This market is also stagnant and has been for some weeks, 
but it is steadier than the lead market as to prices. The 
bottom for some time has been 4.45c, St. Louis, or 4.95c, 
New York, for prime Western for early delivery, but sales 
have been few and confined to small lots for prompt delivery 
and to only a few producers as sellers. Offerings to buy at 
4.40c, St. Louis, are reported as fairly numerous, but there 
are practically no sellers at this level. It is possible that 
4.45c, St. Louis, is also the bottom of the zinc market. 


The market is quiet and easier at 5.12}c, New York, duty 
paid, for wholesale lots for early delivery, with the prob- 
ability that 5c. could be done under favorable circumstances. 


Wholesale lots of virgin metal, 98 to 99% pure, for early 
delivery are quoted by the leading producer unchanged at 
28c f.o.b. plant, while the same grade from other sellers is 
obtainable at 22.50 to 23.50c, New York. 


Tungsten: There is no interest on the part of consumers 
and the market is quiet and nominally unchanged at $3.25 
per unit for Chinese ore and $4 per unit for Bolivian and 
other high-grade ores. 

Ferro-tungsten is unchanged at 48 to 58c per pound of 
contained tungsten in lump form, guaranteed as to quality. 
Other grades are lower. 

Molybdenum: Conditions are unchanged and the market 
is nominal at 50c per pound of MoS 5 in regular concentrate. 

Manganese: There is no demand. Quotations are nominal 
at 22.50c per unit, seaboard, with the probability that this 
can be shaded. Imports continue heavy at over 54,000 tons 
for May or over 60,000 tons per month for the 11 months 
ended with May. 

Manganese-Iron Alloys: Absolute stagnation features the 
demand for ferro-manganese and spiegeleisen. Prices for 
the former are nominal at $75 per ton, Atlantic seaboard, 
for the British alloy, with the American obtained at $80, 
seaboard, from first hands and perhaps lower for re-sale 
alloys. Spiegeleisen is nominal at $30 to $32, furnace. 

Of 40,256,030 lb. of refined copper exported during April, 
999,358 lb. went to Belgium, 10,800,273 to France, 15,837,- 
896 to Germany, 223,915 to Italy, 1,166,600 to the Nether- 
lands, 7,976,634 to the United Kingdom, 1,541,713 to Can- 
ada, and 1,709,641 to other countries. 



July 2. 1921 

Current Prices of Commodities 

The figures given on this page represent the regular cur- 
rent price, at the time of our going to press, to industrial 
buyers of standard commodities in small wholesale lots on 
San Francisco Bay. They should not be construed as being 
quotations nor as being either the lowest or the highest 
price; they are given rather as a guide by which to follow 
the trend of the market or to estimate the approximate cost 
of materials and supplies. 


Acid, sulphuric, eom'l 66", in drums, per 100 lb 1.50 to 2.00 

carboys " 2.60 to 3.10 

" C. P., 9 lb. bottles, in barrels, per pound 0.27 

" " bulk, in .carboys, per pound 0.22 

" muriatic, com'l, in carboys, per 100 lb 2.75 to 3.25 

" " C. P., 6-lb. bottle, in barrels, per pound 0.32 

" " " bulk, in carboys, per pound 0.25 

" nitric, com'l, in carboys, per 100 lb 9.00 to 9.50 

" " C. P., 7-lb. bottles, in barrels, per pound 0.39 

" " " bulk, in carboys, per pound 0.32 

Arg-ols, ground, in barrels, per pound 0.14 

Borax, eryst. and cone, bag's, per 100 lb 5.50 to 6.50 

powdered, in barrels " 5.75 to 6.60 

" glass, ground, 30 mesh, cases, tin lined, per 100 lb 18.50 

Bone ash, 60 to 80 mesh, in barrels, per 100 lb 8.50 

Cyanide, sodium. 96 to 98%, 100-lb. drums, per pound 0.31 

Lead acetate, brown, broken casks, per 100 lb 18.50 

white " " " 19.00 

" " " crystals, per pound 0.20 

" C. P., test., granulated, per 100 lb 17.50 

sheet, per 100 lb 14.50 

Litharge, C. P., silver- free, per 100 lb 15.50 

com'l, per 100 lb 12.50 

Manganese oxide, bulk, imported in barrels, per ton 80.00 

Manganese di-oxide, bulk, Caucasian (85% Mn0 2 . - % % Fe), in 

casks, per ton 140.00 

Potassium nitrate, double ref'd., small cryst., in barrels, per pound 0.18% 
" " " " granular " " 0.18% 

" " " powdered " " 0.19 

" carbonate, calcined, in barrel lots, per lb 0.25 

permanganate, in drums, per pound 0.70 

Silica, powdered, in bags, per pound 0.03 

Soda, carbonate of (ash), in barrels, per 100 lb 3.50 

bicarbonate of " " 4.00 

" caustic, ground, 98% " " 6.50 

" " solid " " " 5.00 


Armored copper cable, size 8. BSL 3. lead and armor, 100-ft. lots 

per 1000 ft 

Armored copper cable, size 8, BX 3. armor. 100-ft. lots, per 1000 ft. 
Conduit, galvanzed iron. % in., per 100 ft 

Copper wire, size 0, bare. 200 to 1000-lb. lots, per 100 lb 

" " 10. triple-braid, weather-proof, coil lots, per 100 lb. 
" " " 14, single-braid, rubber- covered " per 1000 lb, 

Insulators, glass for telephone. No. 9 pony, per 1000 

power. No. 14. per 1000 

porcelain. 6600 v.. No. 44. per 100 

Porcelain knobs. No. 5%, lOd. •nailit', per 1000 

" " " " solid, per 1000 

"3% " " 

" tubes. 5/16 by 3-in. " 

% •' 6-in. " 

Sockets, weather-proof, molded, No. 60.666, per 100 

Telephone wire. iron, size 12, half-mile lots, per 100 lb 


Blasting-caps, No. 6, in lots of 5000. per 1000 

" " electric. 6-ft., No. 6. in lots of 1000. per box of 100. 

Blasting-powder. '"B" soda, in 100-keg lots, per keg of 25 lb 

Dynamite, nitro-glycerine, 40%, in ton lots, per 100 lb 

" gelatine " " " 

" ammonia " " " 

Fuse, common, in case lots, per 1000 ft 

" waterproof, triple tape, in case lots, per 1000 ft 


Coal. Utah steam', $4 at mine, plus $7.50 freight to California 

terminal points, in carload lots, per ton 

Co»i blacksmith's, in carload lots, per ton 

in small lots, per ton 

Coke, in carload lots, per ton 

Fuel oil, per barrel 

Diesel oil, per gallon 

Distillate " " 

Gasoline " " 











Anti-friction metal, per pound 

Babbitt, genuine " 

Brass sheets, half-hard and soft, per pound 

Drill-steel, hollow, first grade, in ton lots, per pound. 

solid " " " 
Fish-plate bolts, % by 2-in.. per 100 lb 






0.30 % 

Nails and spikes (20d to 60d base), per keg 5.25 

Nuts, hot pressed, %-in., hexagunal, per 100 lb 11.25 

cold punched " *' 13.20 

Picks, mining, 5-lb.. per dozen 12.00 

Shovels, carbon steel. No. 2. long handles, per dozen 18.00 

Track spikes, per 100 lb 6.10 


Bar steel, soft, per 100 lb 4.35 

Rails, steel, 8 to 25-lb., per 100 lb 4.60 

Rein forcing-steel, per 100 lb 4.35 

Sheets, corrugated, galvanized iron, 26-gauge, per 100 lb 7.80 

" flat " " " " 7.70 

" flat, black iron " " 6.90 

Structural T's. channels, angles, and beams " 4.35 

A deduction of 15c. per 100 lb. is made on the above when 

purchased in carload lots. 

Bars, steel, square, cold-rolled, per 100 lb 7.50 

Pipe, wrought-iron, black, standard, 1%-in., per 100 ft 13.80 

" " galvanized " " " 17.20 

"* " black " 4-in. " 61.05 

" " extra strong " " 116.75 

Shafting, cold-rolled (2M, to 3-in. base) " 6.25 


Discounts for delivery from Pacific Coast stocks are: cast-steel. 
17%%; extra strong cast-steel. 25%; plow-steel, 30%; blue-centre 
steel, 15%. The following illustrations indicate the net price for 
each kind of rope, in standard, 6-strand, 19-wire. 1-in. rope. 

Blue-centre rope, per foot 0.42 % 

Cast-steel rope, per foot 0.25 % 

" " extra strong, per foot 0.28 

Plow-steel rope, per foot 0.30 


The figures given are subject to variation, depending upon the 
size and length. A charge for cartage is also to be added. Prices 
are furnished by Van Arsdale. HarriB Co. 
Fir, No. 2 clear and better, 1 to 2 in. thick, up to 16 in. wide, 

per thousand feet (M) 90.00 

Fir, common, base price, per M 30.00 

Fir, common, 6 by 6-in. up to 12 by 12-in., per M 36.00 

Redwood, rough merchantable, 1 to 4 in. thick, per M 50.00 

" clear, 1 to 2 in. thick, up to 12 in. wide, per M 100.00 

Spruce. 'B' and better, 1 to 2 in. thick, up to 16 in. wide, per M. . . 90.00 
Sugar-pine. No. 1 and 2 clear, 2 in. thick, up to 10 in. wide, per M. 200.00 
White pine " " " " 180.00 


Air-hose. 1-in., 5-ply, plain, per foot 0.48 to 0.65 

Candles, 'Granite' mining. 6-16-40, 10-case lots, per case 6.40 

Carbide, in 100-lb. cans, per can 7.75 

Cotton waste, best grade, per 100 lb 14.25 

Diamonds for drilling, according to size, per carat 50.00 to 75.00 

Manila rope, grade 1. per pound 0.15 

" " " 2 (standard), per pound 0.14 

Packing, flax, per pound 0.50 to 1.00 

sheet " 0.35 to 1.00 

steam or water, first grade, per pound 1.00 

Silex lining, crated, per long ton 35.00 

Tube-mill pebbles, Danish, selected (in bags), per long ton 30.00 

Zinc-dust, in 250-lb. boxes, per 100 lb 9.50 

" Bheet. 36 in. by 84 in., in tons lots, per 100 lb 14.50 


Fire-brick, clay, per 1.000. in carload lots 60.70 

Fire-clay, in bag's, per ton 18.00 

Lime. lump, in barrels, per barrel of 180 lb 3.25 

Portland cement, in bags, per barrel of 380 lb 4.20 

Allowance of 15c. for bags returned in good condition. 
Portland cement, in barrels, per barrel of 400 lb 5.50 

A deduction of 50c. per barrel is made on lime and cement 

when sold in carload lots. 

The following prices represent approximately what can be obtained for the 
products indicated delivered at points on San Francisco Bay. These, of 
course, vary widely with the grade and purity of the ores. The present 
stagnant condition of the market makes many of the quotations purely 
nominal; most of the ores can be purchased at these prices, but it should 
be understood that it is not easy for the producer to market them at this 
Antimony ore, approximately free of lead and arsenic, not less 

than 50% Sb, per % 60c. 

Asbestos (crysotile), according to length of fibre, per ton. . . .$20 to $2500 

Barite, white and free of iron (crude), per ton 5 to 10 

Bismuth ore, not less than 20% Bi. per % Bi 12 

Feldspar, crude, lump, free of iron, per ton 5 to 10 

Fluorspar, 85% calcium fluoride, per ton 15 to 20 

Fuller's earth, ground to pass 80-mesh, per ton 5 to 10 

Graphite, crystalline, per pound 3c. to 7c. 

Magnesite, calcined, per ton 25 to 35 

Manganese ore, less than 0.75% Fe; less than 6% SiO;_>. per ton 25 to 30 

Mica, according to size, clearness, and cleavage, per pound. 1 to 8 

Molybdenite, not less than 85%. free of copper, per % MoS«. 8 to 12 

Ochre, according to strength, crude, per ton 8 to 15 

Sulphur, 99.£i% pure, only trace of As and Se, per ton 15 to 18 

Talc, lump, white, per ton 7.50 to 10 

Tin ore. not less than 60% Sn. per % Sn 5 

Tungsten ore. not less than 65% WO., per % WO a 2.75 to 3.00 

,Jnl\ 2. 1921 


I : 


. i_ 

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On the front cover of the 'Mining and Scientific Press' 
of June 4. 1921, there appears an advertisement for the 
Mine & Smelter Supply Co., in which is an illustration of 
18 Marcy ball-mills installed in the concentrator at Braden, 
Chile. The statement is made that "Eighteen Marcy ball- 
mills in this installation are crushing about 600 tons per 24 
hours for table concentration. The feed is 30% plus one 
inch". No well informed metallurgist could possibly mis- 
interpret this statement; the excellent performance of the 
Marcy mill is too generally known to permit misunder- 
standing. Obviously, however, the statement would be 
more precise if the word 'each' were inserted after "are" so 
as to read "... are each crushing about 600 tons per 24 
hours . . .". 


The Sullivan 'Turbinair' hoist meets the demand for a 
small, compact, but powerful, portable hoisting engine, for 
use in mines, quarries, yards, and shops. The 'Turbinair' 
"hoist may be mounted on a cross-bar or column in a shaft, 
winze, or raise, for handling drills, steel, or timbers; it may 
be bolted to a timber or girder or to a wall or floor, for 
pulling cars, piling lumber, and any odd jobs of hoisting or 
hauling. Its capacity is from 1500 to 2000 lb. dead load 
lifted vertically at 100 ft. per minute, under an air-pressure 
varying from 50 to 75 lb. The 'Turbinair' hoist weighs 285 
lb. and its drum will accommodate a maximum of 500 ft. of 
A-in. wire rope. Mine superintendents, foremen, and miners 
liave expressed their surprise and satisfaction at the ease 
of operation and control of the 'Turbinair' hoist, and at its 
great pulling power. 

The machine is novel in design, but exceedingly simple in 
construction. It consists of a cylindrical drum, mounted on 
a steel frame that completely encloses the operating mech- 
anism. This comprises a Sullivan 'Turbinair' motor, and re- 
duction gearing, which drives the drum-shell. The motor is 
a copy in miniature of the 'Turbinair' motor used with such 
success for several years past in driving Sullivan compressed- 
air 'Ironclad' coal-cutters. The two cylindrical rotors are 
provided with right- and left-hand helical flutes or vanes 
converging to a spur tooth in the centre. The two rotors 
mesh together as they revolve under the influence of the 
incoming air. This motor develops a high starting torque, 
is economical of power, as it uses the air expansively, and 
lias shown long life and sustained efficiency. 'Turbinair' 
coal-cutters are in use which have required no repairs in a 
"period of five years. 

The hoist is provided with a friction-clutch and brake. 
When both of these are released the rope may be pulled 
freely from the drum. The friction-clutch may be locked in 
position and the load raised or lowered, controlled entirely 
by the throttle-valve. The brake is of the band type and is 
of sufficient strength to hold any load within the capacity 
of the hoist. It works smoothly, thus putting no unneces- 
sary stress on mechanism or rope. 

The air is admitted at the axis of the drum through a 

hollow shaft, and the motor revolves with the drum. Ball- 
bearings are employed, and all mechanism is totally enclosed 
and well lubricated. The rotors are lubricated by an auto- 
matic oiler. The hoist is quiet in operation, an important 

Sullivan 'Turbinair' Hoist Set for Hauling an Ore-Scraper 

One of the Two Rotors Used in the 'Turbinair' Hoist-Motor 

factor when signals and instructions are being transmitted. 
The Sullivan company feels entire confidence in recommend- 
ing the 'Turbinair' hoist for any duty for which portable- 



July 2, 1921 

column air-hoists have been used in the past; with increased 
factors of operating convenience, economy, and power. 

Details of 'Turbinair' Hoists 

Capacity at 80-lb. air-pressure (vertical lift), lb. 1500-2000 

Speed at maximum load, ft. per minute 100 

Weight (net, less rope), lb 285 

Horse-power 4J-6A 

Overall length, in 22 

Overall width, in 13* 

Overall height, in 15$ 

Drum, diameter, in 9* 

Drum, length, in 9* 

Capacity of drum, ft. A-in. wire rope 500 

For column, diam., in 4* 

Hose or pipe connection, in J 

Equipment included: two column-clamps, one automatic 

oiler, one throttle-valve, four hose-clamp bolts with nuts 
and washers, three wrenches, and one oil-can. 

have been received stating that the cartridges of the new 
explosive were handled and loaded without gloves and not 
the slightest headache was experienced. 

By E. M. Lagron 

Freight-rates which have been absolutely prohibitive in 
interior Alaska will soon be reduced from $350 per ton to 
approximately $25. This will result in a flat saving of $325 
over the prevailing prices. It is a direct result of the ad- 
vance of the new government railroad. The new rate will 
be effective, it is believed, with the completion of the rail- 
road which extends from the tide-water to the interior. 

Increased activities will result and mining machinery can 
soon be shipped to Fairbanks, Nenana, Fort Gibbon, Ruby, 
and other interior points. At present most of the freight to 
these places is sent by dog teams or 'mush' over the trails 
from the seaport towns of Valdez and Cordova. 

One of the most marked improvements in transportation 
will be found in the big powerful 'caterpillar' train which 
operates on a 60-mile haul. These tractors are manufac- 
tured by the Holt Manufacturing Co., and are the same as 
those supplied the allied governments during the War. They 
carry about 50 tons of perishable foodstuffs and supplies 
over the snow and ice. Government engineers have been 
astonished at the remarkable ability of these tractors to 
operate at times with the thermometer at 40° below zero. 

The recently perfected radiator frost-pad which protects 
the motor of the tractor, enables the outfit to operate re- 
gardless of weather conditions. Another engineering asset 
of this particular machine will be found in the articulated 
roller-frame and the equalizer-bar which join the two por- 
tions of the tractor-truck and supporting-roller. This latter 
factor enables the tractor to conform to the unevenness of 
the ground and to climb over obstacles and yet assures per- 
fect traction without slipping. It is .one of the refinements 
and modifications made possible by war experience. 


Once every few years one or another of the leading 
powder companies puts on the market an explosive that is 
slightly different from the other kinds previously produced. 
The differences are usually manifested in a small change in 
one or more of the properties of the explosive. There has 
been a recent production, however, of a new explosive which 
is fundamentally different from other dynamites on the 
market. A new formula and different ingredients are used 
in its composition. In addition to its non-freezing prop- 
erties the explosive has another important feature which 
makes it of especial value to blasters. Other dynamites 
cause violent throbbing headaches to the persons who use 
and handle it. This so called 'powder headache' could never 
be avoided and was always the dread of blasters. Reports 


The Dayton-Dowd Co., of Quincy, Illinois, has issued Bul- 
letin No. 244 on type CS single-stage centrifugal pumps. It 
is now ready for distribution. 

The Coast Equipment Co., of San Francisco, has recently 
been incorporated with the following directors: H. S. Tittle, 
Robert Dalziel Jr., L. A. Somers, Thomas Harris, and Alfred 
H. Potbury. L. A. Somers is general manager and Alfred H. 
Potbury, engineer. The company has offices in San Fran- 
cisco, Los Angeles, Portland, and Seattle, and represents a 
number of well-known manufacturers of steam and electric 
equipment on the Pacific Coast. 

An interesting booklet is 'Shaft Sinking', recently issued 
by the E. J. Longyear Co., of Minneapolis, as Bulletin No. 
15. The mining department of the Longyear company 
maintains an experienced organization capable of handling 
development problems, whether these be of shaft-sinking, 
drifting, tunneling, excavating stations and loading-pockets, 
concreting shafts and workings, or repairing and altering 
existing shafts or mine openings. Among the undertakings 
described briefly are the shafts at the Flin Flon mine in 
Manitoba; the Castleton shaft of the Staso Milling Co. at 
Poultney, Vermont; the Ankerite shaft, sunk for the Coni- 
agas company at Porcupine; the Wallenberg shaft in Nor- 
way; and the Pyne shaft, for the Woodward Iron Co. at 
Bessemer, Alabama. 

The application of the Curtis steam-turbine for driving 
circulating and boiler-feed pumps and other apparatus has 
been successfully developed by the General Electric Co. The 
turbine may be designed for either condensing or non-con- 
densing operation. It may be adapted for any steam pres- 
sure from 60 to 250 lb., for either dry or super-heated steam, 
and for speeds from 1200 to 5000 r.p.m. It may be ar- 
ranged with either one, two, or three stages, depending upon 
operating conditions. According to Bulletin No. 42,019, 
just issued, this turbine represents the best type of design 
and construction, based on practical experience gained in 
building Curtis steam-turbines. Every detail has been 
worked out so as to make all parts as simple as possible 
and of ample size and strength. A description of the prin- 
ciple involved in this turbine, and a careful summary of its 
several parts, including wheel, shaft, and buckets, wheel- 
casing, bearings, packing, governor, governor valve, emer- 
gency governor, and other elements, is included. 

The first public demonstration of the gas-mask, for pro- 
tection against carbon monoxide, manufactured by the Mine 
Safety Appliances Co., and in which is utilized the special 
chemical mixture called 'hopcalite', developed by the U. S. 
Bureau of Mines and Chemical Warfare Service, U. S. Army, 
was given the afternoon of May 26 in the special smoke 
room of the Bureau at Pittsburgh. In this test two men 
entered the smoke-room which contained 1 % of carbon 
monoxide gas in the air. One of the men carried a canary 
bird into the room to indicate to the observers the poisonous 
nature of the atmosphere. The canary collapsed in 45 sec- 
onds, and was immediately removed to fresh air where it 
was revived with oxygen. While the gas-mask used will 
give protection in higher percentages of carbon monoxide, 
1 % of carbon monoxide in the air will kill a man in a few 
minutes time. The percentage found in working places 
where there is ventilation usually amounts to considerably 
less than 1%. One tenth of 1% of carbon monoxide, how- 
ever, will seriously affect a man who is working and there- 
fore breathing hard in about one-half hour's time, while 
two-tenths will affect him seriously in about 10 minutes. 

.Inly 2. 1931 



' I "HIS is one of a big family of "Thew Min- 
ers," all working for the same company. 
There are 1 3 members on that job. 
The first one made such a good record that the 
other twelve had to be taken on. Reduced costs 
have been the result. 

Bulletin No. 29 tells about interesting results 
obtained by Thew Mining Shovels. Write for 
your copy. 

The Thew Shovel company 



fPower Shovels 



July 2, 1921 


Under this heading: announcements may be made of new and 
second-hand machinery or supplies, for sale or wanted. The cost 
iB 5 cents per word, including- address. Minimum chargre one dollar 
per insertion. Remittances must accompany order. Copy must be 
received by Saturday for the following week's issue. 

AN ENGINEERS' COLONY iB being- formed in the hill land west of 
Healdsburgr, Sonoma county, California. An ideal location, land extremely 
rich, now about six desirable locations available selling - from S15 to §±Q 
per acre. Producing: the finest grapes and Imperial prunes in the country. 
An outing- country, timber, springs, live streams, game, fishing, postoffice 
established, Venado. Sonoma county. A chance to make a home while 
mining is slack. For particulars write to S. Batchellor, Venado, Sonoma 
County, California. - 7-2 

FOR SALE, CHEAP — 10 stamps, silver-plated copper amgamating plates, 
3 Deister slime tables. 50-h.p. hoist, 60-h.p. steam engine, crusher, l%-2-4- 
in. pipe, iron tank 6000 gallons, shafting, etc.: also building. Address 
Bene, Hogan & McAtee, Nogales, Ariz. 7-2 

FOR SALE — 90 horsepower C. L. Best tractor, three 10-tdn trailers and 
one 5-ton trailer. All in fine mechanical condition. Make offer. White 
Auto Company, 1800 So. Figueroa St.. Los Angeles, Cal. 7-2 . 

OPPORTUNITY— Diamond drilling on a new basis of cost, saving you 
one-half to one-quarter over present methodB. Guaranteed work with best 
up to the minute equipment, efficient and experienced help. Long ex- 
perienced and enthusiastic customers. Write for information. H. D. Staley, 
229 Lick Bdg.. San Francisco. tf 

FOR SALE — The Belcher gold quartz, patented, mining location, three 
miles from Southern Pacific Railroad and Lincoln highway, Cisco. Cal- 
ifornia. Known in '65 aB the Enterprise, when a small surface quarry 
yielded large returns of high grade gold sulphides, which were shipped to 
Swansea smelter for extraction; it has not been worked since: includes 
seven adjoining claims. Reasons for selling, old age and distance from our 
home. Address Theodore Robinson, 7 Fairwoods Road, Madison, N. J. 


J. B. & A. J. RUPLEY 


Manufacturers of first-class SPLIT LAGGING 
and MINING TIMBERS in any size. 

" [iiiiiiliiiii-iii mnill : in 

imiiiimiiiiiiiiiimniii i ■•> f 

S. B. G RACIER CO., Inc. 

§ Office: 409 Montgomery St. Plant: 608-610 Commercial St. 

San Francisco, California 

| Refiners and Buyers of 

Gold Dust, Amalgam, Bullion and Crude Platinum 

| Advances made on shipments if so desired 



| Yuba Ball Tread Tractors Yuba Centrifugal Pumps i 


| WORKS: Marysville, Col. SALES OFFICE: 433 California St., Sao Francisco, Cal. | 


iimiMiNiimmmijiiiNiiiiiiimiiiiiMtimijiiiMiMiMiiimmiujmiiiiiimiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiimtiiwimmlliiimie I 


I A real mine, eauipped. with ten-stamp mill, power, milling - and 

| mining- machinery, tools, etc., all in excellent condition. Nine 

S patented claims comprising' the most attractive property in one of 

= the very best districts in Nevada. Perfect title. True contact 

S fissure vein extends 4000 feet across this property — one of the 

= strongest veins in the State. Main shaft sunk 400 feet with 2000 

= feet drifting. Engineer's estimate of ore blocked out on present 

= limited workings, $240,000. Values have increased with depth. 

I Free milling ores. All necessary buildings besides mill, ore bin, and 

| tramway from mine to mill. Abundance of water and timber. 

E Auto can be driven over entire property. This is the makings of 

= one of the great mines of Nevada and it enjoys ideal mining con- 

§ ditions. (Under the Pittman Act the Government guarantees silver 

1 mined in U. S. at SI an ounce.) Owing to urgent circumstances, 

§ the owners offer investors of good financial standing an unusually 

= rare opportunity. Desiring immediate action will make low out- 

= right price or sell on participating - basis. Wire! 


^j rurjiT ruiiniiiitiiiifiiiiiM'iiiiiriiiitiiiir tut mr iiriiiir«itjiiiiiiriiiirin urirt irjitiiliiiirini inirimr Sc 

yiiinriiiiu.iii i tiiiiiiii miiiiiiiimiiiimtiim, uiiiiunuiiui luinminniini > <l- 


Used and New. Tested and Guaranteed. 

i i 


| 233 Howard Street San Francisco, Cal. | 


I Rocks and Rock Minerals 

By L. V. PmSSON 
- 414 Pages 36 Fall Pace Pistes Cloth 

| Price (3.00 


| 420 Market St.. San Francisco 




1 By A. W. ALLEN 

Cloth $2.00 128 pp. 

| Comprising | 

| Tables, Formulas, Flow-Sheets and Report Forms 

I Compiled and Arranged for the use of Metallurgists, Mill-men and Cyanide Operators i 

I SS..,SSi..SSSS9,S... mm „— i 


420 Market Street, San Francisco 
Gentlemen: Enclosed find $2.00 for which send me | 
Allen's Mill and Cyanide Handbook. 

| Name . 
i Address 

i L-7-2-21 = 
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.luly 2, 1921 




The coat of advertising - for positions wanted is 2 cents per word. 
Including 1 address. Minimum charge 50 cents per insertion. Replies 
forwarded without extra chargre. Remittances must accompany 
order. Copy must be received Saturday morning- for the following- 
week's issue. 

MINE OR MILL SUPERINTENDENT open for encasement: university 
gmjuate; ten years experience; Mexico or Orient preferred. Address PW 
rtofl, Mining- and Scientific Press. 7-9 

ENGINEER SALESMAN wants position where long- and varied foreign 
and domestic experience can be utilized by an exporting 7 firm to build up 
overseas trade. Familiar with heavy machinery, mining, milling- and 
allied industry supplies. Address PW 658, Mining and Scientific Press. 7-23 

MINING ENGINEER, specialist in difficult ore-dressing problems, wants 
position: good on investigations, reports, etc.: best of references: will go 
anywhere; fluent Spanish. Address PW 657, Mining and Scientific Pr-«= 

ENGINEER AND MACHINIST, also good draftsman; have had experience 
with steam and Diesel engines, also electricity: can solve any power plant 
or machine shop trouble; can design anything in power or plants; whether 
position as engineer or machinist can take charge of plants; prefer Central 
or South America mining, marine or manufacturing company. Address 
PW 652. Mining and Scientific Press. 7-9 

SUPERINTENDENT OR ENGINEER, technical graduate. 10 years sue- 
cessful exrerirencc in mining, milling and examination. Speak Spanish' 
available on thirty days notice At present in Mexico. Address PW 651. 
Mining and Scientific Press. 7-2 

CHIEF ENGINEER, age 40. married; experience covers 21 years: 17 
yearB chief engineer of gas, steam and Diesel electric plants, also large 
pumping plants: speak Spanish and understand Mexican people. Mexico. 
Central or South America preferred. Address PW 644, Mining and 
Scientific Press, 7-2 

POSITION as working master mechanic at small or medium size mine. 
Thorough machinist and electrician; experienced mine and mill machinery; 
practical knowledge of mining; initiative with the ability to make things 
go. Age 41. Address PW 046, Mining and Scientific Press. tf 







604 Mission St , San Francisco, Cal. 

Neill Jigs 

Union Churn Drills j 

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= For twenty years metallurgists and asBayers 
= have looked upon Thompson Balances and 
| Weights as the acme of precision. Made in 
| s style and size for every purpose. 

Write for catalog 
Denver, Colo. 

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iiiiiiimimmiiiiuiiiimiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiimii iiimimii ihimiiiiiiiiiiihiiiiiiiiimiiii mimiiii iiniiiiiiiiiiii'^ 



Most extensive and successful manufacturers. | 
Old plates replated — made equal to new. | 


1349-51 Minor. St., San E. G. DENNIST0N. Prop. | 

Get our prices. 

Telephone : 

Catalog sent. | 


Announcements in this column are secured through the co-opera- 
tion of many of the largest mining companies in the United StateB. 
Advertisements under this heading will be inserted two times with- 
out charge. Additional insertions charged at the rate of 2c. per 
word, including address. 

WANTED — Young mining engineer, familiar with metalliferous mining 
and ore dressing, to teach nuning engineering subjects in an Eastern tech- 
nical school Salary about $2000 first year. Opportunity for professional 
work in addition. Address PA G61, Mining and Scientific Press. 7-0 

WANTED — Smelter brick -mnson: permanent job for satisfactory man. 
Address PA 600, Mining and Scientific Press. 7-1* 

WANTED — Engineer experienced in installation of electrical and mining 
machinery; speaking Spanish; temperate climate; contract for one year at 
$150 per month; extension of contract for two years more if mutually 
satisfied; traveling expenses and hoard paid. Send applications to the 
Colombian Corporation Ltd., Medellin, Colombia, South America. 7-2 



Edict of January 1921 

English Copies For Sale 

Translators, Advisers, Adjusters 

80 Maiden Lane, New York Telephone: John 5416 

= 7-2 | 




Smelters, Beflners and Purchasers of 

| Gold and Silver Ores, Gold Dust, Bullion and I 
| Native Platinum | 

= Production of Proof Gold and Silver for Assayers 
















Market 2915 



1 190 Pages Illustrated Flexible Fabrikoid | 
Price S2.SO 

1 Written primarily for technical students not special- | 

I izing in electrical engineering, this book will also | 

I serve as an introductory text for electrical engineering | 

| students. 0rder , rom 


| 420 Market Street, San Francisco, Cal. 




July 2, 1921 

James Barrie said: 

"The man of science appears 
to be the only man who has 
something to say just now — 
and the only man who does 
not know how to say it." 

Perhaps this is somewhat exaggerated but cer- 
tainly there is a deal of truth in it. 

Engineers who must render written reports of 
work they have done — of contemplated projects 
— of investigations — to say nothing of general 
correspondence — will appreciate the book 



Editor of the Mining and Scientific Press 

An engineer himself, as well as a foremost en- 
gineering editor, Mr. Eickard presents his sub- 
ject 'Technical Writing' in a way that is not 
only especially adapted for engineers but also in 
a manner that will appeal to them and make the 
study interesting. 

The book contains 178 pages, is 5M 
bound in cloth. 

by 8 inches and 

PRICE $1.50 

Send for your copy NOW 


420 Market St., San Francisco. 

Gentlemen: Enclosed find $1.50 for which send me 
one copy of Technical Writing by T. A. Rickard. 




"Here are the PHOTOSTAT 
copies of your chart" 

"Fine, Jimmie. Why it wasn't half an hour ago 
that I asked for them, was it?" 

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out. That PHOTOSTAT machine works fast. I'm 
copying blueprints for the drafting room now, and 
catalogue pages and layouts for the advertising de- 
partment, as well as your charts, tank gauges, and 
reports. But even then the PHOTOSTAT eats up 
all the work so fast that I can't keep it busy all the 

"Don't let that worry you, Jimmie. If the machine 
was busy only halt the time it is, I figure it would 
soon pay for itself. In fact to my mind the value of 
having copies of test reports and other important 
documents almost at a moment's notice, and of 
knowing that they are just as accurate as the 
original represents thousands of dollars." 

The above conversation is not based on theory, but 
on actual letters from users of the PHOTOSTAT. 
Complete details will be mailed on request. 

The PHOTOSTAT makes no mistakes, 
photographic facsimile copies. 

It makes 

The PHOTOSTAT is manufactureed by the Eastman 
Kodak Co. exclusively for 



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Graham Brothers, 



Coventry. England; Paris; Milan; Brussels; 
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July 2, 1921 



1,152,606 Tons of Ore Handled 

Total Screening Cost 

less than one-tenth of a cent per ton! 

One Mitchell Electric Vibrating Screen during 506 days of 

uninterrupted operation handled more than a million tons of 

ore at a cost of less than one tenth of a cent per ton, including 

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thoroughness of screening. 

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effectiveness in YOUR particular industry. 

Stimpson Equipment Company 

Manufacturers and Sole Agents in the United States 
318 Felt Building, Salt Lake City Grand Central Palace, New York 

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Check Valves 

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July 2, 1921 

A Strong, Durable 
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This all metal scale is designed 
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| 29 Broadway New York City | 

Cable Address: Sinterer § 



The DORR COMPANY, Engineers 

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Equipment for the mechanical washing, removal, recovery, | 

classification or treatment of finely divided solids 

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July 2, 1921 




The return to normal conditions means keener compe- 
tition, the elimination of lost motion in the business 
machine and a reduction in operating costs wherever 

Cleveland Stopers fit in with present conditions by the 
saving of time and money made possible by the Pocket- 
In-Head feature and rugged construction. 

A greater footage drilled, less power consumption and 
less repairs mean lower mining costs. It will pay you to 
put a Cleveland stoper along side of your present equip- 
ment and keep careful tab on the results. 


2S "New Cleveland" 
Pocket-in-Head Stoper 


3734 East 78th St., CLEVELAND, OHIO 


Guy Gregory, Mgr. 

Room 536. 39 Church St.. New York City. 


A. C. Most. Mpr. 

570 Gas & Electric Bide., Denver, Colo. 


C. J. Albert, Mer. 
515 Mission St., San Francisco, Cal. 

Canadian Trade supplied by 
Cleveland Pneumatic Tool Co. of Canada. 1 
Toronto, Ont. 

4S New "Cleveland" 
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Standard Pipe — Screw Joint Casing, Pipe 
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The "Empire" will do more 
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means or method of placer 
prospecting. That's what 
you want, isn't it? Then, 
see that your placer prop- 
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it will save you money. 
Write for the Catalog. 










July 2, 1921 

BATES: One-half Inch, $25 per year, subscription included. Combination rate with 
The Mining Magazine (London), one-half Inch In each, $40 per rear, subscription included 


618-28 U. S. Nat'l Bank Bdg., Denver, Colo. 
No professional work undertaken 



614 Pender St. W., Vancouver, B. C. 

Cable: Alamorg Code: Bedford McNeill 

BROWN, R. Gilman 


Pinners Hall, London, E.C. 2 

Cable: Argeby Usual Codes 

ADDICKS, Lawrence 

51 Maiden Lane, New York City 
Cable: Galie, New York 

BEADON, W. R. Coleridge 

P.O. Box 103. Rangoon, Burma 
Cable: % Scott, Rangoon 

BROWNE, Spencer C. 

2 Rector Street, New York 
Cable: Spenbrowne, New York 



Examination, valuation and development of 

mines in Bolivia 

Casilla 176. Oruro. Bolivia 

BEAM, A. Mills 



807 Central Savings Bank Bdg.. 

Denver, Colorado 

Burch. Hershey & White 
BURCH, Albert 


Crocker Bdg., San Francisco 

Cable: Burch Usual Codes 

ALDRLBGE, Walter H. 

50 East 42nd St., New York 

BEATTY, A. Chester 

25 Broad St., New York 
No professional work entertained 
Cable: Granitic 

BURCH, H. Kenyon 


Phelps Dodge Corporation, 

Copper Queen Branch 

Bisbee. Arizona 

ARNOLD, Ralph 


Union Oil Bdg., Los Angeles. Cal. 

120 Broadway, New York 

Cable : Ralf arnoil Code : Bedford McNeill 

B. C. Austin G. E. Gamble W. V. Wilson 



316 Kohl Bdg.. San Francisco 

Cable : Austin Usual Codes 

Hamilton, Beauchamp. Woodworth, Inc. 


Specialty: Flotation 

419 Embarcadero, San Francisco 



71 Broadway. New York 

BEDFORD, Robert H. 

Grass Valley, California 


648 Mills Bdg.. San Francisco. Cal. 

BATS, H. Poster 


Washington, D. C. 

-Cable: Mobsu Code : Broomhall 


% Chile Exploration Co. 
120 Broadway, New York 





General Engineering 




Room 3022 

No. 120 Broadway. 



159 Pierpont 


Salt Lake City. 



BALL, Sydney H. 


42 Broadway, New York 
Cable: Alhasters Rogers, Mayer & Ball 


Specialty: Smoke and Other Industrial Injury 
to Vegetation. 14 years experience in America 
and Europe. 2525 Hilgard Ave., Berkeley. Cal. 

CAMPBELL, J. Morrow 


Messrs. Steel Bros. & Co., Ltd., 

Rangoon. Burma 

BANCROFT, Howland 


408 Crocker Bdg., San Francisco 

Casilla No. 215, Oruro, Bolivia 

Cable : Howban Code : Bedford McNeill 

BOISE, Charles W. 

Foreign Exploration 
Room 1507, 14 Wall Street, New York 
Cable : Mukeba 


Citizens National Bank Bdg., Los Angelea 

BANKS, Charles 




612 Pacific Bdg 

.. Hastings St, 


Vancouver. B. C. 

Cable: Banca 

Code : Bedford McNeill 


Burlingame. California 

BOSQUI, Francis L. 

342 Madison Ave., New York 



Room 2083, No. 50 Church St., 

New York City. U. S. A. 

CHANCE & CO., H. M. 


839 Drexel Bdg., Philadelphia 


61 Broadway. New York 

BARKER, Edgar E. 

Morococha, Peru 

BRAYTON, Corey C. 

2937 Magnolia Ave.. Berkeley. Cal. 



Charles A. 

5-826 Cooper Bdg., Denver 
Bell G. M. Co.. Telluride. 





7 and 9 Hanover St., 

Marquette, Mich. 

- , New York . 

Code: McNeill 

BRODD3, Walter M. 

47 Cedar St.. New York 

CHASE, E. E. and R. L. 


207 Colorado Nat. Bk. Bdg., 

Denver, Colo. 

Jul] 2, 1921 


< Hill \, Samuel w. 

CONSULTING minim; engineer 
Dominion Express Bdg.. Montreal. Canada 

COLLBRAX, Arthur H. 

Seoul. Korea 

COLLINS, Kdwin James 

Mine Examinations and Management 
10081009 Torrcy Bdg.. Duluth. Minn. 

COLLINS, George E. 

Mine Examinations and Management 
307 Boston Bdg.. Denver 
Cable: Colomae 



Cable: "Glencolins" Vancouver. B. C. 

COLLINS, Henry F. 

66 Finsbury Pavement. London. E.C. 



Cable: Collins. Pekinr Peking. China 

COOK, Paul R., EM. 


Care American Consul 

Sofia. Bulgaria — Belgrade. Serbia 

CRANSTON, Robert E. 


1213 Hobart Bdg.. 582 Market St. 

San Francisco 2 Rector St.. New York 

Cable : Recrans Code: McNeill 1908 






Box 489. 

24 N. Chapel St.. 

Timmins. Ont. 



Cal.. U.S.A. 


414 Hobart Bdg.. San Francisco, Cal. 



618 North Third Avenue 

Phoenix. Arizona 

DEL MAR, Algernon 


Specialty. Mill Operation and Construction 

1424 Alpha St.. Los Angeles 

DENNIS, Clifford 




Crocker Bdg. 









909-917 Crocker Bdg., San Francisco 



The Insurance Exchange, San 

Cable: Dcerhodor Code: 

McNeill 1008 

DOLBEAR, Samuel H. 


1415 Merchants National Bank Bdg., 

San Francisco 


John V. N. Dorr. President 



Denver New York London. E.C. 


704 Lonsdale Bdg.. Duluth. Minn. 

DWIGHT, Arthur S. 


29 Broadway, New York 
Cable: Sinterer 

Code: McNeill: Miners & Smelters 

EASTON, Stanly A. 


Manager Bunker Hill & Sullivan Mining- & 

Concentrating Co., Kellogg, Idaho 

EDE, J. A. 

La Salle. Illinois 


1209 Hobart Bdg., 406 State Bank Bdg.. 

San Francisco, Cal. Tonopah, Nevada 

EYE, Clyde M. 


% Wells Fargo Nevada Nat. Bank, 

San Francisco. Cal. 

Cable: Eyecon Code: Western Union 


C. S. T 




Min. Backyus 

y Johnston 




Peru. S. A. 

FARISH, George E. 


First National Bank Bdg.. San Francisco 

25 Broad St.. New York 

FARISH, John B. 

Office. 58 Sutter St.. San Francisco 
Residence. San Mateo. Cal. 
Cable: Farish 


Room 1410, 170 Broadway, New York 


1st Nat. Bk. Bdg., Denver. 423 Broad St., New 
York 826 Great Southern Bdg., Dallas. Tex. 
Cable : Calfishoil Usual Codes 


Eureka, Utah 

FOWLKK, Samuel S. 


Nelson. British Columbia 
Cable : Fowler Usual Codes 

FRAME, James 


Room 607. 53 







Mine and Metallurgical Plant Design and 


1209 Hobart Bdg.. San Frnnclsco 

GAHL, Rudolf 

804 Equitable Bdg.. Denver. Colo. 

GARLICK, William A. 

Attorney at Law 

Certified Public Accountant (N. C.) 

Ab Applied to Oil, Mines and Timber 

410 Crocker Bdg.. San Francisco, Cal. 

GARREY, George H. 



Bullitt Bdg.. Philadelphia. Pa. 

GEPPERT, Richard M. 


% Mining Magazine, 

Salisbury House. London. E.C. 

GIBSON, Arthur 

Placer Mining and Magnetometrie Determina- 
tions of Mineral Concentrations in the field. 
300 Haight St.. San Francisco. Cal. 








Hobart Bdg., 


Market St.. 




Bedford McNeill 

David X. Greenberg Prank A. Humphrey 



Kingman, Arizona 

Mine Reports and Examinations 


Old National Bank Bdg., Spokane, Wash. 

HAGER, Dorsey 

425 Pacific Finance Bdg., Los Angeles, Cal. 

HALL, R. G. 

Complex Ores 
Address and Cable: Namtu. Burma 

Codes: Broomhall's. A. B. C, McNeills 



Specialty : Cyaniding Gold and Silver OreB 

419 The Embarcadero. San Francisco 

HANSON, Henry 

Specialty. Gold and Silver Ores 
Plant Design and Construction 
Hobart Bdg.. San Francisco. Cal. 



July 2, 1921 

HAWXHURST, Robert, Jr. 

234 Holbrook Building. 
58 Sutter St.. San Francisco. Cal. 
Cable: Hawxhuret 






3700, 120 Broadway, 



LOCKE, Augustus 

788 Mills Bag., San Francisco, Cal. 







Montreal and Winnipeg', 


Dudley J. Inskipp 


A. Be van 



1. Broad St. Place. 



Cable: Monazite 



Bewick, Moreing & Co. 



62. London Wall, London, E.C.. '& 

Cable: Ringlo Usual Codes 

Burch, Hershey & White 
HERSHEY, Oscar H. 


Crocker Bdg 1 ., San Francisco 

Cable: Hershey Code: McNeill 

JANIN, Charles 


716 Kohl Bdg 







LORING, Frank C. 

Sun Life Bdg 1 .. Toronto, Ontario. Canada 

HILLS, Victor G. 

312 McPhee Bdg., Denver. Colo. 

JENKS, Arthur W. 

1560 Le Roy Ave.. Berkeley, Cal. 


614 Crocker Bdir,. San Francisco, Cal. 

London Address: % Bewick. Moreing & Co., 

62, London Wall, London 

Cable: Wantoness Usual Codes 

HODGE, Edwin T. 

Consulting 1 Geological and Mining Engineer 

Standard Bank Building-, Vancouver, B. C. 

Department of Geology, University of Oregon, 

Eugene. Oregon 



Goldfleld Consolidated Mines Exploration Co. 

Crocker Bdg.. San Francisco, Cal. 


Avenida Isabela La Catolica, Num. 25, 
Mexico City 
Cable: Lucke, Mexico City 


1, London Wall Buildings. London, E.C.2 

Usual Codes 



Cable: Manhoft 2 Rector St. 

New York 


228 Perry St., Oakland. Cal. 
Cable: Siberhof 




1025 Peoples Gas Bdg., Chicago 

HOOVER, Theodore J. 

1. London Wall Bdg., London. E,C. 
Mills Bldg., San Francisco 
— i*ble: Mildaloo 

L JSKIN, Arthur J. 


Mining. Metallurgy. Geology, Oil Shale 


1215 York St.. Denver. Colo. 


Casilla No. 1507, Lima, Peru 
Telegrams and Cables: Howie. Lima 
Bentley's Code 

HOYLE, Charles 

Apartado 8, El Oro, Mexico 

L. D, Huntoo G. D. Van Arsdale 



Los Angeles, Cal. 


115 Broadway. _?w York 

HURST, George L. 


Gold Dredging and Hydraulic Engineering 

544 Market St., San Francisco. Cal. 



485 California St.,. San Francisco 
Cable: Haruston 

KEENE, Amor F. 

233 Broadway, New York 
Cable: Kamor. New York 

E. H. Kennard E. C. Bierce 



Mill Design and Construction. Filtration 

Hollingsworth Bdg.. Los Angeles, Cal. 

KEVZD3, Robert A. 

First National Bank Bdg., San Francisco 

KIRBY, Edmund B. 


918 Security Bdg.. St. Louis 

Specialty: The expert examination of mines 

and metallurgical enterprises 





Felt Bdg.. Salt Lake City. 



Ely, Nevada 

LEHMANN, Charles 


Examination and Management of Properties 

Casilla 1364, Santiago. Chile. S. A. 


Hoge Bdg.. Seattle. Wash. 


H. Alliunn 


Cochabamba, Bolivia 

Code: McNeill 1908 

LINDLEY, Curtis, Jr. 

604 Mills Bdg.. San Francisco, Cal. 


Specialty: Pyro -Metallurgy of Copper and As- 
sociated Metals. 29 Broadway. New York 
Cable : Ricloy Code : McNeill 



Diamond Drilling and Shaft Sinking 


Manufacturers of Diamond DrillB and Supplies 

General Office: 710-722 Security Bdg., 

Minneapolis. Minn. 

Cable : Longco Code : McNeill 


Horace F. 

Commissioner of 




Denver, Colo 





MAJOR, Chas. Edward 

P.O. Box 474. Prescott, Arizona 



Buenaventura. Colombia, 

South America 







42 Broadway 

New York 






% Burma 



Jamshedpur. India 

McCarthy, e. t. 

10 Austin Friars. London 



Rakka Mines P. O. District. Singhbhum, 

Chota Nagpur. India 

mcgregor, a. g. 


Design of Metallurgical Plants 

Warren. Arizona 

MEIN, William Wallace 

43 Exchange Place, New York 
Cable: Mein. New York 

Julv 2, 192] 



MERCER, John W. 


General Manager South American Mines Co., 

Mills Bd»„ Broad St.. New York 


Avenida Juarez 83, Mexico City, Mexico 
Cable: Kerinrpic 

ROGERS, Edwin M. 


32 Broadway, New York 

Cable: Emrog Code: McNeill 


Charles W. Merrill. Pros. 

Merrill Zinc Dust Precipitation Process 

Crowe Vacuum Precipitation Process 

San Francisco. Cal. 

PLATE, H. Robinson 


Examination, Development and Management 

Hobart Bdg.. San Francisco. Cal. 

ROGERS, John C. 

Examination and Exploration of Mining- Prop- 
erties with a view to Purchase 
Copper Cliff. Ontario Code : Bedford McNeill 

MILLS, Edwin W. 


1 Nan Chlh Tze, Peking. China 

Telegrams: Millmann. Peking Usual Codes 

MINARD, Frederick H. 


47 East 42nd St., New York City 

Cable: Frednard Code: McNeill 

Howard Polllon C. H. Poirier 


42 Broadway. New A'ork 



Casilla 489, Santiago 

Cable: Kivapo, Santiago. Chile 

de Chile 

Code: McNeill 

Allen H. Rogers Lucius W. Mayer 

Sydney H. Ball 



43 Broadway, New York 
201 Devonshire St., Boston, Mass. 
Cable: Alhasters 

MITKE, Chas. A. 


Mine Ventilation — Mining- Methods 

Bisbee, Arizona 



Colombian Corporation, Limited, 

Apartado 172. Medellin, Colombia 

ROYER, Prank 

1212 Hollingsworth 
Cable: Royo 



Bdg., Los Angeles, Cal. 
Code: McNeill 



1057 Monadnock Bder., San Francisco 
Cable : Fredmor Cable : McNeill 

PROBERT, Frank H. 

University of California, Berkeley, Cal. 


Consulting- Metallurgist. Ore Smelting Con- 
tracts Investigated. Smelting and Milling of 
Copper and Lead Ores. Design and Construc- 
tion. 120 Broadway. New York 

MUDD, Seeley W. 

1208 Hollingsworth Bdg.. Los Angeles, Cal. 








Pereulok, Vladivostok 




., London. E.C., 



Reports, Consultation and Management. Spe- 
cialty, Manganese. Stow Bedon, Norfolk. Eng. 
Codes. A. B. C, 5th Ed.: Bedford McNeill 

MTOR, N. M. 


1024 Mills Bdg., San Francisco 

425 Flynn Ames Bdg.. Muskogee. Oklahoma 

RAY, James C. 


865 Hamilton Ave., 

Palo Alto. Cal. 

SAUNDERS, T. Skewes 


University Club, Bucareli 35, 

Mexico City, Mexico 



Ipoh, Perak, Federated Malay States 

Cable: Munro Code: McNeill 









St.. San Francisco 




Salt Lake 



NEWBERRY, Andrew W. 

Room 330. No. 2 Rector St., New York City 
Cable: Awnbry, New York 

Code: Bedford McNeill 


Union League Club, San Francisco, Cal. 


Ralph C. 

Hobart Bdg., San 


In charge Exploration Dept 

of D. 



PAYNE, Henry M. 


Machinery Club, 50 Church St., New York 

Cable: Macepayne Usual Codes 

PERKINS, Walter G. 

587 Mills Bdg., San Francisco 

FERRET, Leon A. 


Platinum and Gold Placer Mining 

30 years practical work in Siberia 

5 Bluff. Yokohama, Japan 

RICE, John A. 

414 Hobart Bdg., San Francisco 

Robert H. Richards Charles E. Locke 



Tests for design of Flow Sheets 

69 Massachusetts Ave., Cambridge, Mass. 


42 Broadway. New York 

RICKARD, Forbes 

Equitable Building, Denver 


42 Broadway, New York 


A. Etienne 


Colorado Springs, 


ROBERTS, Milnor 


The Pacific Northwest 

British Columbia and Alaska 

University Station. Seattle, Wash. 


1108 Hobart Bdg., San Francisco 

Code: McNeill 

SEARS, Stanley C. 

Reports, Consultation and Management 
705 Walker Bank Bdg., Salt Lake City, Utah 
Usual Codes 

SHALER, Millard K. 


66 Rue de Colonies. 

Brussels, Belgium 



Mine Examinations and Management 

Saratoga, Cal. 



Amos, Quebec, Canada 

Fundicion de Los Arcos. Toluca. Mex. 

P. O. Box 160, Cobalt, Ontario 


1006 Hobart Bdg., San Francisco 

SMITH, Howard D. 

60 Broadway, i 
Cable: Diorite 


V York 

ade : Western Union 

Franklin W. Smith Ralph A. Ziesemer 


Bisbee. Ariz. Code: McNeill 





214 O'Neill Bdg.. Phoenix, 




July 2, 1921 


814 Mills Bdc., San Francisco 


Goldfield. Nevada 







Glendora. Cal. 

STEVENS, Arthur W. 

Atlanta. Idaho 

TURNER, Scott 

1511 Bank of Hamilton Bdg:., 
Toronto. Ontario. Canada 

•J. H. Devereux W. B. Devereux, Jr. 


120 Broadway. N. Y. 7. Victoria Ave.. London 
Cable : Kenreux Code: Bedford McNeill 

STEVENS, Blarney 


Triunfo. Baja California. Mexico, 

% S. A. de Minas y Montes 


534 Confederation Life Bdgr-. Toronto, Canada 
208 Salisbury House. London. E.C., 2. England 


Continental Bank Bdg., Salt Lake City, Utah 


Vancouver Block. Vancouver, B. C. 


42 Exchange Place. New York 

WISEMAN, Philip 


1210 Holling-sworth Bdg.. Los Angeles 

Cable : Pilwiseman Codes : W. U. : McNeill 

STEVES, Norman C. 

4, Moorgate Street. London, E.C.. 2 
Codes: McNeill (both Editions) and Bentley's 
Cable: Nurmstinen. London 


14 Copthall Ave., London. E.C.. 
And Peking, China 
Cable: Natchekoo, London 


Examination and Exploration of Mining Prop- 
erties with View to Financing 
Searchlight. Nevada 




1313 Alaska Bdg.. Seattle. Wash. 

WEBBER, Morton 

165 Broadway, New York 


Harry J. 



42 Broadway 

New York 



Code: Bedford McNeill 

STRAUSS, Lester W. 


Casilla 614, Valparaiso, Chile, S. A. 

Cable: Lestra- Valparaiso Code: McNeill 

WEEKES, Frederic R. 

233 Broadway, New York 

WRIGHT, Charles Will 

28. Via Parlamento, Rome, Italy 

Code: Bentley's 


1001 Hobart Bdg-., San Francisco 

WEIGALL, Arthur R. 

General Manager The Seoul Mining Co. 

Tul Mi Chung- (Nantei) 
Whang - Hai Province, Chosen (Korea) 

WRIGHT, Louis A. 

370 Langegasse, Obermais, Merano (Trentino), 
Italy. Cable: Lawright, Rome 

Codes: Bed. McN. & Bentley's Complete Phrase 

Arthur P. Taggart B. B. Yerxa 


Operation and design of ore treatment plants 
Laboratory. 165 Division St., New Haven, Conn. 

WESTERVELT, William Young 


522 Filth Ave., New York 

Cable : Casewest Code : Broomhall's 

WROTH, James S. 

Room 827, 2 Rector St., New York 

TALMAGE, Sterling B. 

Geologic Maps, Examinations. Reports 
315 Judge Bdg.. Salt Lake City, Utah 

TAYLOR, G. Cleveland 


U. S. Mineral Surveyor 

Prop. Redding Assay Office 

321 Butte St.. Redding. Cal. 

WHITE, Charles H. 

788 Mills Bdg., San Francisco 


Bothin Bdg., Santa Barbara, California 

Pope Yeatman Edwin S. Berry 



Examination, Development and Management 
of Properties 

Room 1604. 165 Broadway, New York 

Cable : 


Bedford McNeill 

TAYS, Eugene A. H. 


San Bias, Sinaloa. Mexico 

Specialties: Professional Work in Mexico; 

Mexican Mining Law 


8, Old Jewry. London. E.C. 2 

Codes: McNeill, both Editions 


% A. Chester Beatty. 25 Broad St., New York 
Code: Bedford McNeill 

Burch, Hershey & White 
WHITE, Lloyd C. 

Crocker Bdg., San Francisco 

WHITMAN, Alfred R. 


Underground Programmes. Orebody Problems 

43 Exchange Place, New York 

Haileybury, Ontario (Cobalt District) 

WHITMORE, Claude C. 



3216 Bayard St., Butte. Montana 



Offices and Laboratory 
Story Bdg., Los Angeles. California, U. S. A. 

Examinations and Reports on all Mineral 

Deposits, Formations and Processes 

of Extraction 

20 years experience in the Western States, 

Pacific Coast States, U. S. A., Mexico 

and Central America 




Mills Bdg.. 

San Francisco 



Codes: McNeill-Broomhall 

WICKS, Prank R. 


Ore Treatment. Test Work. Plant Supervision 

Office and Laboratory: 1006 South Hill St.. 

Los Angeles 

ZEIGLER, Victor 


Examination of oil lands and mineral deposits 

Geologic and structural mapB 

415 Empire Bdg.. Denver, Colo. 

Julv 2, 192] 



will help you solve your most serious Engine 
and Boiler room repair problems. Engi- 
neers the country over have contributed 
their experience to its pages. 

Every page of this book — of which there are 

A Book of Knowledge — 


Compiled, endorsed, read and appreci- 
ated by engineers, this 


Instruction Book No. 18 

144 — explains or illustrates a repair made in 
the engine or boiler room and around the 
plant. Some are unusual — some ordinary, 
but all have saved time, labor and expense. 

Send for this book today — a postal will 
bring it. 



Chicago Office: 221 North Jefferson St. San Francisco Office: 56 Sacramento St. 



Is what you want and what you get in National Quality 

Tanks, because they are honestly and expertly made 

horn either Douglas Fir or California Redwood. 

We manufacture all kinds, sizes and shapes of tanks, for 

every conceivable purpose. Careful attention given to 

special installations. 

Used by the United States Govern merit and big mines every wnere 




We manuiacture complete cyanide plmil.* 
either standard or on special specifications 

^^ft ^'fPSt'W 






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120 TO 3300 B.H.P. | 


600 TO 3000 S.H.P. I 






j SINCE 1898 



iiiiiiiii miiiiiiimlii iitmiiimmt t Ill limnmnii mil iniimiim lit t ill in i t in mm I mm I i minimum mi mi Ill llllllillE 

film miiiimimiiilin mum i I m immiiiimiiiiiim miiiimiimiliiimuiiim I'm gimuii I imiiiimnmniim I m mum t I niii iiimnm ■'"["_"" _ M mmiiiin^ 

CA D C FOR MINES. | 1 I (1 
Electric Mining Locomotive* 1 


Switches, Frogi, and Equipment. = = U^^M I 



iiMiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiniiiiiiiimii mini iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiHiiniiii iiiiiiiii in n in n inn ii i i m in """■- 

/I I L_I_ ^I^W^tsfiS!! SPUR ^| 


San Francisco Office: 


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July 2, 1921 


(P. W. Iibbey) 

Assayera. Chemists and Metallurgists 


306-307 N. First St., Phoenix. Arizona 


Assayers, ChemiBts and Metallurgists 


Flotation and Cyanide Tests 

1008 South Hill St.. Los Angeles, Cal. 

J. M. CALLOW. President 



159 Pierpont Avenue, Salt Lake City, Utah 

Design and Erection of all Classes of Reduction Plants 



The 4th edition of our Ore Testing 1 Bulletin la now ready for mailing. We shall be pleased to 

send it to you upon request 

New York Oflh.-e, 120 Broadway, Room 3022. C. E. Chaffin, Local Manager 

Australian Agent: F. H. Jackson, 22 Carrington St., Wynward Square, Sydney, N. S. W„ Australia 

BARDWELL, Alonzo P. 


(Successor' to Bettles & Bardwell) 

168 S. W. Temple St., Salt Lake City, Utah 

Ore Shippers' Agent 



Technical and Chemical Analysis of Ores 

Minerals, and All Organic Materials 

233 W. First St.. Los Angeles. Cal. 





Flotation of Copper, Lead, Zinc, and Other Minerals 

Tests made on Lots of 1 lb. up to 5 Tons 


Laboratory and Office, 419 The Embarcadero, San Francisco 
Telephone: Sutter 5266 Cable address: Hambeau Codes: West. Union; Bed. McNeill 


Chemical, electro-chemical, metallurgical and 

electro-metallurgical investigations and 

reports. Processes developed 

804 Atlas Bdg.. San Francisco 

LEDOUX & CO., Inc. 


Independent samplers at the port of New York 

Representatives at all Refineries and Smelters on Atlantic Seaboard 

Office and Laboratory: 99 John Street. New York 


Shippers' Representatives 
Box BB. Douglas. Arizona 


Telephone, Kearny 5951 


Sampling or Ores at Smelters 

53 Stevenson St. 

San Francisco 



El Paso. Texas 

Umpire and Controls a Specialty 

SMITH, EMERY & CO. (Ore Testing Plant. Los Angeles) 


Represent Shippers at Smelters, Test Ores, and Design Mills 

651 Howard Street, San Francisco 245 South Lob Angeles Street. Los Angeles 


Special problems in ore treatment 
29 Broadway, New York City 
Cable Address : Sinterer 


An Institution of Technology and Engineering. Full degrees, low cost, fine climate, new 
equipment, accessible to mines and smelters Write for catalogue. 

A. X. ILLINISKI. President, Socorro. New Mexico 

FROST, Oscar J. 


1310-12 17th Ave., 
P. O. Box 145, Denver. Colo. 

GIBSON, Walter L. 

Successor to 
824 Washington St.. Oakland, Cal. 
Phone 8929 
Umpire assays and supervision of sampling. 
Working tests of ores, analysis. Investiga- 
tions of metallurgical and technical processes. 
Professor L. Falkenau, General Manager and 
Consulting Specialist. 

HANKS, Abbott A. 


Established 1866 

624 Sacramento St., San Francisco 

Control and Umpire Assays, Supervision of 
Sampling at Smelters 

Bureau of Inspection and Testing 

IRVING & CO., James 


Mines Examined 

702 South Spring St.. Los Angeles. Cal. 


Successors to 

Geo. A. James Co. 



We Specialize on Chemical and Metallurgical 


Laboratory: £8 Belden Place, San Francisco 



Oils, Hydrocarbons and Oil Shale Analysis 

169 South West Temple Street. 

Salt Lake City, Utah 




(Established 18951 

120 N. Main St.. Los Angeles. Cal. 



1118 Nineteenth St., Denver 

Ore Shippers' Agent. Write for terms 

Representatives at all Colorado smelters 

PITKIN, Inc., Lucius 

Weighers. Samplers and Assayers of Ores of 
all Descriptions 
47 Fulton St., New York 
Cable: Niktip 


Fresno. Cal. 


of the Mining and Scientific Press 
carries a complete line of Tech- 
nical Books on all subjects allied 
to the mining field. 

July 'J. WW 



il Mil II II lit lilt Ill I MMI II II II HI H Ml I I'll 

it minimi i mi i miimimimiimiiiimiM mimiimi u intiiitii 

Wherever water 
is to be lifted 

In the gold mines of Alaska, the diamond fields 
of Kimberly, in the far away Urals, and in fact 
wherever man pursues his quest tor the hidden 
treasures of the earth, there Byron Jackson pumps 
will be found serving. 

Aside from thestoryofthis 

service, there is nothing 

romantic about rugged, 

carefully machined Byron 

Jackson pumps. Because 

ofthis tested dependability 

they have been the companions o 

men even to the remote corners of 

the world. And they have fulfilled this trust 

with faithful economic, performance. 


Wherever water is to be lifted 
412 Sharon Building^SAN FRANCISCO 

The new multi- 
stage uniftow 
pump which solves 
deep mine lifting 


I mil 



If youi ore requires fine | 

grinding and you propose | 

to treat it by amaJgama- % 

tion, flotation, or any other | 

process, investigate the | 

Lane Mill. Its operating | 

cost is low. One Com- \ 

I pany, treating over 50,000 tons a year which has been ruoning Lane | 

= Mills for six years, reports a total operating cost of 25.59 cents per ton | 

| of ore milled. | 

Send for Catalog No. 9 § 


106 W. Third St., Los Angeles, Calif. 




k0ppel industrial car & equip c°" 




is our specialty § 

Write us for information = 



SOI Market St. 1422-24 Aeolian Bids. | 

LONDON, W. C. | 

11-13 Southampton Row = 



Justify their installations in metallurgical 
plants through successful handling of difficult 
filtration problems. 

They reduce the cost of handling flotation con- 
centrates and metallurgical slimes. 
Produce a 50% thicker cake. 
Require half the power for driving of other 
filters of similar types. 

Give a constant extraction of 98% of the 
original soluble values in the cake. 
Quick redressing of the sectors. 
For economy and greater production, put 
your problems up to American Continuous 

Ask for Bulletin P-104 



July 2, 1921 

Machinery and Supplies of Dependable Manufacturers are here Listed 
Addresses will befound on the Sixth followinq Page ••• 
If you do not find what yo u want communicate with MiwNGand Scientific Press Service 


Acetylene Generators 
Bullard, E. D. 

Aftercoolere, Air 

Chicago Pneumatic Tool Co.' 


Chalmers & Williams 
Dorr Co. 

Meese & Gottfried Co. 
National Tank & Pipe Co. 
Pacific Tank & Pipe Co. 
Trent, Goodwin M. 

Air Pipe 

W. R. Ames Co. 

Air Receivers 

Chicago Pneumatic Tool Co. 

Lugersoll-Rand Co. 

Rix Compressed Air & Drill Co. 

Simpson Co.. A. H. 

Sullivan Machinery Co. 

Amalgamating Plates 

Denver Engineering Works Co. 
Morse Bros. Machy. & Sup. Co. 
San Francisco Plating Works 
Simpson Co., A. H 
Worthing-ton Pump & Mach. Corp. 


Mine & Smelter Supply Co. 

Assayers' and ChemistB' Supplies 

Bartley Crucible Co.. Jonathan 
Braun Corporation 
Caire Co., Justinian 
Calkins Co. w , _ 

Denver Engineering Works Co. 
Denver Fire Clay Oo. 
Dixon Crucible Co Joseph 
Mine & Smelter Su <ply Co. 
(See Index to Advertisers) 


Braun Corporation 

Balances and Weights 

Braun Corporation 
Caire Co.. Justinian 
Calkins Co. 
Denver Fire Clay Co. 
Fairbanks. Morse & Co. 
Mine & Smelter Supply Co. 
Morse Bros. Machy. & Sup. Co. 
Thompson Balance Co. 

Balls for Ball-Mills 

Bethlehem Shipbuilding Corp., Ltd. 

Chalmers & Williams 

Denver Engineering Works Co. 

Hardinge Co. 

Hickok & Hickok 

Los Angeles Foundry Co. 

Ball-Mills (see 'Mills') 


Garratt & Co., W. T. 

Belting and Lacing 

Diamond Rubber Co., Inc. 
Dodge Sales & Engineering Co. 
Fairbanks, Morse & Co. 
Flexible Steel Lacing Co. 
Goodrich Rubber Co., B. F. 
Main Belting Co. 
Meese & Gottfried Co. 
New York Belting & Packing Co. 
Pioneer Rubber Mills 
TJ. S. Rubber Co. 


Allis-Chalmers Mfg. Co. 

General Electric Co. 

Ingersoll-Rand Co. 

Mine & Smelter Supply Co. 

Morse Bros. Machy. & Sup. Co. 

Nordberg Mfg. Co. 

Rix Compressed Air & Drill Co. 

Blowing Engines 
Nordberg Mfg. Co. 


Bethlehem Shipbuilding Corp., Ltd. 
Mine & Smelter Supply Co. 
Morse Bros. Machy. & Sup. Co. 

Books, Technical 

Mining and Scientific Press 

Brick, Fire 

Atkins. Kroll & Co. 
Denver Fire Clay Co. 
Harbison -Walker Refractories Co. 
Mine & Smelter Supply Co. 

Brlqaetting Machinery 

Traylor Eng. & Mfg. Co. 


Atlas Car & Mfg. Co. 
Box Iron Works Co.. Wm. A. 
Meese & Gottfried Co. 
Mine & Smelter Supply Co. 
Simpson Co., A. H. 

Burners, Oil 

Braun Corporation 
Denver Fire Clay Co. 
Lunkenheimer Co. 
Mine & Smelter Supply Co. 
Powell Co., Wm. 


Atlas Car & Mfg. Co. 
Mine & Smelter Supply Co. 
Morse Bros. Machy. & Sup. Co. 
Traylor Eng. & Mfg. Co. 

Calculating Machines 

Monroe Calculating Mr^iM Co. 

Carbide Flare Lights 
Bullard, E. D. 

Carbons, Borts, and Diamonds 

Atkins. Kroll & Co. 


Allis-Chalmers Mfg. Co. 
Atlas Car & Mfg. Co. 
Box Iron Works Co.. Wm. A. 
Chicago Pneumatic Tool Co. 
Mine & Smelter Supply Co. 
Ottumwa Iron Works 
Simpson Co.. A. H. 
Western Wheeled Scraper Co, 


Cement-Gun Co. 


Dodge Sales & Engineering Co. 
Meese & Gottfried Co. 


Barrett Co. 

Braun Corporation 


Caire Co.. Justinian 

Calkins Co. 

Denver Fire Clay Co. 

Du Pont de Nemours & Co. 

Hercules Powder Co. 

Mine & Smelter Supply Co. 

Roessler & Hasslacher Cbem. Co. 

Chilean Mills (see 'Mills') 

Chisel Blanks 

Chicago Pneumatic Tool Co. 

Chrome Brick 

Harbison-Walker Refractories Co. 


Allis-Chalmers Mfg. Co. 

Box Iron Works Co., Wm. A 

Chalmers & Williams 

Colorado Iron Works 

Deister Machine Co. 

Denver Engineering Works Co. 

Dorr Co. 

Messe & Gottfried Co. 

Pacific Tank & Pipe Co. 

Traylor Eng. & Mfg. Co. 

Clutches, Friction (see 'Transmis- 
sion Machinery') 

Allis-Chalmers Mfg. Co. 
Cement-Gun Co. 
Chalmers & Williams 
Chicago Pneumatic Tool Co. 
Fairbanks. Morse & Co. 
General Electric Co. 
Ingersoll-Rand Co. 

Jackson Compressor Co. 
Mine & Smelter Supply Co. 
Morse Bros. Machy. & Sup. Co. 
Nordberg Mfg. Co. 
Rix Compressed Air & Drill Co. 
Simpson Co., A. H. 
Sullivan Machinery Co. 
Worthington Pump & Mach. Corp. 

Compressors, Mine Car 

Chicago Pneumatic Tool Co. 


Allis-Chalmers Mfg. Co. 

Butchart, W. A. 

Chalmers & Williams 

Colorado Iron Works 

Deister Concentrator Co. 

Deister Machine Co. 

Denver Engineering Works Co. 

Elsol Concentrating Co. 

James Ore Concentrator Co. 

Mine & Smelter Supply Co. 

Morse Bros. Machy. & Sup. Co. 

Simpson Co.. A. H. 

Traylor Eng. & Mfg. Co. 

Worthington Pump & Mach. Corp. 

Concentrators, Dry 

Elsol Concentrating Co. 

Dump Cars, V-Shaped and Mining 
Koppel Industrial Car & Equip. Co. 

Condensers, Low Level Jet 

Ingersoll-Rand Co. 

Condensers, Surface 
Ingersoll-Rand Co. 

Contractors, Core Drilling 

Sullivan Machinery Co. 

Allis-Chalmers Mfg. Co. 

Traylor Eng. & Mfg. Co. 

Worthington Pump & Mach. Corp. 

ConveyorB, Belt or Screw 

Allis-Chalmers Mfg. Co. 
Goodrich Rubber Co.. B. F. 
Main Belting Co. 
Meese & Gottfried Co. 
New York Belting & Packing Co. 
Pioneer Rubber Mills 
Worthing-ton Pump & Mach. Corp. 
U. S. Rubber Co. 

Couplings, Air Hose 

Chicago Pneumatic Tool Co. 


Box Iron Works Co., Wm.. A 
Chicago Pneumatic Tool Co. 


Bartley Crucible Co., Jonathan 

Braun Corporation 


Caire Co.. Justinian 

Calkins Co. 

Denver Fire Clay Co. 

Dixon Crucible Co.. Joseph 

Mine & Smelter Supply Co. 


Allis-Chalmers Mfg. Co. 

Bacon, Inc.. Earle C. 

Box Iron Works Co., Wm. A. 

Braun Corporation 


Caire Co., Justinian 

Calkins Co. 

Chalmers & Williams 

Colorado Iron Works 

Denver Engineering Works Co. 

Denver Fire Clay Co. 

Elsol Concentrating Co. 

Mine & Smelter Supply Go. 

Morse Bros. Machy. & Sup. Co. 

Simpson Co.. A. H. 

Traylor Eng. & Mfg. Co. 

Worthington Pump & Mach, Corp. 

Crushers, Jaw 

Buchanan Co., Inc., C. G. 


Braun Corporation 
Denver Fire Clay Co. 
Dixon Crucible Co.. Joseph 
Mine & Smelter Supply Co. 


American Cyanamid Co. 
Roessler & HasBlacher Chem. Co. 

Cyanide Plants and Machinery 

Aldrich Pump Co. 
Allis-Chalmers Mfg. Co. 
Colorado Iron Works 
Dorr Co. 

Mine & Smelter Supply Go. 
Morse Bros. Machy. & Sup. Co. 
National Tank & Pipe Co. 
Oliver Continuous Filter Co. 
Pacific Tank & Pipe Co. 
Redwood Mfrs. Co. 
Traylor Eng. & Mfg. Co. 
Trent, Goodwin M. 
Worthington Pump & Mach. Corp. 


Chalmers & Williams 
Colorado Iron Works 
Dorr Co. 

General Engineering Co. 
Morse Bros. Machy. & Sup. Co. 
Oliver Continuous Filter Co. 
Ruggles-Coles Eng. Co. 
Traylor Eng. & Mfg. Co. 

Drafting Materials 

Dixon Crucible Co., Joseph 

Dragline Excavators 

Leschen & Sons Rope Co., A. 
Lidgerwood Mfg. Co. 

Dredges and Accessories 

Bethlehem Shipbuilding Corp. Ltd, 

Hickok & Hickok 

Leschen & Sons Rope Co., A. 

New York Engineering Co. 

Union Construction Co. 

Yuba Mfg. Co. 

Drill Makers and Sharpeners 
Denver Rock Drill Mfg. Co. 
General Electric Co. 
Ingersoll-Rand Co. 
Sullivan Machinery Co. 

Drills, Air and Steam 

Chicago Pneumatic Tool Co. 
Cleveland Rock Drill Co. 
Cochise Machine Co. 
Denver Rock Drill Mfg. Co. 
Hendrie & Bolthoff Mfg. & Sup. Co 
Ingersoll-Rand Co. 
Mine & Smelter Supply Co. 
Rix Compressed Air & Drill Co. 
Simpson Co.. A. H. 
Sullivan Machinery Co. 

Drills, Core 

Chicago Pneumatic Tool Co. 
Dobbins Core Drill Co. 
Ingersoll-Rand Co. 
Longyear Co., E. J. 
New York Engineering Co. 
Sullivan Machinery Co. 

Drills, Diamond 

Ingersoll-Rand Co. 
Longyear Co.. E. J. 
Sullivan Machinery Co. 


Allis-Chalmers Mfg. Co. 
Colorado Iron Works 
Fuller-Lehigh Co. 
Ruggles-Coles Eng. Co. 
Traylor Eng. & Mfg. Co. 
Worthington Pump & Mach. Corp. 

Dryers, Rotary 

Ruggles-Coles Eng. Co. 

Electrical Supplies 

Allis-Chalmers Mfg. Co. 
General Electric Co. 
Westinghouse Elec. & Mfg. Co. 

Electric Tools, Portable 

Chicago Pneumatic Tool Co. 

Elevators, Bucket 

Buchanan Co., Inc., C. G. 

Employment Bureau 

Business Men's Clearing House 

(Continued on page 44) 

July 2, 1921 




There need be no worry about 
crucible trouble in the middle of a 
melting operation if the crucible 
you use bears the name DIXON. 

You can rely on DIXON crucibles 
because of their inherent quality — 
the result of experience plus a 
constant readiness to keep abreast 
of the needs of industry. 

Large or small, every crucible 
marked DIXON can be counted on 
for every metallurgical require- 

Write for Booklet No. 141 -A 

Joseph Dixon Crucible Co. 


Pacific Coast Office: 

444 Market St., San Francisco 

aiuiiniinniiiiniiimiiunuiiiiiuiiniiiiiu nut iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiimtiiiiiiiimiHiiiimiimiiiiinimni iiiiiihiiiiiiiiiiiiihj; 



1 Flotation Oils \ 

| Six Standard Pure Oils From Pine 

I FLORIDA WOOD PRODUCTS CO., Jacksonville, Florida 1 





Write for iuid Bookltt j 

| General Naval Store* Co, 90 Welt Street, New York 1 


THE 1 



is in use the world over on every kind of | 

rock or placer ground. Uses a shot-bit, | 

giving a grinding edge that | 

fairly eats through the ground. | 

Booklet 10 tells all about = 

tile Dobbins Drill. Write 
for it. mentioning the 
character of your ground. 

Dobbins Core Drill Co., Inc. 1 

147 W. 42nd St.. New York.Cily 1 

San Francisco and Los Angeles = 

Salt Lake, Utah 





Pensacola Tar & Turpentine Company 

F. E. MARINER, Pees. 

Gull Point, Fla. 

iitmiiiiiiiiiiimiimmimimmiifiinmiiiiitmiiminMiitmiimiiimmimi! miiniiiumiiiiimmmnih ; 

aiimniiiiiiiliiili imiiiiiiMimiMimimi in iiitiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiitiiiiiiiiiiitiiMiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiniiiiiiiliiilin' 



If you use "Wolff or TJncle Sam Lamps you need this = 
burner. Will cut carbide bill in half. Flame is hori- = 
zontal. Will not burn hands. Cuts its own threads and = 
cannot jar out. Easy to clean. Hundreds in daily = 
=■=— service and riving- satisfaction. Price 56.00 per = 
hundred F O.B. Miami. Smaller lots 10c. each. E 
Tour money refunded if not pleased. Company orders sent = 
on open account. I carry lamps of all makes; can deliver = 
immediately. Test my service and price. = 

L. E. POLHEMUS, Miami, Arizona 1 
Specializing in Miner's lamps, caps, burners and firearms = 
ntiuiiiiiniiiiiiiii ii iiiii iiiinimmunniiii niinriiiinif imiiiii num iiuiinn mifii niiiiniiiini-inmi jnmif initif n m iiiiniiiiimiiiiiiiiifk? 



July 2, 1921 


iiiiimiimmiiMiiiiiiimiimiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiim linn IlllllUlllflllllll mmilllll imminiin 1 Ililliilllllilliiiiiiliiiiiiin mum minimi mm nil IIMIM MiliiillUilMllll iimitlhlllllllJ 

Engineers (Designing and Contract- 
Box Iron WorkB Co., Wm, A. 
Stearns-Roger Mfg. Co. 

Engines, Internal Combustion 

Allis-Chalmers Mfg. Co. 

Busch-Sulzer Bros. 

Chicago Pneumatic Tool Co. 

Fairbanks, Morse & Co. 

Mine & Smelter Supply Co. 

Morse Bros. Machy. & Sup. Co. 

Nordberg Mfg. Co. 

Worthington Pump & Mach. Corp. 

Engines, Oil 

Chicago Pneumatic Tool Co. 

Ingereoll-Rand Co. 

Worthington Pump Sc Mach. Corp. 

Engines, Steam 

Allife-Chalmers Mfg. Co. 
Chicago Pneumatic Tool Co. 
Ingersoll-Rand Co. 
Morse BroB. Machy. & Sup. Co. 
Nordberg Mfg. Co. 

Simpson Co.. A. H, 

Worthington Pump & Mach. Corp. 


Du Pont Powder Co. 
Hercules Powder Co. 


Chalmers & Williams 

Colorado Iron Works 

Merrill Co. _ _ _ 

Morse Bros. Machy. & Sup. Co. 

Oliver Continuous FUter Co. 

United FilterB Corp. 

Worthington Pump & Mach. Corp. 

Filter Cloth, Metallic 
Ludlow-Saylor Wire Co. 
Tyler Co., W. S. 
United Filters Corp. 

Filter Presses 
Merrill Co. 

Morse Bros. Machy. & Sup. Co. 
United Filters Corp. 

Fire Extinguishers 

Bullard, E. D. 

First Aid Equipment 

Braun Corporation 
Bullard. E. D. 

Flotation Apparatus 

Braun Corporation 


Butehart. W. A. 

Denver Engineering Works Co. 

Mine & Smelter Supply Co. 

National Tank & Pipe Co. 

Simpson Co., A. H. 

Flow Meters 

General Electric Ct>. 


Denver Fire Clay Co. 

Ingersoll-Rand Co. 

Mine & Smelter Supply Co. 

Frogs and Switches (see 'Railway 


Cambria Steel Co. 

Furnaces, Assay (see 'Assayers' and 
Chemists' Supplies') 

Furnaces, OU 

Denver Fire Clay Co. 
Ingersoll-Rand Co. 

Furnaces, Roasting and Smelting 

A llis-Ch aimers Mfg. Co. 
Colorado Iron Works 
Denver Engineering Works Co. 
Dwight & Lloyd Sintering Co.. Inc. 
Mine & Smelter Supply Co. 
Morse Bros. Machy. & Sup. Co. 
Traylor Eng. & Mfg. Co. 
Westinghouse Elec. & Mfg. Co. 


American Steel Foundries 
Chicago Pneumatic Tool Co. 
Denver Engineering Works Co. 
Fawcus Machine Co. 
General Electric Co. 
Meese & Gottfried Co. 

Gears, Herringbone 

Fawcus Machine Co. 
Generators, Electric 

Allis-Chalmers Mfg. Co. 
General Electric Co. 
Morse Bros. Machy. & Sup. Co. 
Westinghouse Elec. & Mfg. Co. 

Giants, Hydraulic (see 'Hydraulic 
Mining Machinery') 

Graphite Products 

Bartley Crucible Co., Jonathan 
Dixon Crucible Co., Joseph 

Grinders, Laboratory 

Braun Corporation 


Caire Co., Justinian 

Calkins Co. 

Denver Engineering Works Co. 

Ingersoll-Rand Co. 

Grinders, Portable, Air and Electric 

Chicago Pneumatic Tool Co. 

Grinding WheelB 

New York Belting & Packing Co. 

Hammers, Pneumatic 

Chicago Pneumatic Tool Co. 

Heaters, Feed Water 

Allis-Chalmers Mfg. Co. 
Morse Bros. Machy. & Sup. Co. 
Simpson Co., A. H. 
Worthington Pump & Mach. Corp. 

Hoists, Electrle 

Allis-Chalmers Mfg. Co. 

Box Iron Works Co.. Wm. A. 

Chicago Pneumatic Tool Co. 

Denver Engineering Works Co. 

Hendrie & Bolthoff Mfg. & Sup. Co. 

Leschen & Sons Rope Co.. A. 

Lidgerwood Mfg. Co. 

Mine & Smelter Supply Co. 

Morse Bros. Machy. & Sup. Co. 

Nordberg Mfg. Co. 

Ottumwa Iron Works 

Rix Compressed Air & Drill Co. 

Simpson Co.. A. H. 

Westinghouse Elec. & Mfg. Co. 

Hoists, Oil and Distillate 

Box Iron Works Co.. Wm. A. 
Denver Engineering Works Co. 
Leschen & Sons Rope Co., A. 
Simpson Co., A. H. 

Hoists, Steam or Air 

Allis-Chalmers Mfg. Co. 

Box Iron Works Co.. Wm. A. 

Chicago Pneumatic Tool Co. 

Hendrie & Bolthoff Mfg. & Sup. Co. 

Inger6oll-Rand Co. 

Leschen & Sons Rope Co.. A. 

Lidgerwood Mfg. Co. 

Mine & Smelter Supply Co. 

Morse Bros, Machy. & Sup. Co. 

Nordberg Mfg. Co. 

Ottumwa Iron Works 

Rix Compressed Air & Drill Co. 

Simpson Co., A. H. 


Chicago Pneumatic Tool Co. 

CochiBe Machine Co. 

Denver Rock Drill Mfg. Co. 

Goodrich Rubber Co., B. F. 

Ingersoll-Rand Co. 

New York Belting & Packing Co 

Pioneer Rubber Mills 

Rix Compressed Air & Drill Co. 

Simpson Co., A. H. 

U. S. Rubber Co. 

Hydraulic Mining Machinery 

Aldrich Pump Co. 
Allis-Chalmers Mfg. Co. 
American Spiral Pipe Works 
Garratt & Co.. W. T. 
New York Engineering Co. 
Pelton Water Wheel Co. 
Sacramento Pipe Works 

Hydrocyanic Acid, Liquid 

American Cyanamid Co. 

Industrial Railways, Portable 

Koppel Industrial Car & Equip. Co. 

Lunkenheimer Co. 

Morse Bros. Maehy. & Sup. Co. 

Powell Co., Wm. 

Iron Cements 

Smooth-On Mfg. Co. 

Allis-Chalmers Mfg. Co. 

Box Iron Works Co., Wm. A. 

Chalmers & Williams 

Colorado Iron Works 

Denver Engineering Works Co. 

Morse Bros. Machy. & Sup. Co. 

New York Enerineering Co. 

Traylor Eng. & Mfg. Co. 

Union Construction Co. 

Worthington Pump & Mach. Corp. 


Allis-Chalmers Mfg. Co. 

Laboratory Supplies (see 'Assayers' 
and Chemists' Supplies') 

Lamp Guards 

Flexible Steel Lacing Co. 

Lamps, Arc and Incandescent 

General Electric Co. 
Westinghouse Elec. & Mfg. Co. 

Lamps, Miners' 

Bullard, E. D. 

Wolf Safety Lamp Co. 

Lining for Ball-Mills 
Chalmers & Williams 
Fuller-Lehigh Co. 
Hardinge Co. 
Hickok & Hickok 
Los Angeles Foundry Co. 
Traylor Eng. & Mfg. Co. 

Linings for Tube Mills 

Fuller-Lehigh Co, 

Loading Machines, Pneumatic 
Lake Superior Loader Co. 

Locomotives, Electric 
Atlas Car & Mfg. Co. 
General Electric Co. 
Morse Bros. Machy. & Sup. Co. 
Simpson Co., A, H. 
Westinghouse Elec. & Mfg. Co. 

Locomotives, Steam 

Morse Bros. Machy. & Sup. Co. 
Simpson Co., A. H. 


Chicago Pneumatic Tool Co, 
Dixon Crucible Co., Joseph 


Chicago Pneumatic Tool Co. 
Lunkenheimer Co., The 
Powell Co.. Wm. 

Machinery, Used 

Morse Bros. Machy, & Sup. Co. 
Nevada Engineering & Supply Co. 
Pacific Pipe Co. 
Simpson Co., A. H. 

Magnesia Brick 

Harbison-Walker Refractories Co. 
Metal Buyers and Dealers 

American Smelters Securities Co. 
American Zinc, Lead & Smelt. Co. 
Atkins. Kroll & Co. 
International Smelting Co. 
U. S. Smelting. Ref. & Min. Co. 
Wildberg Bros. 

Mills — Ball, Pebble and Tube 

Allis-Chalmers Mfg. Co. 
Bethlehem Shipbuilding Corp., Ltd. 
Box Iron Works Co., Wm. A. 
Chalmers & Williams 
Colorado Iron Works 
Denver Engineering Works Co. 
Denver Fire Clay Co. 
Hardinge Co. 

Mine & Smelter Supply Co 
Morse Bros. Machy. & Sup. Co. 
Steams-Roger Mfg. Co. 
Traylor Eng, & Mfg. Co. 
Worthington Pump & Mach. Corp. 

Mills, Chilean 

Allis-Chalmers Mfg. Co. 
Chalmers & Williams 
Colorado Iron Works 
Lane Mill & Machinery Co. 
Morse Bros. Machy. & Sup. Co. 
Traylor Eng. & Mfg. Co. 
Worthington Pump & Mach. Corp. 

Mills, Grinding 

Fuller-Lehigh Co. 

Marathon Mill & Machine Works 

Mills, Stamp 

Allis-Chalmers Mfg. Co. 
Bethlehem Shipbuilding Corp., Ltd. 
Chalmers & Williams 
Colorado Iron Works 
Hendy Iron Works. Joshua 
Morse Bros. Machy. & Sup. Co. 
Simpson Co., A. H. 
Straub Mfg. Co. 
Traylor Eng. & Mfg. Co. 
Worthington Pump & Mach, Corp. 


Allis-Chalmers Mfg. Go. 

Fairbanks Morse & Co, 

General Electric Co. 

Hendrie & Bolthoff Mfg. & Sup. Co. 

Ingersoll-Rand Co. 

Mine & Smelter Supply Co. 

Morse Bros. Machy. & Sup. Co. 

Simpson Co., A. H. 

Westinghouse Elec. & Mfg. Co 

Mucking Machines, Mechanical 
Lake Superior Loader Co. 

Nodullzers, Ore 

Allis-Chalmers Mfg. Co. 

Office Supplies 

Dixon Crucible Co., Joseph 
Monroe Calculating Machine Co. 

Oil and Grease Cups (see 'Lubri- 

Oil, Flotation 
Barrett Co. 

Florida Wood Products Co. 
General Naval Stores 
Pensacola Tar & Turpentine Co. 

Ore-Buyers (see 'Metal Buyers and 

Ore Feeders 

Buchanan Co., Inc., C. G. 

Ore Testing Equipment 
General Engineering Co. 

Oxy-Acetylene Welding and Catting 
Bullard, E. D. 

Oxygen Apparatus 
Bullard. E. D. 
Siebe, Gorman Co., Ltd. 


Diamond Rubber Co., Inc. 
Goodrich Rubber Co.. B. F. 
New York Belting & Packing Co. 
Pioneer Rubber Mills 
Smooth-On Mfg. Co. 
U. S. Rubber Co. 

Paints, Metal Protective 

Dixon Crucible Co., Joseph 

Paints, Preservative 

Dixon Crucible Co., Joseph 


Atkins. Kroll & Co. 
Hardinge Co. 

Perforated Metals 

Allis-Chalmers Mfg. Co. 
Ludlow-Saylor Wire Co. 
Meese & Gottfried Co. 

Pipe Fittings 

American Steel Foundries 
Diamond Rubber Co.. Inc. 
Garratt & Co., W. T. 
Goodrich Rubber Co.. B. F. 
Lunkenheimer Co., The 
Merrill Co. 
Pacific Pipe Co. 
Pacific Tank & Pipe Co. 
Powell Co., Wm. 
Sacramento Pipe Works 

Pine, Cast Iron 
Pacific Pipe Co. 

Pipe, Riveted 

American Spiral Pipe Works 
Sacramento Pipe Works 

Pipe, Standard Wrought 
National Tube Co. 
Pacific Pipe Co. 

Pipe, Wood 

National Tank & Pipe Co. 
Pacific Tank & Pipe Co. 
Redwood Mfrs. Co. 

Placer Mining Machinery 

Aldrich Pump Co. 
American Spiral Pipe Works 
Morse Bros. Machy. & Sup. Co. 
New York Engineering Co. 
Union Construction Co. 
Yuba Mfg. Co. 

Pneumatic Tools 

Chicago Pneumatic Tool Co. 
Ingersoll-Rand Co. 
Sullivan Machinery Co. 

Prospecting Supplies 

Braun Corporation 
Denver Fire CJay Co. 
Dobbins Core Drill Co. 
Longyear Co., E. J. 
Mine & Smelter Supply Co. 
New York Engineering Co. 
Rix Compressed Air & Drill Co. 
Union Construction Co. 

(Continued on page 46) 

July 2, 1921 



This Handy Booklet Will 
Be Sent On Request 

Extensive tests have recently been made by dis- 
interested authorities, relative to the proper re- 
inforcing for Gunite slabs. 

We have placed the results of these tests in book- 
let form for distribution to those interested. 

Mining men particularly, will find this booklet 
valuable. In it are answered completely, the nu- 
merous questions that have come up through the 
increasingly wide use of the "Cement-Gun" and its 
sand-cement product, Gunite. 

: > Ml mitmiiitii mmiiiiiiiiiiimiiiiiimini mi iiiiiiiiiitiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiniii niiiiiimimiiiiiiiimm: 

I The Cost of Mining \ 

A NEW EDITION— in fact, a new book— deal- ! 

I ing with every phase of mining, including geology, I 

| social and economic considerations as related to 1 

| the exploitation of mineral deposits. Valuation, ! 

| finance, and marketing are dealt with in a compre- | 

| hensive way. | 

I By I 


| Past Secretary and President Mining and Metallurg- | 

| ical Society of Engineers; Lecturer at Harvard and 1 

1 other universities on the Economics of Mining; Con- | 

1 suiting Engineer United States Bureau of Mines, etc. I 

Third Edition, entirely revised, enlarged, and reset. 1 

522 pages, 6x9, illustrated, cloth bound. 
$6.00 net, postpaid. 

| Discusses the subject under the following headings: 

I The Source of Power 

= Yalne of Mining Property 

Nature and Use of Capital 
| Factors Governing Variations of Costs 

Partial and Complete CostB 
| Coal 

§ Cost of Mining Coal 

I Industrial Clearing Houses and Statistics of Iron Production 

= Lake Superior Iron — Old Ranges 

= Cost of Mining Lake Superior Iron Mesabl Range and U. S. Steel 

Occurrence, Production and Prospects of Copper 
| Southwest Copper Field 

= Jerome and the Pre-Cambrian 

= Lake Superior Copper Mines 

| Blsbee 

The Porphyry Coppers 

Northwestern Copper Field 
= Copper Mines in Various Districts 

| Lead 

§ Southeast Missouri 

= Silver-Lead Mining 

| Cost of Silver-Lead Smelting 

| Zinc Statistics 

I Zinc Mining 

§ Gold Statistics, Wars and Prices 

| Occurrences and Production of Gold 

| Quartz-Pyrlte Gold Mines . 

| Cripple Creek, Kalgoorlie and Goldfield 

| Silver Mining at Cobalt and Guana Juab 

Cement-Gun Co. 


Cornwells Heights, Bucks Co., Pa. 
Branch Offices: 

New York Office, 30 Church St.; 
Chicago Office, 616 Chamber of 
Commerce; Pittsburgh Office. 211 
Fulton BIdg. : Los Angeles Office, 
Citizens' National Bank Bldg\; 
Spokane Office. 612 Mohawk Block; 
Richmond Office, 812 Virginia Rail- 
way and Poorer Bldg\ Canada east 
of Alberta, The General Supply Co. 
of Canada. 360 Sparks St., Ottawa, 
and 85 Water St.. Winnipeg, Man., 
Agencies In all Principal Foreign 



| 420 Market Street, San Francisco | 

1 Gentlemen: Enclosed find $6.00 for which send me | 

1 one copy of THE COST OF MINING, by J. R. Finlay. | 

| Name | 

I Address | 

| McG-7-2-!Jl | 

^iiiimi unuilllll iniuiiHiiiiiiiiiiiiii whim iiiiitiiiiiiiiiiiimiiiiiuiiiiiiiiiimiiiiiiitiiiiiitiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiitiiiiiiiiiihi; 



July 2, 1921 


timiiiintiiiii n«" iiuiiii hi iiiiiiiuiuuiiiii iitiinnn um n inmiiiimiiiimnm luiiiiiiiiinnini luuimniuimmimntinuuiiii* i mui inimmmmiimi 

Pulleys, Magnetic 

Buchanan Co., Inc., C. G. 
Dings Magnetic Separator Co. 

Pulleys, Shafting and Hangers (see 
'Transmission Machinery') 

Pulverized Coal Installations 

Fuller-Lehigh Co. 
Pomps, Air Lift 

Aldrich Pump Co. 

Chicago Pneumatic Tool Co. 

Ingersoll-Rand Co. 

Prescott Co. 

Traylor Eng. & Mfg. Co. 

Pomps, Centrifugal 

Aldrich Pump Co. 

Allis-Ch aimers Mfg. Co. 

Byron Jackson Iron Works 

Fairbanks, Morse & Co. 

Frenier & Sons 

Garratt & Co.. W. T. 

Hendrie & Bolthofl Mfg. &. Sup. Co. 

Ingersoll-Rand Co. 

Krogh Pump & Machinery Co. 

Mine & Smelter Supply Co. 

Meese & Gottfried Co. 

Morse Bros. Machy. & Sup. Co. 

Oliver Continuous Filter Co. 

Pacific Pipe Co. 

Pelton Water Wheel Co. 

Prescott Co. 

Simpson Co.. A. H. 

Worthinp-ton Pump & Mach. Corp. 

Tuba Mfg. Co. 

Pumps, Reciprocating 

Aldrich Pump Co. 

Allis-Ch aimers Mfg. Co. 

Hendrie & Bolthofl Mfg. & Sup. Co. 

Ingersoll-Rand Co. 

Mine & Smelter Supply Co. 

Morse Bros. Machy. & Sup. Co. 

Prescott Co. 

Traylor Eng. & Mfg. Co. 

Worthington Pump & Mach. Corp. 

Pumps, Vacuum 

Chicago Pneumatic Tool Co. 

Atkins, Kroll & Co. 
Braun Corporation. The 
Bullard. E. D. 
Denver Fire Clay Co. 
Mine & Smelter Supply Co. 

Roadbuildlng Material 

Koppel Industrial Car & Equip. Co. 
Railway Supplies and Equipment 

American Steel Foundries 

Atlas Car & Mfg. Co. 

Diamond Rubber Co., Inc. 

General Electric Co. 

Hickok & Hickok 

Rock Drills 

Chicago Pneumatic Tool Co. 
General Electric Co. 
Cochise Machine Co. 

Roller Bearings 

Hyatt Roller Bearing Co. 
Rolls, Crushing 

Atlas Car & Mfg. Co. 

Bacon. Inc.. Earle C. 

Box Iron Works Co., Wm. A. 

Buchanan Co., Inc., C. G. 

Chalmers & Williams 

Colorado Iron Works 

Denver Engineering Works Co. 

Fuller-Lehigh Co. 

Mine & Smelter Supply Co. 

Morse Bros. Machy. & Sup. Co. 

Traylor Eng. & Mfg. Co. 

Worthington Pump & Mach. Corp. 

Roll Shells 

Cambria Steel Co. 

Rope, Wire 

American Steel & Wire Co. 
Broderick & Bascom Rope Co. 
Denver Engineering Works Co. 
Leschen & Sons Rope Co., A. 
Meese & Gottfried Co. 
Roebling's Sons Co.. John A, 
Simpson Co., A. H. 

Rubber Boots and Shoes 

Goodrich Rubber Co., B. F. 
U. S. Rubber Co. 

Rubber Goods, Mechanical 

New York Belting & Packing Co. 

Safety Appliances 

Bullard. E. D. 

Siebe, Gorman Co., Ltd. 


Box Iron Works Co., Wm. A. 
Braun Corporation 
Colorado Iron Works 
Denver Fire Clay Co. 
Mine & Smelter Supply Co. 
Morse Bros. Machy. & Sup. Co. 
Traylor Eng. & Mfg. Co. 

Saw Mill Machinery 

Box Iron Works Co.. Wm. A. 
Meese & Gottfried Co. 
Prescott Co. 


Allis-Chalmers Mfg. Co. 
American Steel Foundries 
Box Iron Works Co., Wm. A. 
Braun Corporation 
Chalmers & Williams 
Colorado Iron Works 
Denver Engineering Works Co. 
James Ore Concentrator Co. 
Ludlow-Saylor Wire Co. 
Meese & Gottfried Co. 
Stimpson Equipment Co. 
Traylor Eng. & Mfg. Co. 
Tyler Co., W. S. 

Screens, Mining, Etc. 

Ludlow-Saylor Wire Co. 
Tyler Co.. W. S. 

Screens, Revolving 

Buchanan Co., Inc., C. G. 

Screens, Rolled Slot 

Ludlow-Saylor Wire Co. 
Tyler Co., W. S. 

Screens, Wire 

Ludlow-Saylor Wire Co. 
Tyler Co., W. S. 


Buchanan Co., Inc.. C. Q. 

Separators, Inclined Vibrating Screen 
Tyler Co.. W. S. 

Shafting (see 'Transmission 
Machinery' ) 

Shoes and Dies 

Bethlehem Shipbuilding Corp.. Ltd. 
Denver Engineering Works 

Shovels, Electric and Steam 
Leschen & Sons Rope Co., A. 
Thew Shovel Co. 

Shoveling Machines 

Lake Superior Loader Co. 

Atkins, Kroll & Co 
Hardinge Co. 

Silica Brick 

Harbison-Walker Refractories Co. 

Smelters and Refiners 

American Zinc. Lead & Smelt. Co. 

Empire Zinc Co. 

International Smelting Co. 

U. S. Smelting, Ref. & Min. Co. 

Wildberg Bros. 

Smelting Machinery 

Allis-Chalmers Mfg. Co. 
Colorado Iron Works 
Dwight & Lloyd Sintering Co. 
Greenawalt Sintering Apparatus 
Morse Bros. Machy. & Supply Co. 
Traylor Eng. & Mfg. Co. 
Worthington Pump & Mach. Corp. 


American Spiral Pipe Works 
American Steel Fou- dries 
American Steel & Wire Co. 

Steel, Drill 

Cambria Steel Co. 
Denver Rock Drill Mfg. Co. 
Ingersoll-Rand Co. 
Simpson Co., A. H. 
Sullivan Machinery Co. 

Steel, Tool 

Cambria Steel Co. 


Williams Improved Stretcher Co. 

Surveying Instruments 

Braun Corporation 
Broderick & Bascom Rope Co. 

Tanks, Steel 

Box Iron Works Co.. Wm. A. 
Denver Engineering Works Co. 
Ingersoll-Rand Co. 
Simpson Co., A. H. 

Tanks, Wood 

Denver Engineering Works Co. 
Morse Bros. Machy. & Supply Co. 
National Tank & Pipe Co. 
Pacific Tank & Pipe Co. 
Redwood Mfrs. Co. 

Tapes, Measuring 
Lufkin Rule Co. 

Testing Sieves and Testing Sieve 

Tyler Co., W. S. 

Thickeners, Pulp 

Colorado Iron Works 
Dorr Co. 

National Tank & Pipe Co. 
Oliver Continuous Filter Co. 
Pacific Tank & Pipe Co. 

Tires, Auto and Truck 

Goodrich Rubber Co.. B. F. 

Tools, Blacksmith 
Ingersoll-Rand Co. 


Yuba Mfg. Co. 

Tramways, Aerial 

American Steel & Wire Co. 
Broderick & Bascom Rope Co. 
Morse Bros. Machy. & Supply Co. 
Roebling's Sons Co., John A. 
Simpson Co., A. H. 

Transmission Machinery 
Allis-Chalmers Mfg. Co, 
Meese & Gottfried Co. 
Prescott Co. 

Trucks, Motor (see 'Motor Trucks') 

Tube-Mills (see 'Mills') 

Turbines, Hydraulic 

Allis-Chalmers Mfg. Co. 
Pelton Water Wheel Co. 
Smith Co., S. Morgan 

Turbines, Steam 

Allis-Chalmers Mfg. Co. 
General Electric Co. 
Westinghouse Elec. & Mfg. Co. 


Crane Co. 
Lunkenheimer Co. 
Merrill Co. 
Powell Co., Wm. 

Water Wheel, Impulse 

Box Iron Works Co.. Wm. A. 
Morse Bros. Machy. & Supply Co. 
Pelton Water Wheel Co. 
Simpson Co., A. H. 
Smith Co., S. Morgan 

Well Drilling Machy. and Suppllei 

Union Construction Co. 

Wheels, Car 

American Steel Foundries 
Atlas Car & Mfg. Co. 
Fuller-Lehigh Co. 
Hickok & Hickok 


Lunkenheimer Co. 
Powell Co., Wm. 


American Steel & Wire Co. 
Broderick & Bascom Rope Co. 
Meese & Gottfried Co. 
Roebling's Sons Co.. John A. 
Simpson Co.. A. H. 

Wire Cloth 

Ludlow-Saylor Wire Co. 
Tyler Co., W. S. 

Wiie, Insulated 

Diamond Rubber Co., Inc. 
General Electric Co. 
Goodrich Rubber Co.. B. F. 
Roebling's Sons Co., John A. 

Zinc Boxes 

Colorado Iron Works 
Mine & Smelter Supply Co. 
National Tank & Pipe Co. 
Pacific Tank & Pipe Co. 
Redwood Mfrs. Co. 
Traylor Eng. & Mfg. Co. 

Zinc DuBt and Shavings 

American Zinc. Lead St Smelt. Co. 

Atkins, Kroll & Co. 

Braun Corporation 


Denver Fire Clay Co. 

Merrill Co. 

Mine & Smelter Supply Co. 

Pacific Tank & Pipe Co 

D. S. Smelting, Ref. & Min. Co. 

•■£ i iiiitiiiiinnit mi iiiiiiiiiii 

1 1 ii lii in in ii r ■ in in mi n i Mi i 

Oil and Gas Production 


371 Pages Cloth Binding 

Price $1.50 

A practical book dealing chiefly with American con- 
ditions of oil and gas production. Particularly 
treats on the methods of locating and extracting 
oil and gas. Also covers drilling methods, origin, 
accumulation, distribution and varieties of oil and 


Popular Oil Geology 


171 Pages Fabrikoid Binding | 

Price $3.00 | 

This book presents in simple and easily understand- | 

able language the important principles of Oil | 

Geology. Of particular value to oil geologists and | 

anyone who may be interested in the subject from | 

the standpoint of investment or a desire to add to | 

his general store of information. 1 

For Sale by MINING AND SCIENTIFIC PRESS, 420 Market St., San Francisco. w . 7 . 2 . 21 | 

?T* tirillcilPHtiirii JiiiiiJiisiiriuiiEiiiii. ^nj-iit i !■ jiijitriiiiitutu-ciiiiJEir itiitiirj*i-iiriJCii*ix>ijiJiiiJi]riirijtiJFiJ ti-iitii«:ii«i)CiJtiiiiiiiiiiiiiLiii'iJEiJi3n]Ei]EiiiiJiiiiii'iiriiiiliilli4ii.4.iiJiiiiililli«li4.m.iitiiLiiiii ■■Tiii.naiiill*il»il«H*i i-Tr 

July 2, 1921 




Offers a Complete and Convenient Outfit 
for Making Quick Tests in the Field 

Write for circular describing No. 2100 
Pritchard's Prospecting Outfit. 


This outfit enables anyone, without the knowledge of 
chemistry, to make accurate assays of gold, silver, cop- 
per and lead. Especially recommended for prospectors 
and small mine-owners, being simple and easily operated, 
and accurate. 

The prospector or small mine owner who can detect 
gold, etc., in base and low grade ores and determine their 
commercial value, can often save the cost of this entire 
outfit by being able to make assays on the spot. 

The small mine owner can make many assays at the ordinary cost of one. He learns when and where 
to work, and when to move on. 

The prospector can earn his own grubstake as he goes along by making assays for others. 

The outfit contains apparatus and chemicals sufficient to make one hundred and fifty assays. Packed 
in a strong, convenient carrying case, 16x10x8", weighing 20 lbs. Complete with book of instructions. 



Founded in 1852 


Apparatus and Glassware for all kinds of Laboratories — Assay Supplies — Chemicals and Acids for Metallurgical work 

Cable Address: " BRAUNDRUG ' 
All Codes Used 

Los Anseles House 

The material and workmanship 
that is a part of every Lcschen 
Wire Rope, make it safe, <" 
and economical. 



A.Loschen & Sons Rope Co. 

Si. Louis Mo. 
New York Chicago Denver 
Salt Lake City San Francisco 

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[ The Greenawalt Sintering f 
Apparatus and Process 

| John E. Greenawalt, W. E. Greenawalt. | 

SO East 42nd Street 65 South Sherman Street = 

New York, N. Y. Denver, Colorado 






| Examination and Exploration of Mineral | 
g Lands I 

Shah Sinking and Development 





"It Can't Stick— It Won't Leak" 

= The Lubrication Does It. End your valve troubles once and for all. = 

| Indispensable on vacuum, air, gas, slime, add and other solution lines. = 
= Write for catalog and prices to | 

121 Second St. 


Monadnork Bldg. 



Jigs, Screens, Sand and Slime 
Tables, Classifiers, Automatic 
Ore Feeders, Etc. 

Manufactured by = 


35 Runyon Street Newark, N. J. | 

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Allis-Chalmers Co. Steam s-Roger Mfg\ Co. = 

Milwaukee, Wis. Denver, Colo. = 

Harron. Rickard & McCone, San Francisco = 

Frank R. Perrot, Sydney and Perth, Australia e 





July 2, 1921 

"1 f" 

United States Smelting, 
Refining & Mining Company 



Gold, Silver, Lead and Copper Ores. Lead and Zinc 
Concentrating Ores, Matte and Furnace Products 


Lead Bullion. 


Gold, Silver, Lead, Copper, Zinc, Zinc Dust, Arsenic, 
Insecticides, Fungicides, and Cadmium. 


912 Newhouse Building, Salt Lake City, Utah; Ken- 

nett, Cal.; Goldroad, Ariz.; Baxter Springs, Kansas; 

120 Broadway, New York; Pachuca (Real del Monte 

Co.), Mexico. 



International Lead Refining Company. East Chicago. Indiana 
Rariton Copper Work3, Perth Amboy, N. J. 


618 Kearns Building, Salt Lake City. Utah 

" 1 1 ii , ii ■ ■ ii J f I iniiiiiiiiimiiiiiin ii'i'ini i 


I United States Smelting R. & M. Exploration Co. | 

For examination and purchase of Metal Mines, 55 Congress St., | 
| Boston, Mass. District Offices, 120 Broadway, N. T.; 1504 Hobart | 
= Bldg., San Francisco, Cal.; Newhouse Bldg., Salt Loke City, Utah 1 

i I 

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New York Office: 25 Broadway 

Purchasers of 

Gold, Silver, Copper, and 
Lead Ores 


"I American Smelters Securities Co. 

| Buyers of 


Consign all shipments to 

I American Smelters Securities Co. 


Addreas correspondence to 


Roessler 6 Hasslacher 

Chemical Company 

709-717 6th Ave., cor. 41st St., NEW YORK, N.Y. 


Cyanide Sodium 

(Cyanogen 51-52%) 


Sodium Cyanide 96-98% in egg form, 

each egg weighing 1 ounce. 

{Cyanogen 51-52%) 


I American Zinc, Lead & Smelting Company I 

i Purchasers of 


| Address; 1012 Pierce Building, St Louis, Mo, | 

Exploration Department for the purchase of 



55 Congress St, Boston, Mass. 

umiimiiiiimiiiiiiiiiiiiimiiiiiiiiMimimimiiiiiiiiii n mimm tiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiniiniiimiiiiii 

ATKINS KROLL & CO., San Francisco 








Finn him in iitiiiM in in immiimmi mi in immi in immiiiiiitimiiinmmi in imi m in imium 

L_-'iiii]i)iu'iiiiiui in ii nun ii in in tn in n in in i mi in 






3HIIII 1 1 1"' I llllllillliltillilllliillllllllllillllllin lllllllllllll III! Illlllllllllll Iinrs 

July 2, 1921 



'Ar\ ^ 



Cut Haulage Time 

Wherever a B & B Aerial Tram- 
way is installed, load follows load 
like clock-work. Bad roads and bad weather 
can't interfere. 

B & B Aerial Tramways 

cut labor costs. Seldom require more than two 
attendants — often but one. Durably built. 
Upkeep low. 

Interesting delailt in Catalog 45. Write for it. 


New} York ST. LOUIS Seattle 


Ulllimillllllllllliiiiliiiliiliiiuiimiiii (mint iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiimilllllllilllliliiiliminilllilii Ii'ilililllilllillllllllllllllliy 

I Duroloid I 

bails & 

Write for 

Booklet and 



Los Angeles 
Foundry Co. 

2444 So. Alameda 
Los Angeles, Cal. 

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I Harbison - Walker Refractories Company j 


High Grade Silica, Chrome, 

Magnesia, and Fire Clay Brick, 

| Dead Burned Magneslle and Furnace Chrome, § 

1 Chrome Ore. = 




] JOHN A. ROEBLING'S SONS CO., of California | 

1 San Francisco Seattle Los Angeles Portland. Ore. e 


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Are Not Affected by 

Muddy, Gritty Water 

The cylinder has large clearance and 
the plunger is outside packed at the 
top. The auction and discharge valvea 
are fitted with bronze taper seats and 
are easily exchanged by removing bon- 
nets. The Jack Head works altogether 
on the down stroke; the pump rod is 
made to weigh just half the amount of 
pressure exerted on the plunger so that 
the load is equal and uniform at all 
times whether on down or up stroke. 
In this way 

Balance Bob is Eliminated 

thereby increasing the efficiency and 
materially reducing cost of installation. 
These pumps are made with capacities 
of from 30 to 500 gallons per minute 
and for elevations up to 600 feet. 


Established 1850 
299 Fremont St. San Francisco, Gal. 

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- 'inn mi mi i mm tit til i["iui Hi ntii II II ii ill II II inn II in II in ii i it ii i ii ii i ii i i i i ii inn- 




EARLE CBACON,Inc.enginee:rs. 








| Sharon Bide. San Franeiico, C*Iif. I 




July 2, 1921 

• Dash -Indicates -Every-Other-WeeK-or-Honthly- Advertisement- 


Aldrieh Pump Co.. Allentown, Pa 15 

Allis-Chalmers Mfg. Co., Milwaukee, Wis 4 

American Cyanamid Co., New York 6 

American Smelters Securities Co., San Francisco. 48 

American Spiral Pipe "Works, Chicago 50 

American Steel & Wire Co., Chicago 49 

American Steel Foundries, Chicago — 

American Zinc. Lead & Smelting Co., St. Louis. .48 

Ames Co., W. R., San Francisco — 

Assayers, Chemists and Ore Testing Works 40 

Atkins, Kroll & Co., San Francisco 4« 

Atlas Car & Mfg Co.. Cleveland. Ohio 39 

Bacon. Inc.. Earle C. New York 49 

Barrett Co., The. New York 43 

Bartley Crucible Co., Jonathan, Trenton. N'. J. . — 
Bethlehem Shipbuilding Corp., San Francisco .. 33 

Blake, Moffitt & Towne. San Francisco 33 

Books. Technical 22-30-45 

Box Iron Works, Wm„ Denver, Colo — 

Braun Corporation, The. Los Angeles, Cal 47 

Braun-Knecht-Heimann-Co., San Francisco 47 

Broderick & Bascom Rope Co., St. Louis 49 

Buchanan Co.. C. G.. New York 19 

Bullard. E. D.. San Francisco — 

Busch-Sulzer Bros., St. Louis. Mo 39 

Business Men's Clearing House, Denver — 

Buyers' Guide 42-44-46 

Byron Jackson Iron Works. San Francisco 41 

Caire Co.. Justinian, San Francisco — 

Calkins Co.. Los Angeles. Cal — 

Cambria Steel Co.. Philadelphia — 

Cement-Gun Co., Cornwells Heights, Pa 45 

Chalmers & Williams, Chicago Heights, 111 — 

Chicago Pneumatic Tool Co.. New York 13 

Cleveland Rock Drill Co., Cleveland. Ohio 33 

Cochise Machine Co., Los Angeles, Cal — 

Colorado Iron Works Co., Denver 51 

Crane Co.. Chicago. HI 14 

Deister Concentrator Co., Fort Wayne. Ind 48 

Deister Machine Co.. Fort Wayne. Ind 52 

Denver Engineering Works, Denver 

Denver Fire Clay Co., Denver 20 

Denver Rock Drill Mfg. Co., Denver 3 

Detroit Graphite Co.. Detroit. Mich — 

Dixon Crucible Co.. Joseph. Jersey City. N. J. . .43 

Dobbins Core Drill Co.. New York 43 

Dorr Company, The. Denver 32 

Du i -U de Nemours & Co.. Wilmington. Del. . .17 
D wight & Lloyd Sintering Co.. New York 32 

Edison Storage Battery Co.. Orange, N. J. . 

Elmer. H. N., Chicago 

Electric Storage Battery Co., Philadelphia. 
Elsol Concentrating Co., Los Angeles. Cal. . 


Fail-banks. Morse & Co., Chicago 32 

Fawcus Machine Co., Pittsburgh, Pa 39 

Filter Fabrics Co., Salt Lake City, Utah — 

Flexible Steel Lacing Co., Chicago — 

Florida Wood Products Co., Jacksonville. Fla. .43 

Frenier & Son, Rutland, Vt 47 

Fuller-Lehign Co.. Fullerton. Pa 2 

Garratt & Co., W. T.. San Francisco 49 

General Electric Co., Schenectady. N. Y — 

General Naval Stores. New York, .43 

Giacier Co., Inc.. S. B., San Francisco 28 

Greena-.valt Sintering Apparatus & Process, New 
York 47 

Oliver Continuous Filter Co., San Francisco. 

Opportunity Pages 

OUuimva Iron Works, Ottumwa, Iowa 


Harbison-Walker Refractories Co.. Pittsburgh 

Hardinge Co., New York — 

Hendrie & Bolthoff Mfg. & Supply Co.. Denver — 

Hercules Powder Co., Wilmington, Del — 

Hickok & Hickok. San Francisco.' — 

Holt Mfg, Co.. Peoria. Ill 21 

Hyatt Roller Bearings Co.. New York — 

Ingcrsoll-Rnnd Co.. New York 10-11-12 

International Smelting Co., New York 48 

Jackson Compressor Co., Denver 57 

James Ore Concentrator Co., Newark, N, J 47 

Koppel Industrial Car & Equip. Co.. Pittsburgh . 41 
Kvogh Pump & Mach. Co.. San Francisco — 

Lake Superior Loader Co., Duluth. Minn — 

Lane Mill & Mach. Co., Los Angeles. Cal 41 

Latham. Marc L., Angels Camp, Cal — 

Leschen & Sons Rope Co., St. Louis. Mo 47 

Lidgerwootl Mfg. Co., St. Louis. Mo — 

Linde Air Products Co.. New York 26 Co., E. J., Minneapolis. Minn 47 

Los Angeles Foundry Co., Los Angeles, Cal. . . .49 

Ludlow -Say lor Wire Co., St. Louis. Mo 5 

Lu-fkiu Rule Co.. Saginaw. Mich :)•,: 

Lunkenheimer Co.. The. Cincinnati. Ohio 8 

Main Belting Co., Philadelphia. Pa — 

Meese .fe Gottfried Co., San Francisco 52 

Merrill Cn,, San Francisco 47 

Midvale Steel & Ordnance Co.. Philadelphia. . . . — 

Mine & Smelter Supply Co., New York 

Front Cover 
Monroe Calculating Machine Co., New York. . . — 
Mcrse Bros., Mach. & Supply Co., Denver 29 


Nashville Industrial Corp.. Old Hickory. Tenn 

National Tank & Pipe Co.. Portland. Ore 

National Tube Co., Pittsburgh. Pa — 

Nevada Eng. & Supply Co., Reno. Nev — 

New York Belting & Packing Co., New York. . . 7 

New York Engineering Co., New York 33 

Nordberg Mfg. Co., Milwaukee, Wis — 

Nuttall Co.. R. D., Pittsburgh. Pa — 

Pacific Pipe Co., San Francisco 

Pacific Tank & Pipe Co., San Francisco 

Pelton Water Wheel Co.. San Francisco 

Pensacola Tar & Turpentine Co.. Gull Point. Fla, 

Photostat Corp., Providence, R. I 

Pioneer Rubber Mills, San Francisco 

Positions Available 

Positions Wanted 

Pclhcmus. L. E., Miami, Ariz 

Powell Co., Wm., Cincinnati. Ohio 

Prescott Co., The, Menominee. Mich 

Prest-O-Lite Co.. New York 

Professional Directory 34 

Redwood Mfrs. Co.. San Francisco — 

Rix Compressed Air & Drill Co., San Francisco. — 
Roebling's Sons Co.. John A., Trenton, N. J. . . .49 

Roessler & Hasslacher Chem. Co.. New York . . .48 
Ruggles-Coles Engineering Co., New York. .... .16 

Rupley, J. B. & A. J., Placervillc, Cal 28 

Sacramento Pipe Works. Sacramento. Cal 33 

San Francisco Plating Works. San Francisco. . .29 

Siebe, Gorman & Co., Ltd.. Chicago — 

Simpson Co., A. H.. San Francisco — 

Smith Co., S. Morgan, York, Pa 31 

Smooth-On Mi'g. Co., Jersey City, N. J 39 

Stfttras-RO£Ol' Mfg. Co.. Denver. Colo 28 

Stimpson Equipment Co.. Salt Lake City 31 

Stmuu MJ'g. Co.. Oakland. Cal — 

Sullivan Machinery Co.. Chicago 29 

Thompson Balance Cc„ Denver "9 

Thew Shovel Co., Lorain. Ohio 27 

Traylor Eug. & Mfg. Co.. Allentown, Pa 9 

Trent. Goodwill M. San Francisco 4.° 

Tyler, W S . Cleveland, Ohio — 

Union Construction Co., San Francisco 29 

United Filters Corp., Salt Lake City, Utah 41 

U. S. Iron Woriis, Seattle, Wash. — - 

V S. Rubber Co., New York 23 

U. S. Smelting, Refining & Mining Co., Boston. .48 

Western Wheeled Scraper Co.. Aurora. 111..... — 
Western Wood Pi|>e Publicity Bureau. Seattle. — 
Westinghonse Elec. & Mfg. Co., East Pittsburgh. 

Pa — 

Wildherg Bros.. San Francisco 29 

Williams Imp. Stretcher Co., Wheeling, W. Va. .39 
Worthington Pump & Mach. Corp.. New York. . — 

Yuba Manufacturing Co., Son Francisco. 

^i ■iiiiiiiiiiiiiiMiMiiiiiiitiiinpi Kiiini iiiinir nriiruLiiiij i^ijiii ji ir tiiiMrnriiiiiMitiMiiiiiiiin •■••MJiiiPiiiiiiiiiiriiriiiitiiMiiiiiiiiitiriiiiitiiMiMiiiriitiiiiiiitiitiiiiiiiiiiutiitiitiiiiiiii'iiiiiMtiiMiiiiiitiifMiiiEiriiJiii iiiriijiititiitii)iiJiiiiiiMi>^ 

1 Hydraulic Mining, Yukon Gold Co. | 

Water Supplied Through 

Taylor Spiral Riveted Pipe 

"New York, Jan. 16. 
We beg to acknowledge yours of Jan. 9th, 



inquiry as to our experience with your Spiral Riveted Pipe. 

"Our first use of Spiral Riveted Pipe was in connection with our = 

hydraulic mining operations as distributing lines from our main ditch = 

system. The pipe was given severe service and proved entirely Batis- = 

factory. We are now using it in diameters up to 42 inches and heads | 

up to 530 feet. We have found the pipe easy to lay and handle, Btrong = 

for its weight and generally satisfactory. = 

Very truly yours, I 

(Signed) YUKON GOLD CO.. I 

"O. B. Perry. Gen. Mgr." | 

Catalogue and special prices on request § 


Chicago, 111. 

""" "" ' ' ' """"""""i" < "mum i i iiiliiliiiium nit mi i i ii nimiiiiimiii m i iiinim mi run , ■! 

July 2. 1921 



To cyanide operators — 

Many cyanide operators are al- 
ready using Portland Filters. 
But every cyanide operator 
should use it. Jts effective wash 
saves cyanide and greatly re- 
duces soluble losses. Then there 
is the lower cost of operation. 
In its operation there is no per- 
sonal element — at best uncer- 
tain, always expensive. It is 

notably successful for stacking tailings. It saves the 
wash water and delivers the tailings by belt conveyor 
direct to the dump. If you are not already using a Port- 
land, be sure to investigate its possibilities. They are big. 


To flotation operators- 

The Portland Filter has accom- 
plished splendid results in 
reducing waste and freight 
charges in transporting concen- 
trates to the smelter. On how 
much water are you paying 
freight charges now? Just stop 
and figure it out. Say you are 
shipping a 20% moisture con- 
tent. Perhaps you can ship a 
10% with a Portland in your 
mill. How many dollars will 
you save in a month? Enough 
to pay for a Portland before very long. Then add the 
waste that you are eliminating by shipping a dry instead 
of a sloppy concentrate. There is a chance for a real 
saving here. Better look into it. 

Colorado Iron Works Company 

Denver, Colo. 

New York Office: 30 Church Street 


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Send tok 
Bulletin 180-A 


Is "Every Mines' Compressor" from 
prospect to the largest developed property. 

You can't carry a Jackson Rotary 
Compressor around in your pocket, but 
you can do the next thing to it. 

It is so compact, that it can be lower- 
ed down the smallest shaft. 

It is light enough to be readily 
portable ; it is self-contained, of course. 

Whether underground or on the sur- 
face, the Jackson Rotary is one of the 
most effective, useful appliances made for 
mining operations. 

Send for Bulletin 180-A 


233 So. Cherokee St., Denver, Colo. 



July 2. 1921 



Deck Bearings are self-oiling. 

Headmotion is entirely 
enclosed and self- 

The main channel 
frame is no longer 

Write for Full Particulars of the 








Last Wayne street manufacturers op the well known rort Wayne, lnd., U. 5. A. 


E. DEISTER, Pre. «nd Gen. M»r. W. F. DEISTER. Vlce-Pio. E. G. HOFFMAN. Sot. "id Tie... 

Meeseco Trippers 

Illustrating a type of Self Propelled Tripper 
suitable for belts up to 20" w '-. 

We build Hand Propelled, Self 
Propelled, and Automatic Self 
Reversing Trippers for every purpose. 

Let us know your requirements. 

mt kdottfriei* Compmdf 




660 Mission Street 558 first Ave-So. 67 front Street 400 East 3rd. St. 


A. W 
A. B. 

PA L «0 N Ns} A " OC,AT ' «'««• 



Member Audit Bureau of Circulations 
Member Associated Business Papers, Inc. 


PiMMrri at UO StarM St.. San FranclKO. 
by the Driven Publishing Company 





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Issued every Saturday 

San Francisco, July 9, 1921 

$4 per Year — 15 Cents per Copy 





Field meeting ot the Institute at Virginia City, 
Nevada. 'Mine Development at Gold Hill', by 
George J. Young. Plan of operations at the United 
Comstock Mines. Working costs. Milling meth- 
ods. Use of finger-raises to tap the old workings. 
Dredging work in the vicinity. History of the 



Operations of the Crown Mines group. Decrease 
in world's production of gold. The gold basis. 
Central Mining & Investment Corporation figures. 
Revenue and costs. Advance in wages of Euro- 
peans. Future of the industry. 


Need for closer commercial relations with Mexico 
and the Mexicans. Fundamental rules governing 
payment of claims. Non-responsibility of Latin- 
American States. Clause in the new Mexican con- 
stitution. Summary of contents of book by Raoul 



By C. H. McCumber 51 

The mining engineer and the prospector. Self- 
help. Value of geological education. 


By A. Del Mar 51 

Treatment at the Stewart mill. An enquiry. 

By D. \V. Bmnton 52 

A reply to Mr. Del Mar. 


By Joseph Irving 52 

Heap leaching. Reactions. Production of cement 
copper at Rio Tinto. Solubility of zinc. Heap 
leaching of silicious and schistose ores. 


By Geo. E. McClelland 53 

Fraud by claim-holders. Protection for the pros- 

pective buyer. Speculation in mining claims. 
Remedy for abuses. 

By W. F. Korf 63 

Mistake of pacing too much attention to small 
veins and small properties. The fate of pros- 


By R. D. Perkins 54 

The technology of glass production. Action of 
light on lenses. 

By Frank J. G. Duck 54 

An explanation from Thorpe's 'Outlines of In- 
dustrial Chemistry'. Presence of pyrolusite neces- 
sary for change. 



By H. Foster Bain 55 

The position of mining engineering. Lore of the 
geologist. Work of mining engineers. Life of 
mines. Stocks of metals. Future demand for 
metals. Value of knowledge of language. Price 
relations of labor and metal. Study of geology as a 
science. Study of placers. Consideration of costs. 
Time factor. Good health. 


By Robert B. Brinsmade 61 

Geography. Mines of San Pedro. Geology of the 
cerro. Smelting plant of Cia. Metallurgica 


By Lewis W. Douglas 64 

International suspicion and unrest in Europe. A 
tribute to Wilson. Factors that discourage in- 
dustrial enterprise in France. Economic condi- 
tions. Indications of coming change. The coal 
strike in England. Russia. Italy. 



By E. Olivier 66 







Established May 24. I860, aa The Scientific Presa; name changed October 
20 of the same year to Mining; and Scientific Press. 

Entered at the San Francisco post-office as second-class matter. Cable 
address : Pertusola. 

Branch Offices — Chicago, 600 Fisher Bdg.: New York. 31 Nassau St.: 
London. 724 Salisbury House, E.C. „*___. 

Price 15 centB ner copy. Annual subscription. - payable in advance* 
United States and Mexico, *4; Canada, *5: other co untrie s, $6. 



July 9, 1921 

Marcy Roller Mitt— Performance Data 

Roller Milts, 
Phelps Dodge 
"Burro Mountain 
New Mexico 

Screen Analyses of the Feed and Discharge of Each Marcy Roller Mill In Open Circuit — at the 

Burro Mountain Branch of the Phelps Dodge Corp. 

On 2" diam. 


w •■ 

4 mesh 

6 " 

8 " 

14. " 

20 " 

28 ■' 

35 " 

48 " 

65 " 

100 " 

150 " 

200 " 

-200 " 

of Diam. 

% Weight 

















% Wt. Cural. 






























Energy Units 4082 17324 

R. M. E. equals 

13242 X 1026 
150.3 X 100 

At the 'Burro Mountain Branch 

of the Phelps Dodge Corporation 

Each 6 x 12 Marcy Roller Mill takes crusher discharge of \\% plus 1| 
inch ring at a rate in excess of 1000 tons per 24 hours, with a power conr 
sumption of 2.62 kilowatt hours per ton of feed. 

The screen analysis shown above is a remarkable record of Marcy Roller 
Mill efficiency. 

Marcy Roller Mill success is due to the thorough study and great cost 

expended in its development. In addition to the open end feature, the 

Marcy Roller Mill operates with a low pulp line, which is more effective 

■ than if the mill is half full of pulp which necessarily reduces the relative 

weight of the rods for effective work — the net result being greater capacity. 

Write for Bulletin Describing the Marcy Roller Mill 

The Mine and Smelter Supply Co. 


Salt Lake City 
Nete York Office, 42 "Broadway 

El Paso 

Chicago Representative: 
J. R. Mougln. 4555 Maiden St., Chicago, Ill- 

San Francisco Representative: 
M. H. Carpenter, 3151 Eton Ave., Berkeley, Cal. 

July !), 1921 



■ 1 1. ■ ■ 



- • . • Editor 

mimiiiimitiiNiiimiiiiiimiiiiiiiiiMiimiimmiimiiiiiiiimiiimiiiiiiiimtiiimiiiimii iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiihiiiiiiiiiihiwiiw 

TTOW the world's business is interlocked is suggested 
■*■■*■ by the fact, among others, that the export trade in 
copper fluctuates with foreign exchange. When the dol- 
lar is at an excessive premium, our foreign customers 
cannot afford to buy our copper. 

"C 1 FFOBTS to end the flotation tangle by the purchase 
*-* of the Minerals Separation company's numerous 
American patents have failed, owing to a wide difference 
between the price demanded and that which the leading 
copper operators were willing to pay. 

'T'HE War taught us to think in billions of dollars, but 
■*- Russia is inaugurating a new era in finance. In that 
distressful country ruble notes are now being issued by 
the trillion. For the first four and a half months of the 
present year the amount aggregated 1,168,000,000,000 
rabies, as against 225,000,000,000 for the same period 
last year. 

/~\N another page we publish a short article on 'Con- 
^-' ditions in Europe' as seen by Mr. Lewis W. Douglas, 
who has returned recently from the other side. It is a 
pleasure to publish this article, because, among other 
reasons, the author of it is the son of Mr. James S. 
Douglas and the grandson of James Douglas. Evidently 
the tradition of good citizenship is being maintained. 

'TUN from the Far East is sent to Pittsburgh, and then 
■*• comes back to California, as tin-plate, for use in 
the canning of our domestic products. The Yukon com- 
pany has evolved an ambitious scheme for the develop- 
ment of immense tin properties in the Federated Malay 
States ; just now the eompany is the mainstay of the 
industry in that part of the world. If the tin could be 
smelted in California and the plate fabricated near-by, 
the cost of containers could be reduced considerably. 

"DROSPECTING by aeroplane would appear to be con- 
■*- sidered a rapid and healthful method of searching 
for oil in tropic countries. We learn that a company 
has acquired concessions from the government of Vene- 
zuela that will permit it to prospect the unexplored 
region in the delta of the Orinoco. The district is rugged 
and the vegetation is dense, so that ordinary prospecting 
would be dangerous and expensive. Lack of vegetation 

will be taken as an index to the presence of oil, so that 
landing will be unnecessary for the preliminary recon- 
naissance. Sea-planes will be used. 

OILVER producers in Mexico appreciate the attitude 
^ of the government of that country with regard to the 
reduction of taxes on metals exported. Below 60 cents 
pi-r ounce there is no tax; when the market price rises 
above that amount, a graduated levy is made, which is 
of reasonable proportions, as compared with previous 
demands. One American company that operates in the 
State of Sonora reports a saving of about $9000 per' 
month on this account. 

OENATOR KING, of Utah, has introduced a bill 
^ amending the Revenue Act so as to exempt gold- 
mining companies from the payment of the tax on their 
net income. This seems to us a reasonable thing to do, 
considering the hardships under which the gold-mining 
industry suffered during the War, when other branches 
of the mining industry prospered exceedingly. If gold' 
mining is to be helped, the remission of the tax on in- 
come seems fair enough. 

'"PIIE discontinuance of the practice of publishing, in 
-*■ the monthly bulletin, a condensed statement of the 
education and professional experience of intending mem- 
bers of the Institute, has deprived the profession of a 
source of biographical information ; it is now no easy 
matter to obtain quickly any information as to the pro- 
fessional standing or activities of our confreres; but we 
are glad to see that the John W. Leonard Corporation, l 
of Brooklyn, New York, has taken the initiative, and that, 
a 'Who's Who in Engineering', containing about 10,000 
records, will be published early in September. Engineers 
arc timid of publicity ; but it is time to realize that this 
attitude does not inspire public confidence. The new 
book, provided the members of the engineering profes- 
sions agree to co-operate by sending in their records, 
should prove useful and interesting. 

/"OPINIONS differ in regard to the pronunciation of 
^--' some words. Mr. Ellwood Hendrick, in a review 
of a recent book on chemistry, regrets that the author 
did not enlighten him as to the correct pronunciation of 
the word 'pyrites'. Chemists make the word sound like 



July 9, 1921 

'pright-ease', he says; metallurgists in increasing num- 
bers refer to the mineral in words that are reminiscent 
of 'pie-rights'. Our solution of the problem would be 
to discountenance the orgy of unnecessary pluralization 
thai too often disfigures technical literature. In the 
book that Mr. Hendrick reviews we read that, "When 
native sulfur or metallic sulfide ores (pyrites) are 
roasted, they burn to the lower oxide of sulfur (SO,) ". 
Reduced to simple language, and aided by the use of cus- 
tomary spelling, this means that, when native sulphur 
or metallic sulphide ore (pyrite) is roasted in the air, it 
burns to the lower oxide of sulphur. The avoidance of 
the plural will solve the problem of pronunciation. 

tion with tbe idiosyncracies of the Oriental in the matter 
of choice of gold or silver for a reserve fund, indicates 
how it is that India exercises such an important influence 
on the bullion markets of the world. 

'T'WO factors may be cited to account for the large in- 
■*• crease ($40,000,000) in savings-bank deposits in 
New York during the first three months of the year — 
during a period of so-called industrial depression. They 
are the economic effects of prohibition, and the tendency 
of so many of the people to wait for the time when the 
dollar will have regained most of its pre-war value as a 
purchasing token, so that they may be able to buy as 
they did before the retailer named his own price and 
virtually told his customers to "take it or leave it". 
Several mining companies are keeping intact their bal- 
ances of ore-reserves, and even adding to them, because 
metal prices are so low that unprofitable operation would 
result from the maintenance of the normal output. If 
the nation's reserves of capital and ore are to be taken 
as evidence, then we are undoubtedly in a more pros- 
perous condition than is generally admitted, for 'pros- 
perity' is not synonymous with 'spending'. When a 
readjustment of prices occurs, this real prosperity will 
be felt by all classes of the community. 

TNDIA'S influence on the market for gold and silver is 
■*■ not always realized ; but, as Samuel Montagu & Com- 
pany point out, a country with a population of over 
three hundred million persons with the hoarding in- 
stinct is likely to affect prices to a considerable degree. 
The last census of India revealed a reduction in the rate 
at which the population had been increasing. In the first 
decade of the century the gain was 7.1%, and in the 
second, only 1.2%, an increase of less than half that of 
the last decade of the 19th century, when the country 
was visited by two great famines. The influenza epi- 
demic, which took a toll of 6,000,000 lives, left many in 
an enfeebled physical condition. This will account, to 
some extent, for the lessened ratio of increase in popu- 
lation during recent years. However, the financial gain, 
arising from the fact that Indian commodities were being 
exported at higher prices during and immediately fol- 
lowing the Great War, more than offset the lessened in- 
crease of earning capacity, due to decreased numbers. 
For the fiscal year 1913-1914, there was a balance of 
trade against India amounting to 1202 lacs of rupees; 
for the period 1919-1920 the balance was in favor of the 
country, and to the amount of 9533 lacs. This remark- 
able reversal of economic conditions, taken in conjunc- 

STOCKS of crude petroleum in the United States on 
May 31 were 155,341,000 barrels, equivalent to 115 
days supply at the current rate of consumption. This 
breaks all existing records. Likewise the total domestic 
production for May, 41,920,000 barrels, exceeds that of 
any previous month, although the value of the oil at the 
wells was only 66 million dollars as compared with 113 
million dollars for the 36,503,000 barrels produced 
during May 1920. This reflects the precipitous decline 
in the price of crude oil since the first of the year. Im- 
ports from Mexico have continued in large volume, de- 
spite the prevailing high export-duty that is now the 
subject of diplomatic discussion between our Government 
and that of Mexico. The monthly imports from Mexico 
up to June 1 averaged 11,000,000 barrels, or at almost 
double the rate of the corresponding period of last year. 
Oil production cannot be curtailed suddenly, and the 
only remedy for overflowing tanks and pipe-lines is to 
stimulate sales ; this has been done by cutting the price 
of crude oil. On June 15 the Prairie Oil & Gas Company, 
the chief buying agency for the Standard Oil Company, 
reduced its price for mid-continental light oil to $1 per 
barrel ; in consequence, production will probably diminish 
for some time ; then, as the stocks decline, higher prices 
will be restored. The fluctuations give a nice exhibition 
of the operation of the law of supply and demand, and at 
the same time emphasize the mistake made by the oil 
companies in not announcing reductions three months 
ago ; as they now appear to realize, such action would 
have been profitable in the long ran. The return of 
general prosperity would be hastened if a similar action 
were taken by those in control of other industries. 

COMMERCIAL prosperity in any civilized country 
depends in large part upon the adjustment of its 
foreign trade relations. This point is emphasized by the 
Chamber of Commerce of the United States, which has 
sent its delegates to the International Chamber of Com- 
merce, meeting in London at this time. The chairman 
of the American National Committee is Mr. A. C. Bed- 
ford, chairman of the Standard Oil Company and Amer- 
ican vice-president of the International Chamber of 
Commerce. The head of the Standard Oil Company 
must be a man of very unusual parts, for no organization 
anywhere shows such a spirit of loyalty and efficiency as 
that of the Standard Oil; it is one of the few super- 
enterprises that seems to have found men of a character 
and capacity equal to the responsibilities entailed in the 
conduct of a worldwide business. The report of Mr. 
Bedford and his committee recognizes the fact that the 
United States, having become the principal creditor 
nation, must be prepared to extend credits on a large 
scale unless she is willing to face a great decrease of her 
export trade. Moreover, having changed her status from 

July 9, 1921 



a debtor to a creditor nation, she must be prepared to 
receive imports in larger volume than formerly, "and 
such an increase may react unfavorably on certain lines 
of trade". In short, "this problem of the readjustment 
of foreign trade relations is one of the most important 
developments that have resulted from the world war". 
When one roads the opinions of such men as these, and 
then notes the proceedings of Congress, which is busy 
gathering stones for a wall of tariffs, one is moved to 
sardonic laughter. 

A GE has not dulled the truth of the old proverb that 
**■ a man is judged by the company he keeps. We com- 
mend it to the gentlemen who are in control of the Bing- 
ham-Galena Mining Company; we might add that the 
prudent investor generally appraises a mining enterprise 
by the character of the men who are promoting it. Ap- 
parently Mr. Harry S. Joseph and his associates in the 
newly formed Bingham-Galena company, a consolidation 
of sundry properties at Bingham, Utah, are not particu- 
larly concerned with what people think of them, if one 
may judge from the fact that they have recently taken 
into partnership the notorious George Graham Rice, an 
individual to whom our readers neither need, nor prob- 
ably desire, any introduction. Rice has recently under- 
written 467,100 shares of Bingham-Galena stock, not- 
withstanding a vigorous protest from various reputable 
investment brokers and representatives of the Utah 
Chapter of the American Mining Congress at a public 
hearing before the State Securities Commission. Objec- 
tion was based solely on the ground of Rice's bad reputa- 
tion ; it was argued that the good repute of the mining 
industry of Utah would suffer by reason of having his 
name associated with the enterprise. However, the Com- 
mission declined to interfere with the proposed trans- 
action. In the light of the few facts at hand we are in- 
clined to agree that the alternative decision would hardly 
have been justified ; the circumstance that seems strange 
to us is the persistence of Mr. Joseph and his associates 
in consummating the deal with Rice in the face of strong 
opposition. The insistence of the owners seems foolish, 
especially if their mines are good ones, for they are 
giving their undertaking a black eye at the start. Well- 
informed speculators will suspect that the actual' value 
of the mines is slight ; there remain the ignorant and 
greedy, whose hard-earned money supports Rice and his 
followers. The properties may have merit and the enter- 
prise may become profitable, but, just now, the finger of 
suspicion points to the contrary. 

TTOLDERS of stocks and bonds, in times of industrial 
•*--*- depression as well as in times of hectic boom, are 
liable to appraise the value of their securities entirely on 
the basis of income and selling worth. Mr. R. H. Tingley, 
in a recent issue of the 'Annalist' gives publicity to the 
suggestion that money-worth should also be taken into 
consideration. In other words, the current value of the 
security, to a greater extent than is realized, lies in the 
purchasing power of the money that may be received 

when it is sold. The sponsor of this novel method of 
appraisal quotes the American Smelting & Refining Com- 
pany's securities for the purpose of comparison. Be- 
tween the spring of 1920 and the month of May 1921, 
the money -value of the stock decreased 22%, and that of 
the bonds, 11%. By considering the fall in the whole- 
sale prices of commodities during that period, the money- 
market value of the securities and their purchasing 
value on this basis, it is estimated that, if sugar were to 
be bought, the preferred stock has appreciated 134%, 
and the bonds, 165% ; if wheat were to be bought, the 
preferred stock and bonds have increased in value 73% 
and 95%, respectively. Between May 23, 1920, and the 
same date of this year, commodity prices declined 36%. 
Bond prices advanced, according to Dun's index, by 6% ; 
stocks, on the other hand, declined 12%. By selling a 
$1000 American Smelting & Refining bond last year one 
could have bought, with the proceeds, 512 bushels of 
corn ; this year the same transaction would result in the 
acquisition of 1382 bushels. Stocks and bonds, accord- 
ing to this method of appraisal, are cheap at present 
prices. The discussion raises the question as to whether 
stocks will appreciate in price in proportion to a further 
fall in commodity prices, or is the connection between 
the two so unstable that a rise or fall in the price of 
both, at one and the same time, is possible ? 

/^OLD-water thawing of frozen ground, preliminary 
^ to dredging, is being applied successfully in the 
vicinity of Fairbanks, according to the report of the 
Territorial Mine Inspector, Mr. B. D. Stewart. The 
overburden, at the place where the dredges are operat- 
ing, averages about 26 feet in depth — about 14 feet of 
comparatively fine frozen gravel that is overlain with 
about 12 or 13 feet of 'muck'. The thawing apparatus 
consists of a manifold of 6-inch steel riveted pipe, and 
eight outlets to the 'points', which are 26 feet long, and of 
4-ineh pipe, not constricted at the ends, but discharging 
full bore. The points are set at 5-foot intervals, and 
settle, by their own weight, the full depth of 26 feet as 
the thawing proceeds. Three manifolds were employed 
this year on Fairbanks creek ; and it is reported that the 
thawing has been accomplished with but a fraction of 
the expense involved in the use of steam-points. The 
results compare favorably with steam so far as time is 
concerned, and surpass it in the thoroughness with which 
the frost is overcome. In one case, two contiguous blocks 
of ground were being thawed, one with steam and one 
with water, the spacing between the blocks being the 
same in both cases. It was found that between each two 
steam-points a rib or comb of unthawed ground re- 
mained, whereas the block on which cold water had been 
used was uniformly and completely thawed throughout. 
The principal essential for the thawing of ground with 
cold water is an adequate supply of water at a tem- 
perature sufficiently above the freezing-point to ensure 
the melting of the ice. It is also necessary that the 
ground shall be as free as possible from large boulders, 
so that the 'points' can settle readily; they are not driven 



July 9, 1921 

into the ground. The working temperature of the water 
used should be about 40°F. ; only a slight pressure is 
necessary. The work is being carried out on the property 
of the Fairbanks Dredging Company, where two dredges, 
one of which, made by the Union Construction Company, 
of San Francisco, has a capacity of 2500 cubic yards of 
gravel per day. Thus the cold-water thawing process is 
being proved on a working scale. 

The Comstock Meeting 

On June 27 and 28 the San Francisco Section of the 
Institute held a field meeting with the California Dredge 
Operators at Virginia City, Nevada. The two subjects 
of immediate interest were the revival of mining on 
Gold Hill and the dredging in Gold Canon, both enter- 
prises being conducted by corporations subsidiary to 
the Metals Exploration Company, which is identified 
with Mr. Bulkeley Wells and his friends of New York 
and Boston. An evening session, held at Minden, was 
devoted largely to papers covering these operations. Mr. 
George J. Young, Western editor of the ' Engineering and 
Mining Journal', gave a timely and interesting descrip- 
tion of 'Mine Development at Gold Hill', and Mr. Gerald 
H, Hutton another on 'Dredge Mining Practice'. Sixty 
assembled at the dinner that preceded this meeting. Mr. 
Edwin Higgins, vice-chairman of the Section, was in the 
chair. Mr. Albert Burch read a letter from the president 
of the Institute, Mr. Edwin Ludlow, in reply to sundry 
criticisms from the local section, more particularly in 
regard to the continued publication of the Institute 
magazine. It was stated that members living in the 
larger cities did not desire the magazine, but that those 
stationed in places where news is not so plentiful liked to 
receive a publication so gratuitous. The local committee 
on Institute affairs, consisting of Messrs. Burch, Abbot 
A. Hanks, and Wilbur H. Grant, was requested to con- 
sider and report upon the President's communication. 
Mr. F. W. Bradley and Governor Boyle of Nevada led 
the discussion on Mr. Young's paper, which gave, in 
lucid outline, the plan of operations adopted by the 
United Comstock Mines — the company that is re-opening 
the Yellow Jacket, Belcher, Crown Point, and other 
famous mines, covering a length of 7000 feet along the 
Comstock lode. A new adit is being driven from Ameri- 
can Flat to tap the old workings at a depth of 650 feet 
below the outcrop, in order to reach the lode-matter that 
was used to fill the old stopes and the ground that the 
former workers found too poor for exploitation. It is 
estimated by the engineers of the United Comstock Mines 
that 3,000,000 -tons of $6 material is assured. Of this 
assay-value, one third is gold at $20 and two-thirds silver 
at $1 per ounce. It is anticipated that the working cost 
can be kept down to $3 per ton. Cyanidation, with 
concentration and separate treatment of the sulphides, 
will be used for extracting the precious metals. Success- 
ful leaching on the Comstock in the past has suffered 
from the presence of woody fibre and other carbonaceous 
matter present in the filling and tailing left from former 

operations, but this obstacle, we are informed, has been 
overcome entirely in the experimental work done by Mr. 
C. J. Reid, who is metallurgist to the United Comstock 
Mines. As to the mining, it is proposed to use finger- 
raises to tap the old filling, and to supplement this 
method by top-slicing where necessary. Undoubtedly 
this is the most interesting technical feature of the enter- 
prise. The old filling has consolidated sufficiently in 
places to call for the use of explosives; in other places, 
however, it it loose enough to require cribbing. What 
the pressure of settling ground can do in a mine is sug- 
gested by the fact that a layer of filling 7 feet thick can 
be squeezed into a layer 2\ feet thick ; timbers 10 inches 
thick can be compressed to 3 inches. The physical' con- 
dition of the ground in the old workings, whether filling 
or untouched lode-matter, varies so widely that no fixed 
sj'stem of mining can be applied uniformly. As to the 
metal contents, these also vary greatly; the existence of 
blocks of barren ground, of varying shape, will render 
difficult any scheme of systematic stoping. All this, of 
course, is perfectly well known to the engineers in charge 
of the work, and they are prepared to face these minor 
troubles in due course. The old filling is difficult to 
sample ; so also is the virgin ground that has been shat- 
tered unequally by natural pressure; nevertheless, the 
results of the sampling are believed to have been ade- 
quately checked by comparing moil-samples with car- 
samples, and these in turn with mill-runs. It will occur 
to the reader that, in such a locality and in such a lode, 
there are chances of finding pockets of rich ore that were 
missed by the old-timers. Such chances, presumably, are 
slim, because the upper horizons have been well explored, 
not only by cross-cuts but by diamond-drilling. The 
engineers in charge do not anticipate the discovery of 
bonanzas within the scope of their venture, but they are 
confident of the trustworthiness of their sampling and 
of other basic estimates. 

The visitors were taken underground in the morning, 
and to the dredge in the afternoon. Mr. Hutton, who is 
in charge of the dredging, did not describe the operations 
in the paper he read at the evening session; instead, 
he discussed discrepancies between drilling and dredging 
in general, quoting figures to illustrate the unaccountable 
differences that endanger estimates of the results to be 
obtained from dredging enterprise. His statements were 
confirmed by Messrs. W. H. Gardner and James W. Neill, 
both veteran dredge engineers, who quoted from their, 
own experience. No explanation at all convincing was 
forthcoming, so the principal contributors to the dis- 
cussion were nominated as a committee to inquire and 
report on this technical problem, in the expectation that 
some light would be thrown on the subject. Mr. Hig- 
gins asked Mr. Hutton to take the chair during the 
latter part of the meeting, which closed with a hearty 
vote of thanks to Mr. Bulkeley Wells and his associates 
for their hospitality, mental and physical. Next day the 
visitors went underground in the Consolidated Virginia 
mine and saw some of the deeper workings, down to 
2200 feet. It will be remembered that the deepest work- 

July 9, 1921 



ings on the Comstoek are in the Union mine al 3350 feet 
in-low the outcrop. Imt the great production thai made 
tlie lode BO famous came, almost entirely, from above the 
Stttro Tumid, which cuts the lode at I860 feet The 
biggest bonanza, that of the Virginia and California 
mines, extended from 1200 to 1750 feet. It was found 
by .Tames (i. Fair when he was acting as superintendent 
for the adjoining Gould & Curry mine. He found rich ore 
in a drift that he pushed into the Consolidated Virginia 
ground, that is, he obtained his information by trespass- 
ing. Subsequently he. John W. Mackay, James Flood, 
and William O'Brien — the 'Big Four' — bought enough 
shares to win control of the 'Con. Virginia', as it was 
then called and ever since. For three years. 1874-1877, 
the Con. Virginia produced $3,000,000 per month and 
paid dividends at the rate of $1,080,000 per month. In 
1876, Mackay, then the superintendent, took out $6,000,- 
000 worth of bullion in one month, in order to make an 
exhibit at the Centennial Exposition. This rite of pro- 
duction, of course, could not last. It did not. The Corn- 
stock flared and went out like a gigantic industrial 
torch. By 1885 it was decadent. In April 1899, when 
the present writer made his previous visit, only 150 men 
were at work, although the population of Virginia City 
then was about 3000. Now 600 men are at work, although 
the local community has dwindled to 1500. Today there 
is a manifest revival of hope and of life. Besides the 
new operations on Gold Hill, it is likely that a similar 
resuscitation will he started soon on the upper levels of 
the so-called middle group of mines, and that within a 
year there will be several thousand men at work at Vir- 
ginia City. This re-opening of old and famous mines is 
of great technical interest because it will show to what 
extent it may be practicable and profitable to undertake 
similar operations in decayed mining districts in other 
parts of the world. 

The Outlook for Gold 

In reviewing the past operations and future prospects 
of the Crown Mines group, Mr. Samuel Evans made sun- 
dry interesting remarks concerning the demand for gold 
and its consequent appreciation in value. Mr. Evans 
was speaking as chairman of the company on the occasion 
of its annual meeting at Johannesburg; he is known to 
be an astute and sagacious man ; therefore his views re- 
garding the status of gold are worthy of record. He is 
of the opinion that, whereas the pendulum of prices 
during the War swung farther in a direction adverse to 
gold mining than it had ever gone before, it is now 
swinging back ; it may, he thinks, go equally far in the 
opposite direction, so that there may follow a rise in the 
value of gold greater than has been experienced since 
the metal has been used as money among civilized peo- 
ples. Mr. Evans bases his belief on the fact that the 
world's production of gold has decreased 27% since 1915, 
and on the expectation that ' ^in the Course of the next 
few years" there will be a demand more intensive than 
at any time since it was established as the standard. He 

asserts that "the desire for gold among the people of the 
Far East has been enhai I" during the War an. I since, 

and "the use of it for currency purposes both there and 

in South America has increased". lie expects Russia to 
come back to a gold basis, as Prance did after the revo- 
lution. He believes that. Austria and nihil- European 
countries having paper currencies that have become al- 
most valueless "will be obliged to abandon paper for 
gold". Indeed, he deems it to be "within the bounds of 
possibility" that the Crown Mines company may yet find 
it profitable to mine the 3-dwt. banket of the Main Reef. 
The ore-reserves of the Crown Mines are estimated at 
8,132,000 tons averaging 6.4 dwt. per ton. 

Concurrently with these pleasant suggestions from Mr. 
Evans there is published a report by Mr. H. F. Marriott, 
consulting engineer to the Central Mining & Investment 
Corporation, a company holding large blocks of shares 
in a number of the principal mines of the Rand. Mr. 
Marriott is an ex-president of the Institution of Mining 
and Metallurgy and is abundantly qualified to speak as 
an authority on Rand economics. He gives the following 
analysis of operations on the Witwatersrand in the last 
two years: 

1910 1980 

Tonnage treated 24.043.638 24.006.277 

Bevenue S34.297.431 133,231,257 

" per ton 28.53s. 27.58s. 

Expenditure £27.518.253 £30.814.861 

per ton . 22.89s. 25.67s. 

Working profit £ 6.770.178 £ 2.416.396 

" '■ per ton 5.64s. 2.01s. 

Premium £ 3.503.067 £ 8,885.380 

per ton 2.91s. 7.37s. 

Total revenue £37.800.498 £42.116.637 

" " per ton 8.55s. 0.38s. 

Dividends £ 5.845.607 £ 8.275.708 

" per ton 4.87s. 6.87s. 

The tonnage and revenue show but slight variation, 
whereas the increase of expenditure is alarming, for it 
has diminished the operating profit by 667c Indeed, 
mining on the world's premier g'oldfield would have worn 
a sickly look by this time if the 'premium' on gold had 
not come to the rescue, by increasing the operating profit 
from 2.01 shillings to 9.38 shillings per ton, and thereby 
permitting a distribution of dividends equivalent to 6.87 
shillings per ton in 1920 as against 4.87 shillings in 1919, 
that is, an increase of over 40%. In regard to the ques- 
tion of cost per ton, Mr. Marriott quotes the following 
figures, which he gives in shillings, pence, and fractions 
thereof; owing to the fluctuations in exchange it is useless 
to translate them into American currency ; we have sim- 
plified them by conversion into shillings and decimals. 

■ — — Wares . Other Total Tons 

Tear European Native Materials costs shillings milled 

1915 4.8 3.9 5.69 3.18 17.57 10.405.000 

1916 4.98 4.13 6.08 3.28 18.47 10.156.000 

1917 5.59 3.89 6.41 3.78 19.66 9.359.000 

1918 6.68 4.23 7.55 3.59 22.06 12.005.000 

1919 '. : .' ' 7.38 4.19 7.86 3.93 23.36 11.267.000 

1920 8.53 4.5 8.44 4.11 25.9. .11.028.000 

December 1920.. 9.2 4.8 9.2 4.14 27.34 . .867.000 

It will be seen that the wages of European employees 
have increased 92% since 1915; native, wages are 18% 
higher; materials have gone. up 61%, and 'other costs' 
39%. The enormous advance in European wages, says 
Mr, Marriott, "is out of all proportion to the remainder 
of the. increases noted, and the anomalous position has 
been created that the total cost "to the industry of the 



July 9, 1921 

European employees, who largely act in a supervisory 
capacity and constitute one-eighth of the total labor 
force, is nearly double the whole expenditure on the 
native laborers who carry out the work". These natives 
— Kafirs — work five hours per day only, and are pre- 
vented from becoming bosses over their own people owing 
to the 'color bar', which restricts supervision to white 
men. In Northern Nigeria, the employment of native 
foremen has been started, and it seems likely that a simi- 
lar step will be taken in the Transvaal. The Chamber 
of Mines has suggested a cut of three shillings per shift 
in the wages of the white employees as from July 1, and 
we shall know soon whether they have accepted. Any 
adjustment of wages based on the profit made by the 
companies is rendered difficult by the violent fluctuations 
in the premium on gold, or, in other words, the value of 
the United States dollar, for, after all, the premium 
simply marks the discount on the pound sterling as com- 
pared with the standard unit of today — the dollar. It is 
a new experience for gold miners to find their product so 
variable in price ; the mining operations on the Kand are 
far more speculative than formerly; the contention, so 
common twenty or thirty years ago, that the Rand stocks 
were absolutely sound investments suitable for widows 
and orphans, is absurd. In the United States, we have 
seen gold depreciated by the abnormal conditions created 
by a great war between many civilized nations, but we 
have escaped the vagaries of a gold market such as 
obtains in London and Johannesburg today. Already 
we see signs of a returning appreciation of gold, and a 
renewal of interest in gold mining. The vaticinations of 
Mr. Evans may be too rosy for immediate acceptance, but 
that gold mining will come into its own again in due 
course we believe confidently. 

Claims Against Mexico 

Under the title of 'Claims against Mexico', Mr. Raoul 
E. Desvernine has prepared an excellent little treatise 
on the various aspects of international law that are ap- 
plicable to the claims of citizens of the United States. 
or of other countries, for losses sustained in Mexico 
during the revolutions that have occurred during the 
last decade. Mr. Lindley M. Garrison, in a foreword, 
speaks cautiously of "entangling. alliances", but em- 
phasizes the desirability of closer commercial relations 
between nations and nationals. He contends that we of 
the United States have shown a reluctance to learn in- 
ternational law, particularly with reference to claims in 
respect of damage or loss ; it is to be regretted that the 
inclination to confine ourselves to our own interests has 
led us to neglect the acquisition of knowledge concerning 
other countries, and of those broad principles of law that 
underlie international dealings. The size of our country 
and the rapidity of its development have tended to make 
us self-centred ; extension of foreign trade, however, is 
causing a change. Mexico, Mr. Garrison avers, seems to 
lie attaining her equilibrium at last, and it is to be hoped 
that she will soon resume her normal position in the 

family of nations. Before this is possible, however, she 
must meet her obligations. The purpose of Mr. Desver- 
nine 's book is to elucidate the fundamental rules and con- 
siderations that govern the subject of claims, and to 
show the proper course to be taken in presentation 
and prosecution, in the hope that an orderly procedure 
will ensue, and that the demands will be met with fair- 
ness and equity. The book is offered by one who has a 
sincere belief in the possibilities of economic develop- 
ment in Mexico, a development that, unquestionably, is 
dependent upon a resumption of normal relations with 
other nations; it is recognized that the country cannot 
achieve success other than by the aid of foreign capital 
and foreign resources. Normal relations and normal de- 
velopment will commence only when other nations are 
satisfied that those of their citizens who hold claims 
against Mexico are likely to receive consideration and 

The essence of the present status of the question is 
summed up in the fact that, ' ' The Latin- American conn- 
tries have been the staunchest supporters of the theory 
of non-responsibility. They have been forced to this 
stand by the frequency with which they have been vis- 
ited by insurrections, uprisings and banditry, and have, 
by necessity, been compelled to develop, through their 
statesmen and publicists, a justification for their re- 
iterated attempts to deny liability. ' ' Mexicans fear that 
the enforcement of the obligation of international respon- 
sibility would lead to the acquisition of economic advan- 
tages by the citizens of the interposing nation ; loss of sov- 
ereignty and independence is dreaded, but there is no 
justification in modern international law for the repudia- 
tion of responsibility. In the new Mexican Constitution 
of 1917 it is stated : "Only Mexicans by birth or natural- 
ization and Mexican companies have the right to acquire 
ownership in lands, waters and their appurtenances, or 
to obtain concessions to develop mines, waters or mineral 
fuels in the Republic of Mexico. The Nation may grant 
the same right to foreigners, provided that they agree 
before the Department of Foreign Affairs to be con- 
sidered Mexican in respect to such property, and accord- 
ingly not to invoke the protection of their Governments 
in respect to the same, under penalty, in case of breach, 
of forfeiture to the Nation of the property so acquired." 
This clause was considered by many Mexicans as one of 
the triumphs of the revolution that unseated Porfirio 
Diaz ; in the opinion of the United States it is viewed as 
an indication of a desire to evade international duty, 
and so is ignored or denied. Mr. Desvernine 's book con- 
tains an excellent summary of Mexican history from the 
time of the overthrow of Diaz until the inauguration of 
General Obregon; he discusses the nature of the suc- 
cessive governments and revolutionary bodies, as well as 
the liability of the present government for the acts of 
each, with admirable clarity. From an examination of 
the evidence it is shown that Mexico is responsible for 
the acts of all the administrators since the fall of Diaz, 
except those of Huerta, who was not recognized, in any 
official way, by the United States. . .. 

July 9, L92] 





The Editor: 

Sir — As you have invited the prospectors to give their 
views relative to the so-ealled decadence of prospecting, 
I will herewith submit my views. 

I went with the rush to Leadville, Colorado, in No- 
vember '79. I did my first prospecting on the head of 
the Pecos river, New Mexico, in the summer of 1880 and 
I have prospected at intervals ever since, but I am one 
of the prospectors that has never made a strike. It is a 
fact that there is a clash between the mining engineers 
and the prospectors. No matter what the mining engi- 
neer may think, he is a twin brother to the prospector. 
He has had the advantage of an education in our best 
colleges, which has enabled him to learn that which takes 
a prospector a lifetime to learn. There is no doubt but 
what there are mining engineers as well as prospectors 
that ought to be in some other business. The qualifica- 
tions for an engineer should be honesty and a fearless 
courage to recommend a property just as he, finds it. 
This kind of a man, if he does make a mistake and lose his 
position, will not stay down long, for his force of char- 
acter will enable him to overcome all obstacles. This 
kind of a man and the geologist that understands his 
business are the best friends the prospector has or ever 
will have. I am willing to take off my hat to them for 
the great work they are doing. I believe the average 
prospector makes a mistake in submitting to hard bar- 
gains for his claims, but the claim-owners incorporate 
and issue stock to the amount of what the claims are sup- 
posed to be worth and concentrate their efforts on the 
best ground. There is nothing like self-help. The dis- 
tricts where veins cropped conspicuously or where erosion 
has been so excessive as to make tracing by panning easy 
have been prospected fairly well, but what of the great 
belt of acid lavas of the Tertiary epoch extending for 
thousands of miles north and south a greater part of the 
way through two continents, the deposits in which for the 
most part have suffered very little erosion? Here is 
where an education in geology is valuable to the pros- 
pector. The first thing for him to ascertain is whether 
the formations are such that mineral is likely to be 
associated with them. If he has any doubt on that score, 
let him send specimens to the nearest mining school or 
State university and they will gladly put him wise. No 
prospector should start prospecting in a district till he 
has ascertained what the formations are, observing the 
hydro-thermal alteration in areas that are well broken 
by faults or dikes and around the lower margin where the 
strata have been closed. Such a district as this may 

show no ore on the surface. Watch the changes in the 
country-rock along such fractures, the addition of silica 
approaching the fracture; look for pyrite or stains of 
manganese oxide. There are many districts that contain 
no signs, but such conditions are caused by the lack of 
erosion. Most of the time for the last five years 1 have 
been prospecting in the very northern edge of Nevada 
and south-eastern Oregon. Of the prospectors I met 
there, not a single one took a mining periodical. Most of 
the old-timers I have met know very little about the ways 
of modern prospecting. Nobody is to blame for this con- 
dition but themselves. I am in favor of every State com- 
pelling its prospectors to register a reasonable fee for the 
same. A State that has a Geological Survey should have 
charge of this work and should have a list of all prospects 
and mines that are for sale. I am in favor of continuing 
the annual assessment work, but the prospector should be 
permitted to do the annual labor on all the claims he has 
or one claim if he desires to do so. As it is now, all 
mining men know that a great deal of this labor is wasted. 
Many prospectors are quitting the game because they 
have a lack of technical education. The present condi- 
tions are not good for old-time methods. 

I have no grievance to register. I might mention a 
mischievous clause in the Ashurst mining law where it 
says "at the discretion of the Secretary of the Interior". 
This gives the prospector some red tape to uncoil. 

I i~ ' * C. H. McCUMBER. 

Beatty, Klamath county, Oregon, June 16. 

Zinc-Silver Ore Treatment 

The Editor: 

Sir — In your interview with Mr. D. W. Brunton and 
with reference to the treatment of "the middlings, which 
consisted of pyrite and blende" carrying "a large 
amount of silver", the following treatment was designed, 
quoting Mr. Brunton: "At the Stewart mill I found that 
when the ore carried a high percentage of zinc and was 
roasted at a low temperature, chloride of zinc was formed, 
which acted as an excellent solvent' of silver. " If we con- 
tinue reading we find that at Silver Peak there was salt 
in abundance; but at the Stewart mill the pyrite and 
blende were roasted, and produced chloride of zinc, 
which dissolved the silver. The question is, are we to 
take this paragraph as written or is it wrong? How the 
chlorine got into the Stewart ore is not mentioned, or 
why, if roasted with salt, the silver should remain as 
silver and not as chloride. The paragraph may mean 
that at the Stewart mill the mixture of pyrite and blende 


July 9, 1921 

was roasted with salt at a low temperature, producing 
both chloride of zinc and silver ; and the chloride of zinc 
dissolved the chloride of silver. Kindly elucidate this 
puzzle as some of us doubt that chloride of zinc is a 
solvent for chloride of silver or even of silver as stated. 
Nayarit, Mexico, June 2. Algernon Del Mar. 

The Editor: 

Sir — In reply to Mr. Del Mar's inquiry, I wish to state 
that the method of silver extraction (U. S. patent No. 
228032), briefly sketched in the interview, was simply a 
variation of the Augustin process, in whicli the solvent 
power of the salt solution was increased whenever the 
ore, before chloridizing, contained blende, by the presence 
of chloride of zinc and incidentally by the chlorides of 
calcium and magnesia. 

In the Augustin process, the silver ore, after being 
subjected to a chloridizing roast, was lixiviated in an 
ordinary leaehing-vat ; in the other method, usually 
dubbed 'chloride leaching', the hot ore from the chloridiz- 
ing-furnaces was run directly into agitators and stirred 
until the solution was complete, a procedure which 
greatly expedited the rate of solution. That this method 
was a success is evidenced by the fact that all of the mills 
mentioned were operated at a profit until the available 
supply of ore w r as exhausted, during which time they 
produced many hundreds of thousands of ounces of bar 
silver over 900 fine. 

D. "W. Brunton. 

Denver, June 17. 

Metallurgical Methods at Rio Tinto 

The Editor: 

: Sir — I have read with great interest Mr. De Kalb's 
article on cementation at Rio Tinto, and also Mr. Van 
Arsdale's comment on the same. Claiming some little 
experience in heap-leaching, I thought I might be allowed 
to contribute to the discussion. 

Referring to Mr. Van Arsdale's simplification of the 
equation (1), which he writes as 

4FeS 2 + 280 + 4H 2 = 4FeS0 4 + 4H,S0 4 , 
why not simplify it further and write 

2FeS 2 + 140 4- 2H,0 = 2FeS0 4 + 2H,S0 4 , 
as 2FeS0 4 + 211,804 is all that is required to carry on 
the good work. However, I think that the equation as 
given by Mr. De Kalb is the correct one : 
33FeS a + 280 4- 4H 2 = 29FeS 2 + 4FeS0 4 + 4H 2 S0 4 , 
the excess of 29FeS 2 representing the large mass of un- 
attacked pyrite, which, as is well known, is later shipped 
for its sulphur content. 

Mr. De Kalb refers to the first cement copper as being 
produced at Rio Tinto in 1752, from mine-water only. 
L. de Launay says* that the first cement copper was made 
at Rio Tinto in 1752, from heaps that had undergone a 
natural decomposition by atmospheric influences and that 
had been leached out by water, the copper being pre- 

♦'Annales des Mines; Memoire sur l'lndustrie du Cuivre 
dans la Region d'Huelva', Paris, 1889. 

cipitated on iron. The process met with strong opposi- 
tion from the then general superintendent of the 
Hacienda Real, Don Pedro de Lerina, who stated that 
the cement copper obtained was nothing more or less than 
iron coated with copper, and that this falsification would 
do a great deal of harm to the Spanish copper trade. 
After a long series of experiments by some celebrated 
chemists at Madrid, it was shown that the Don had made 
a mistake, but it took a long time before the lixiviation 
process was looked upon with favor. See also M. Eissler's 
'Hydro-Metallurgy'. It might be worthy of note here, 
that cement copper was produced from mine-liquors at 
Sehmollnitz in Hungary in the 15th century. 

AVith regard to the washing of the heap, indiscriminate 
running on of solutions would never do. As Mr. De 
Kalb suggests, great care is necessary. The precept to 
be kept constantly in mind, is to obtain "the best product 
in the shortest time at the least expense". In other 
words, to get the maximum amount of copper with the 
minimum volume of solution. There is, however, a com- 
pensating balance at work all the time, and just when a 
certain portion of the heap may be getting 'cold' or 
'drowned', other physical features present themselves, 
which indicate clearly to the superintendent in charge 
the urgent necessity of moving the wash-liquor to some 
other part of the heap. 

Referring to Mr. De Kalb 's statement on the solubility 
of zinc, that it does not precipitate in the vats, that is 
quite correct, but neither does it re-deposit on the ore, 
at least to any great extent, as it is found in large and 
almost equal quantities in the heading and tailing of the 
canaleo or cementation plant. Such was my experience 
for several years at Cuchiehon. 

I was glad to see Mr. De Kalb refer to the heap-leach- 
ing of silicious and schistose ores, as that practice is 
particularly applicable to this country, and I regret he 
did not give us even more details, and further enlighten- 
ment on this feature of the method. At Cuchiehon they 
treat a schist containing about 1% copper. Heaps are 
about 20 ft. high (6 metres). They are washed with 
water from the mine, augmented by some waste-liquor 
from the plant. The liquor entering the cementation 
plant carries about 5.50 lb. copper per 1000 gallons, and 
leaves with from nil to 0.16 lb. copper per 1000 gal., 
showing a recovery in the plant of more than 97%. 

Mr. De Kalb gives the time necessary for leaching 
these silicious heaps at Rio Tinto as ten years, which 
seems a very extended period. A silicious heap at Bisbee, 
20 ft. high and containing about 13% copper when built, 
showed an extraction of close on 73% in three years — a 
slight improvement on Spanish practice. 

I notice that in Spain they still cling to the idea of 
many kilometres of shallow canals for precipitation of 
copper from solution, while here deep vats with false 
bottoms and stirring mechanisms are being considered as 
the best vehicle for such work. In fact, the vats have 
already shown themselves to be most economical and 
efficient. f 

tSee -M. & S. P.', Feb. 12, 1921. 

July 9, 1921 



While the Euelva-Seville district has long been re- 
garded as the cradle of heap-leaching and natural cemen- 
tation, it may be, as the child is Bomethnea father to the 
man. that in the not-distant futures, our brother metal- 
lurgists on the other side, may study with some int. rest 
the heap-leaching and cementation plant results obtained 
in our South-West. 

, . • tii Joseph Irving. 

Jerome, Arizona. Juno 11. 


The Editor: 

Sir — With all due respect for the sincerity of the 
writers of recent articles intended to improve the lot of 
the prospector, I beg leave to put a few small flies into 
their ointment. Can any of these writers explain why a 
man who holds claims from year to year without much 
actual benefit to them should be protected by law in so 
doing? Such a claim-holder dare not defraud a neighbor 
or group of individuals without fear of trouble: yet he is 
well protected in defrauding 110,000,000 fellow citizens, 
who seem to think that he needs protection in defrauding 
them still more. What else can you call it if the require- 
ment of annual assessment work be stopped altogether, 
as some think necessary to solve the puzzle 1 

I admit that a large proportion of mining claims, both 
locations and patents, are being held for speculation. 
Every business has some speculation in it, and mining 
has always and everywhere been more speculative than 
perhaps any other business that has need of scientific 
knowledge. I also know that much territory for grazing 
of stock is meant to pay its real profits from mining leases 
and sales in the event of the finding of a paying vein on 
the property. This has been done often in Calaveras 
county, and also in other districts to a smaller extent. 
The patentees take advantage of the fact that patent 
titles cannot be reversed, because of error or fraud, after 
seven years. The grazing furnishes an ordinary profit on 
the use of the capital required to obtain patent and to 

The only possible way that a prospective buyer can 
have protection against imposition in dealing with own- 
ers of small undeveloped prospects and wild-cat proper- 
ties is by being slow, cold, thorough, shrewd, and inde- 
pendent. Anyone who cannot so qualify as such is fore- 
doomed to failure. Even if qualified, he may make an 
expensive mistake, because he is still handicapped in 
other ways. But that is not my subject. I have studied 
the Mother Lode country since coming here and have ex- 
periences to remember. 

To get back to speculation in mining claims : the real 
unfairness can he remedied by the 110,000,000 people 
when they assert their sovereign rights of ownership to 
all mining locations, by requiring every 'proof of labor' 
to state where assessment work was done and how it 
benefited the location to the extent of $100. As the 
'proof of labor' now operates, it need include no definite 
statement in a case of fraud as to where or how there was 
benefit, or an outlay approaching $100 ; it puts the 

burden of proof upon the true owner to show that he did 
not fulfil his full duty in trust. There is now little 
chance of (rue proof of fraud. 

The honest locators and holders often leave their loca- 
tions, vowing that they will do no more work on such 
worthless property ; or they do their work regularly and 
tell about it, and may disdain to file 'proof cf labor' as 
evidence that they are honest men. The dishonest ones 
hold on and on, filing 'proofs of labor' because no one 
can watch any of them for 365 days in any year; and no 
one is able to swear that no work was done. The courts 
have been favoring any claim-holder who can prove that 
he did any small part of his $100 worth of annual work 
or permanent benefit per claim. The principle is right, 
but the practical application is usually wrong. It is 
wrong for a 'proof of labor' to be admitted as direct 
evidence when not sworn to ; California requires that it 
shall be sworn to before being admitted as evidence in her 

The remedies of the abuses stated in this letter are 
manifestly the business of the legislative branches of each 
State wherein is the greatest hope of correction. It is 
far more customary for the dishonest location holders to 
file 'proofs of labor' than for the honest ones. Many an 
honest locator or location holder depends on the added 
improvements to prove his annual assessment work; he is 
proud of what he has done and demands that it suffice. 
A trick practised at times is to freshen the surfaces of 
weathered dumps and excavations, to indicate that assess- 
ment work has been done ! 

Geo. E. McClelland. 

Sonora, California, June (i. 

The Editor: 

Sir — It is with intense interest that I have read the 
contributions regarding prospecting in your recent issues. 
I believe Mr. Davis is right in his statement that "we 
have spent too much of our time ... on small 
streaks". It indicates one of the main reasons why so 
few mines of consequence have been discovered in recent 

Most prospectors put in too much time on the smaller 
veins because there is a better chance to find high-grade 
ore, and there is always a better opportunity to sell such 
prospects, or at least to induce others to furnish fluids 
for further development, even though the ore does not oc- 
cur in paying quantity. On the other hand, the prospect 
that has "the earmarks of a big mine" seldom has ore of 
shipping value near the surface, and it is almost im- 
possible to interest capital in its development, unless it 
is near, very near, a booming camp. 

The development of this class of prospects will cer- 
tainly help the situation, as it will encourage the pros- 
pector to look for them instead of chasing high-grade 
streaks. No doubt the promoter, on whom the pros- 
pector frequently depends to get his wares to market, 
is largely to blame. He is seldom a mining engineer, or 
familiar with the geology of ore deposits, and it is much 
simpler to raise funds on high assays than on even the 



July 9, 1921- 

most favorable geological data. He naturally prefers 
the proposition that promises the largest returns for 
himself, and producing mines are not a necessary ad- 
junct to his operations. Higher commissions are paid 
for financing prospects than for any other purpose. A 
better system of financing prospects is certainly neces- 
sary if individual effort is to survive. 

If these changes cannot be brought about, prospecting 
as a gainful pursuit for the individual is likely to come 
to an end, except possibly for those few fortunate in- 
dividuals who are possessed of the "inevitable require- 
ments" enumerated by Mr. Davis, and sufficient financial 

W. F. Korf. 

Bound Mountain, Nevada, June 10. 

Coloring of Glass 

The Editor: 

Sir — Assuming that the letter of Mr. Francis Drake 
on this subject in your issue of June 11 invites an ex- 
planation of the phenomena of colorless glass turning 
purple in prolonged sunshine, I venture to mention the 
deductions I formed many years ago as to the cause of 
the coloring. 

Manganous compounds are pale-pink in color ; man- 
ganic compounds are violet in color; permanganic com- 
pounds are purple-red in color. Compounds of manga- 
nese produce an amethyst color in the borax-bead (man- 
ganic borate) ; in the reducing flame this color disap- 
pears (manganous borate). These chemical reactions are 
well known and simple, but are mentioned as being es- 
sential to understanding of the cause of 'amethyst' 

In the making of colorless glass, manganese dioxide is 
added to oxidize the green ferrous silicate, caused by 
traces of iron in the sand, to the almost imperceptible 
pale-yellow ferric compound. The faint-pink tint of 
manganous compounds in the glass also tends to mask 
the pale-yellow color produced. This explains the so- 
called colorless glass, but the actinic action of the sun's 
rays, or of an intense arc-light, changes the pale-pink of 
the manganous compounds to the strong violet or purple 
of the manganic or permanganic compounds. The re- 
actions involved may be more complex than here indi- 
cated, but the explanation will suffice for the present 

The optical glass used in projection lenses in the 
'movies', under intense light, is rapidly turned amethyst 
or purple in proportion to the quantity of manganese 
dioxide used in its manufacture ; similarly, the eye-glasses 
made to relieve the eyes from sun-glare are colored faint 
or strong amethyst at will by varying the quantity of 
manganese dioxide used, but in this latter case instead of 
waiting for the slower actinic action of the sun's rays, 
the glass is placed under the intense action of strong 
electric light, which does the work in a comparatively 
short time. Arc-light globes in our city streets and else- 
where are turned amethystine in the same manner. Prob- 
ably, if the Boston residents knew how rapidly their old 

violet-colored windows could be reproduced, they would 
not feel so proud of them, but it would be a pity to 
apprise them of the fact. 

Finally, your own jocular foot-note may be further 
played upon by giving the definition of amethyst, that is, 
resisting wine, the Greeks believing the stone and plant 
of that name to be preventives of intoxication. 

Los Angeles, June 14. B. D. Perkins. 

The Editor: 

Sir — The letter from Mr. Francis Drake in your issue 
of June 11 mentions a fact that has long been observed 
in certain kinds of glass. I remember, as a child, visiting 
an old farm-house and out of a dozen drinking-glasses, 
five or six of them were decidedly violet in color. I was 
never content unless I had one of these "purple glasses" 
at meal times, although they were considered inferior by 
the rest of the household. Later, I observed this same 
phenomenon in milk-bottles, fruit-jars, and, once or 
twice, in cut-glass. The windows at the farm-house men- 
tioned above also had a decidedly purple tinge and this 
color was always a source of mystery to the people there- 

The following excerpt from Thorpe's 'Outlines of In- 
dustrial Chemistry', 3rd edition, pages 198-199, gives the 
cause of this phenomenon: "It is customary to employ 
other ingredients in every glass mixture, to assist in the 
decolorization or fusion. The commonest decolorizing 
agent added is pyrolusite (binoxide of manganese, 
MnO : ). Iron, when in the ferrous condition, imparts a 
green color to glass; but when in the ferric state, it is 
much less troublesome, since it gives only a pale yellow 
color. By the oxidizing action of the pyrolusite, ferrous 
iron is converted to the ferric condition; moreover, the 
silicate of manganese has a violet or pink color, and so 
helps to neutralize the green. Only a very small per- 
centage of pyrolusite should be thus used. The remedy 
is not a permanent one, and if the glass is exposed to 
strong s untight for along time, it develops a violet shade, 
as may often be observed in the window panes of old 

The fact that this phenomenon occurs most frequently 
in 'potash' glass (glass having a potassium carbonate 
base) has led some investigators to believe that this color- 
ation is due to the potassium present, which undergoes, 
in strong sunlight, a change of state that is not, at the 
present, fully understood. Other investigators hold that 
the change is partly the result of pyrolusite and partly 
of potassium. It has. however, been clearly proved that 
pyrolusite must be present wherever this color change 

oeclws - Frank J. G. Duck, 

Assistant Principal, School of Metallurgy. 
Scranton, Pennsylvania, June 14. 


According to figures compiled by the U. S. Geological 
Survey, the quantity of salt produced in the United 
States in 1920 was 6,965,188 short tons. The value of 
the product was $30,539,168, or nearly $3,500,000 more 
than any other year. 

July 9, 192] 



Training for Foreign Exploration 

Commencement Address, Missouri School of Mines, April 29, 1921 

By H. Foster Bain 

Mining engineering occupies a borderland. In com- 
mon with other branches of engineering, it is an "art 
and science by which the mechanical properties of mat- 
ter are made useful to man in structures and machines", 
but with a difference. The civil engineer digs a hole to 
put something in it, a foundation perhaps. The mining 
engineer digs a hole to get something out of it, the ore. 
If he puts anything into the hole, timbers to support the 
■excavation perhaps, he does it grudgingly and always 
with a view to the utmost economy of material. He can- 
not, as can his fellow professional, build with an eye to 
the long future. He must always face the fact that his 
main object is to get things out of holes, and that when 
he has got out of the hole all that Nature had put in it, 
neither the hole nor the plant used in the work has any 
further value. There is but a modicum of salvage upon 
■which he may count. In many particulars his work 
shows analogies to that of the contractor, and the same 
logic that leads a contractor to low first-cost installations 
is good, within reason, for the mining engineer. He does 
"his work and moves on ; and there is probably no pro- 
fession calling for equal skill and learning, in which the 
members wander more. Always they are seeking or ex- 
-tracting or utilizing material forming part of the crust 
of the earth, and usually are doing it under conditions 
•or with equipment that is at least suggestive of being 
■temporary. The mining engineer must improvise, and 
he must be versatile. Of him it may be written as Kip- 
ling has of the marine: 

Eor there isn't a job on the top o' the earth the beggar 

don't know nor do, 
Tou can leave 'im at night on a bald man's 'ead to 

paddle 'is own canoe; 
'Es a sort of a blooming cosmopolouse — soldier and sailor 


To the lore of the geologist he adds the skill of the 
■engineer and the science of the metallurgist. Always 
and everywhere an eclectic, he adapts means to the end. 
Clearly where there are such varied duties and oppor- 
tunities, room for specialization exists; and this is, in- 
deed, the fact. 

Mining engineers, employing that term in the broad 
general sense in which it has common usage, are called 
Tipon for three sorts of work: (a) geological, (6) mining 
proper, and (c) metallurgical. No one man may be ex- 
pected to be competent in all three, and each branch is 
really a profession within a profession, but a man who 
stays long and achieves success in mining engineering 
must know something of all three, and young men who 

leave the schools, regardless of the point of the triangle 
at which they begin, seem in practice liable to end at 
either of the other. Each of the three has applications 
outside mining, or verges over into other fields. Thus the 
border-line between metallurgy and chemical industry is 
shadowy, the ties between mining engineering proper 
and civil engineering are many and close, and geology is 
a broad science which touches many fields aside from 
those related to ores and minerals. It is, however, the 
light that geology throws on the genesis and especially 
the occurrence of ores and minerals that interests the 
miner, and it is in finding minerals and guiding develop- 
ment that it is of most direct benefit to him. This work 
is fundamental to mining. And it is the work of the 
exploration engineer. It may be of interest to inquire 
as to the probable future demand for his services and the 
training necessary to qualify him for service. 

Mines are wasting assets ; the very life of the min- 
ing industry is dependent upon the continual finding of 
new mines, new orebodies, and new reserves. When 
this stops, mining will stop, though the death may be a 
lingering one. Whatever may be true as to a particular 
type of mining or mining in a particular locality, it must 
further be clear that so long as man persists on this earth 
he will have use and need for some portions of its crust 
and that, therefore, mining in some form will continue. 
Each individual mine, be it ever so long-lived, is eventu- 
ally worked out and becomes worthless, and other mines 
must be found to take its place. The emphasis changes 
and minerals or metals eagerly sought by one people or 
one generation are less important to those who come later, 
sometimes because their wants are supplied from a dif- 
ferent source. In the early settlement of the Mississippi 
Valley local salt-supplies were so important that salt 
lands were generally set aside as being of particular 
value. Now these local supplies are of so little impor- 
tance that they are generally not worked. Nonetheless 
the salt industry is manyfold larger and more important 
than was contemplated by our grandfathers. The human 
need for salt is as great as ever and with increasing 
population more salt, and hence more salt mines, have 
been needed. 

As there comes to be more people in the world there 
will be more need for mineral products, and, disregard- 
ing the substitution of one for another, the minimum 
rate of increase in output for the minerals as a whole 
may be safely taken as that of increase of population. 

There is an additional factor that lends assurance to 
the future of mining. As civilization spreads and in- 
dustrialization becomes increasingly intensive, the per 



July 9, 1921 

capita consumption of minerals increases. Man comes 
more and more to depend upon energy taken from the 
earth to supplement his own labor. The brilliant civili- 
zation of the Greeks was based upon slave labor. It is 
worth remembering that in the golden age which the 
classicists so love to recall, the mines of Laurium, worked 
by slaves, were so productive that each citizen of Athens 
received a dividend in place of an annual tax-notice. 
Naturally, they had time to sit around in the sunshine 
and talk philosophy. The people of our time will not 
tolerate slavery. We have found a better way in that 
we harness to our use the energy of falling water and of 
fuels, and so are each served by invisible non-consuming 
genii of the earth. The peoples who make the most use 
of earth materials and forces are the peoples who work 
the shortest number of hours, produce the most goods, 
and have the most to divide among themselves. There 
are great differences between the peoples of various coun- 
tries and centuries in this particular. Probably the 
civilized man, on the average, eats little if any more 
food than his ancestors did, but he does burn more coal 
and use more metals. Even among the various peoples 
of the present there are differences. The Chinese use 
about 1/20 ton of coal per capita per annum. Americans 
use approximately 6 tons, and other peoples use various 
amounts between. Generally speaking, the world is 
learning to use more and more coal and so to substitute 
the mechanical energy of heat for human labor. The 
pre-war per capita consumption of copper in the United 
States was 6 to 7 pounds and for France about i pound. 
In Russia it is very much less, but nothing can be more 
certain than that through a term of years peoples of 
other countries are going to approximate more closely to 
American standards of consumption. The United States 
is by no means the only country where modern plumbing 
is appreciated, and as the cult of the bathtub spreads 
around the world the consumption of the metals will 
grow. This demand can only be supplied by re-use of 
old metal or by making additions to the world's stock. 
Mineral wealth, fortunately, is not necessarily consumed 
in use. There is wastage, but there is also salvage, and 
large amounts of old metal are continually returning to 
use, so much so that important metallurgical processes 
such as making open-hearth steel and cement copper are 
based upon suplies of scrap metal. 

The existing stocks of the various metals represent 
accumulations of all the centuries that have gone before, 
though very much the larger part has been won within 
the last hundred years. There have been times in the 
past when but little was added to the stock and there 
have been peoples who merely captured in war and used 
the metals mined by others. This was true of the Tartar 
dynasties in China. The peoples who ceased to mine 
ceased to progress in civilization and the great civiliza- 
tions of the past were those in which the people laid 
under tribute more and more of the earth. 

As yet no people are known who have accumulated a 
sufficient stock of metals to supply themselves by re- 
molting and at the same time to make progress in civili- 

zation. Having regard to the many activities that led 
to wastage, it seems improbable that any active people 
will reach the stage where they will not require periodic 
additions to their stocks of metals. In the opinion of 
economists, also, no active people have yet reached a 
point of saturation as regards even steel, the most com- 
mon of our metallic alloys. It seems, therefore, safe to 
assume that demands for minerals will continue to in- 
crease. Two methods of meeting this increasing demand 
are known. By improvements in technology and finan- 
cing it will be possible to lower the limit of metal con- 
tent which separates ore from waste and so increase the 
reserves in known deposits or make into ore deposits 
what are now mere mineral segregations. This is a fruit- 
ful field and calls for application of the highest type of 
skill and genius in our profession. It is one in which re- 
markable results have been achieved. Working 1% cop- 
per ores means handling 2000 pounds of material to re- 
cover less than 20 pounds of copper, for even the best 
practice involves losses. It is only possible to do this 
by application of excellent technology and remarkable 
powers of organization and financing. In producing 
helium from natural gas a raw material containing less 
than 1% is used and the technology involves incursions 
into low temperatures and high pressures not previously 
applied on any large scale outside physical laboratories. 
A second way to meet the future demand for mineral 
products is to discover new deposits either of types made 
profitable by the improvements of process and business 
organization just mentioned, of types long known, or of 
new types. Fortunately there are opportunities of find- 
ing all three, and in all this work exploration enters. 
The search for 'porphyry coppers' has been a wide one. 
Beginning in the United States, it has long since spread 
into foreign fields. It has led men into many of the odd 
corners of the earth and there are regions yet to be ex- 
plored. In conducting this work, knowledge of the 
widest character is desirable. When C. G. Gunther began 
his search in Mediterranean countries, which has resulted 
in the development of an American mine of promise on 
the island of Cyprus, the first step was a reading of the 
classics. The Romans and earlier rulers of the region 
had sources of copper which, while small as judged by 
present American standards, might, it was thought, well 
point the way to a source for modern production. It 
will be recalled that the Utah, Chino, Ray, Nevada Con- 
solidated, and other of our modern enterprises were 
built on older small-scale undertakings!. Seeley W. 
Mudd, the eminent mining engineer who studied in a 
Missouri school and began his professional career in a 
Missouri copper mine, had the vision of applying in the 
Mediterranean region the knowledge which had grown 
out of American experience. He and his associates 
found in Mr. Gunther an excellent and enthusiastic 
agent. The work began, as I have intimated, with a 
careful review of the classics and was followed by field 
studies first in North Africa and later in Asia Minor, 
where old mines offering promise of profit under modern 
methods were found. I cite this instance to enforce the 

July 9, 1921 



observation that no knowledge cornea amiss to an ex- 
ploriris engineer. I hope it will not be construed into 
an argument for making Greek and Latin required 
courses in mining schools, but it dors show that, wide 
learning is of real value to a mining-man who purposes 
to do more than conduct a local and minor operation. 
As for Greet and Latin, mining-men as well as others 
who can without undue sacrifice of time become ao- 
quainted with them, will gain by doing so. It is well, 
though, to preserve a sense of proportion and mere knowl- 
edge of foreign languages, ancient or modern, hardly 
qualifies one to assume responsibility as an operator or 
advisor in mining. Indeed, a surprising amount of work 
can be. done through interpreters, since to a good geolo- 
gist the rocks speak direct and a competent miner or 
metallurgist can piece together the story of old works 
and furnaces from scattered remains, drawing indue 
tions as surely as does the vertebrate paleontologist from 
a few bones. Get all the knowledge of modern languages 
that circumstances permit. Some have a facility in this 
which carries them far, but remember that it is but a 
means to an end. In the course of a recent professional 
trip, lasting some twenty months, business took me into 
countries and regions where eleven distinct languages or 
dialects were used, so distinct that for each interpreters 
were necessary. If I had stopped to learn each language 
before transacting business I would never have found 
time to do the work for which I was sent. Such experi- 
ences are not unusual in these modern days of wide travel. 
It is helpful but not necessary to know modern languages. 
Even when no interpreter is available, a few simple 
words will carry you surprisingly far. It is not only 
that they are usful in themselves, but they help to estab- 
lish friendly relations. People generally take it as an 
effort to good understanding that you have tried to be- 
come qualified to talk to them in their own tongue, and 
words in any language carry an accumulation of associa- 
tions which is left behind in translating. You must, 
however, depend largely on yourself. Use your eyes and 
your feet. Get out into the field and observe. Leave, if 
you must, puzzling questions as to labor-supply, laws, 
and regulations until you can get a competent inter- 
preter, but for the facts as to character and extent of the 
deposit you wish to see, depend on your own powers and 

I am speaking now of language study as a means. 
Language and the whole group of so-called cultural 
studies have another use, one not to be overlooked. If 
you purpose to be an exploration engineer you will spend 
much time away from home, often under most uncon- 
genial surroundings. I once asked a young man return- 
ing from an outpost in West Africa what he considered 
most important for one to have before going into such 
work. I was a bit surprised when he answered, "a col- 
lege education". Experience had taught him that a 
well-stored mind is the best companion, not only in soli- 
tude, but of a man surrounded by primitive and brutaliz- 
ing conditions to which he does not wish to succumb. It 
has been my experience to note young men of good ante- 

eedents who have dissipated and 1 nine mere hrute» 

when left alone among savage or nearly savage people 
for lack of mental reserve. Mental balance and mental 
resources are of peculiar value as stabilizers under such 

Search for 'porphyry coppers' and similar deposits will 
almost certainly carry you into regions of ancient min- 
ing. It is well to be on your guard neither to under- 
estimate nor over-estimate the older civilizations. The 
ancient miners did many things well. They are apt to 
have exhausted the bonanzas down to water-level, and 
high-grade ore in old workings is rare. Their costs were 
low. since the mines wei-e operated mainly by slave labor. 
It does not follow that because others worked a mine for 
centuries or even because it yielded a considerable aggre- 
gate of metal that it can be profitably exploited under 
modern conditions. With primitive tools the ancients 
accomplished wonders. There is. however, one assump- 
tion that it is usually safe to make — they did not work 
far below permanent underground water-level, since no 
amount of human labor quite accomplishes the work of 
modern pumps. 

Just as we must remember that price relations of labor 
and metal were in ancient times very different from 
those of today, so we should bear in mind that in the 
past people were satisfied with amounts of metal that 
would be considered insignificant now. E. C. Eckel has 
pointed out that at the time of the discovery of America 
the total amount of gold accumulated in Europe in all 
forms was worth less than $100,000,000, and that up to 
the American Revolution the iron made annually in this 
country was but 15,000 to 25,000 tons. Even at that it 
was equal to the output of England. Many deposits 
which would satisfy such demands are of no importance 
whatever under modern conditions of business and tech- 
nology. Whole groups, therefore, of ancient workings 
may be passed in review quickly once you are satisfied 
as to their type and average extent. 

Finding deposits suitable for large mining enterprises 
is, however, not the whole of the work of an exploring 
engineer. He may be employed to look up sources of 
some mineral that does not occur in large bodies, such as 
tungsten or vanadium. In such cases, little bodies must 
be regarded as jealously as are large ones of cheaper 
metals. A due sense of proportion is of high value to 
him and an intimate knowledge of the mode of occurrence 
of the mineral he is seeking to find is a first essential. 
Placer gold has a natural habitat and there are character- 
istic differences in types of deposits which may be cor- 
related with the character of the country-rocks, the ex- 
tent of their metamorphism, the presence or absence of 
intrusives, the character of the latter, the physiographic 
history of the region, and similar geological features. 
Much is known now of metallogenic provinces and some- 
thing of paleography. All this and more is useful to 
one engaged in finding ore. 

In estimating the value of professional knowledge 
necessary for success as an exploring mining engineer, I 
would, therefore, place a good working knowledge of 



July 9, 1921 

geology first. This should extend not only to the teohnic 
but to the sources of information and to current knowl- 
edge of the geology of the region to be explored. A metal- 
lurgist or a mining engineer engaged in the operation of 
properties does not need so comprehensive an understand- 
ing of geology. It is sufficient if he knows the general 
scope of the science and the particular ways it may be 
applied to problems he must face. It is by no means 
necessary that he should be versed in its technique, since 
there will always be within reach men skilled in the art 
who may be called to his assistance. "What he should 
know is when a geologist can be helpful and how to use 
him in his work. It would be better for such men to 
concentrate their time and energy upon acquiring a com- 
plete mastery of their own work rather than an amateur 
and probably misleading knowledge of geology. 

In the ease of the exploring engineer the case is dif- 
ferent. His prime function is to find ores and to do this 
he must know orebodies and the laws which govern their 
occurrence. These laws are imperfectly understood, 
much regarding them remains to be learned, and to re- 
solve these doubts calls for the most complete knowledge 
obtainable concerning the principles of geology, the his- 
tory of the earth, and the technic of making geological 
studies. It is therefore important that the exploring 
engineer should he first of all a well-trained geologist, 
one capable of observing, recording, weighing, and judg- 
ing the numerous facts of which account must be taken 
in making his determinations. 

Much observation has convinced me, though as to this 
there are differences of opinion, that it is better if he 
learn his geology first as a scientific study. There is a 
high value in the detached point of view of the man who 
loves science for its own sake and counts truth as most 
important. Men so trained have usually more vision. 
They have a wider knowledge of the literature of the 
subject and of the work of others. They are less eager 
to accumulate only the facts of immediate importance 
and so have more facts and more theory upon which to 
fall back when in difficulty. They do their better work 
because they look over the whole problem first. Not in- 
frequently they make large savings by eliminating un- 
profitable work through preliminary study of literature. 
For all these reasons I would recommend the man who 
purposes to devote his time to exploration to study geol- 
ogy first and to study it as though he expected to be a 
professional geologist. 

This, however, is not alone enough. It requires but 
little knowledge of the field to recognize that many se- 
rious mistakes have been made through relying on the 
advice of geologists. For this particular work of finding 
ore is needed more than the usual equipment of a good 
geologist. The latter is rarely versed in economics, and 
this is almost equally essential. Too many geologists have 
no adequate understanding of the relative importance of 
things from the miner's point of view. Not being trained 
in assuming financial responsibility for mistakes, they 
are cheerfully optimistic when to be unduly so invites 
failure. Their first tendency is to general advice and all 

too promptly they will sketch out plans for development 
that call for millions when perhaps thousands alone are 
available. The geologist therefore needs further training 
before he is properly prepared to advise regarding min- 
ing development. 

When the prospective exploring engineer has com- 
pleted his scientific studies he needs help and criticism 
from his fellows, the mining engineer and the metal- 
lurgist. It is not necessary that he should become equally 
learned in their branches of the profession, but it is essen- 
tial that he have a clear conception of the scope, char- 
acter, and limitations of their work. It is his business 
to find the ore which the mining engineer shall mine and 
the metallurgist treat. Clearly no one will be profited 
by his finding and mapping metalliferous segregations 
which cannot be mined or are not amenable to treatment. 
It may he highly interesting and of great scientific im- 
port to map such bodies of mineral, but that is the func- 
tion, among others, of the geologists of official surveys. 
The exploration engineer must work to find something 
out of which a profit may be made or he has not found 
ore. Clearly he must know, at least in general terms, the 
limits of cost which separate ore from rock, and he must 
have some well-defined idea of the technical difficulties 
to be overcome in mining each particular deposit and of 
the methods likely to be applied. It is not necessary that 
he should be able to make the application. That calls for 
skill of another character, but he must know, and know 
surely, that some one of several methods, perhaps, may 
be applied and must be able to approximate the cost. It 
is useless to find and drill placer-ground where the boul- 
ders are too large and numerous, or the bottom too hard 
or pinnacled, to permit dredging while the supply of 
water, of storage space, or the grade prevents hydrauliek- 
ing or sluicing. There are dry placers, it is true, but if 
the exploration engineer finds conditions so unfavorable 
he would do well to defer drilling until after taking ex- 
pert advice as to methods and costs of dry washing. It 
is also useless to spend money on a careful examination 
of a placer property unless there is reason to anticipate 
that the gravel will yield as much or more than the cost 
of working elsewhere under similar conditions. To de- 
termine this, one must know what constitutes similar con- 
ditions and what usual and unusual costs are. It is no 
part of the ordinary training of the geologist to accumu- 
late such data, and if he is to succeed in exploration he 
must draw on the experience of the engineer, for it is 
either by serving an apprenticeship under him or having 
always a competent engineer as an associate. The latter 
is not always feasible and it is greatly to the benefit of 
his future if the geologist will serve for a time as helper 
to a good engineer in operating or examination work. It 
will help him to get into the habit of quantitative think- 
ing and he will learn much of the law of averages. For 
one thing, engineering methods of sampling are on a 
much sounder basis than are those of the geologist. It 
is one of the minor tragedies of scientific work that so 
much high thinking is done over non-representative sam- 
ples. Geologists generally have the same naive confidence 

July 9, 1921 



us has the prospector and promoter in their ability to 
take a 'grab' sample which will be representative] and 
this is a common Bource of error and disappointment. 

Having said so much in disparagement of the pro- 
feaaion which I have long loved, let me add that in the 
study hi placers there is no knowledge thai entirely com- 
penaates for lack of clear conceptions of geologic history 
••mil skill in geologic interpretations. Placers are the 
prodncta of rivera or beach action. Their accumulation 
is an incident in river, lake or marine history and may 
be closely correlated with the physiographic history of 
a region. There are definite places at which they may 
be expected to occur and others at which it is useless to 
seek them. Frequently they relate back to ancient livers 
and to physiographic stages in the past whose marks, 
obscured by later changes, may be picked up only by the 
skilled eye, and of which the evidence may be correlated 
only by an active well-trained brain. To indicate the 
need of supplementary training and experience is not to 
discredit what is sound and useful in that already given 
to geologists. While I have drawn my illustration from 
the field of placer mining, a similar argument may be 
made in the case of lode mining, where structure, sec- 
ondary enrichment, and other phases of geology are 
equally important, but where also it is necessary to know 
in outline of mining methods, especially of the critical 
limits, both technical and financial, of their application. 
The situation is the same in exploration for gas and oil, 
except that petroleum technology-, being newer, is not as 
yet well formulated and the financial limits are more 
elastic. The rewards of success in oil and gas production 
are so much larger in proportion to the immediate in- 
vestment, and the returns are so much more prompt, that 
it is not possible to estimate probable costs as closely as 
in other forms of mining. 

Consideration of costs leads one into the larger field of 
economics, a popular branch of learning just at present. 
Aside, however, from this new general interest in what 
was once called "the dismal science", and belief in its 
applicability to present-day problems, there are per- 
manent reasons for the exploring engineer acquiring 
more than a slight acquaintance with economics. 

Minerals are the raw materials on which are based 
numerous industries and the conditions which limit 
their use are the same in many particulars as are those 
which unduly aid industry in a given region. Security 
of title, stability of government, availability of labor, 
adequacy of financial support, these are all matters to 
be considered in exploration and they are also matters 
studied by economists. Here again the exploring en- 
gineer may to his advantage draw on a fellow profes- 
sional for methods and data. His own training prepares 
him to judge as to the material. Matters concerning 
men and money are, however, equally important, since 
the test of his results is whether he has found something 
which may be produced with reasonable expectation of 
profit. The subject is too large for discussion here. I 
may merely mention a few items by way of illustration. 
One of the assumptions too commonly made is that 

low wages necessari]} means cheap production; This may 
hi- may not In- true. It is largely a matter of efficiency, 
[fit requires, as it sometimes does) six miners of one 
to do the work of one of another, it must be clear that 
paying wages in the ratio of one to six dors not lower 
rusts. Not only that, but the final cost of production 
with such 'cheap' labor will be higher because of tin- 
larger number of working-faces necessary in the mine, 
greater amount of equipment, the extra supervision and 
housing, the higher accident-ratio and other matters, all 
of which enter into the final cost. On the contrary, one 
must not conclude that raising wages cheapens produc- 
tion. It only does so when increased efficiency results 
from the added desire on the part of the men to hold 
their jobs, or when it enables a particular employer to 
attract better men from others. Generally added effi- 
ciency in labor is purchased at an increased cost per 
unit, just as the added speed of a fast steamer calls for 
more coal per mile than when driving at a slower rate. 
It is also to be remembered that there are natural in- 
equalities in efficiency and in the economical rate of 
speed of work as between men. These can only be 
changed slowly. Another factor to be constantly kept 
in mind by the engineer is that one of the costs of a new 
enterprise is that of attracting labor to it from existing 
industries. It may usually be safely assumed that the 
people of any district are already employed. If they do 
not work, they generally starve. What they are doing 
may seem relatively unimportant to the visitor, but it 
assumes another aspect to them. It is necesnary either 
to import men already accustomed to the industry, usu- 
ally at material expense, or to tempt workers out of some 
other line into the new one and then train them to it. 
This requires both time and money. The importance of 
the time factor arises from its effect on the present value 
of proposed investment. To illustrate: deferring the 
initial returns for two years decreases by 14% the pres- 
ent value of a series of dividends running through 20 
years at 8%, assuming accumulations at 3%. The actual 
result varies with the assumption of time and rate, but 
the essential fact is that mere delay is expensive. When 
this delay is coupled with upkeep charges it is even more 
serious. This whole matter of the possible and probable 
rate and continuity of production is one of first im- 
portance in determining the availability or value of any 
mine or prospect. Into it enters also the various ques- 
tions of market. I have already indicated my reasons for 
believing that, whatever may be the depressing facts of 
the immediate present, we may safely assume a con- 
tinued demand for metals. This demand will, however, 
vary from time to time both for the group as a whole, 
such variations being due to general causes outside the 
industry itself, but also as relates to each metal. It is 
necessary to study problems such as expansion of use, 
substitution, periodic demand, and similar matters far 
aside from ordinary class-room instruction. As regards 
a particular enterprise, it is necessary in fixing capitali- 
zation to make assumptions not only as to the probable 
average price of output during the life time of the in- 



July 9, 1921 

vestment but also the maximum and minimum to be 
assumed, the probable period of duration of each, and 
if, as is occasionally true, some guess can be made as to 
the impending swing of the pendulum, it will be of great 
assistance. A property is financed on the basis of av- 
erage returns through an expected life determined by 
consideration of numerous factors. A company in which 
capital is so adjusted to income may nonetheless fail if 
not prepared to withstand a temporary period of low 
prices, while if high prices may be safely assumed in the 
near future it is possible to finance the enterprise from 
earnings to a considerable extent. There is one general 
rule, the old one that a "bird in the hand is worth two 
in the bush". This is sound not only because of the risk 
attached to the question of acquiring the two theoreti- 
cally in the bush but because the one in hand, if a good 
hen, may lay eggs through the waiting period. The 
dollar of today is worth more, normally, than the dollar 
which is to be paid some years later, because it may 
earn for you interest meanwhile. This principle of the 
greater value of quick returns when astutely used is a 
great help in bargaining. 

Just as any engineer starting for a far country car- 
ries in addition to instruments, food, and engineering 
supplies, a personal kit, so there are accomplishments 
that are as desirable if not necessary to the exploring 
engineer as his knowledge of mathematics and geology. 
He must know how to keep himself and his men in good 
health or his expedition will fail. He is the scout of in- 
dustry and often the pioneer of civilization. When he 
goes into the wilds the health risk is often the greatest 
danger faced. Even when he goes to older settled coun- 
tries, the conditions of life differ from those in his own 
home, and care is necessary. "With care it is possible to 
live and work in almost any country. It is now known 
that where it is worth while to do so, even tropical 
jungle-lands may be made safe and sanitary. To do 
this involves heavy expenditure not warranted in ex- 
ploration, so that the pioneers assume risks not neces- 
sarily met by the operating forces that come later. The 
exploring engineer would do well to look carefully to 
his own physical condition and watch closely the food, 
drink, and habits of his whole party. Learn and enforce 
proper rules as to camp sanitation. One careless man 
may wreck an expedition or cause long and expensive 
delays. It is generally true that the most suitable food 
is the food of the country, but the exceptions are numer- 
ous and the cost of a mistake serious. Until the facts in 
each instance are established it is a justifiable expense 
to use imported foods. Proper cooking will render safe 
foods otherwise dangerous, and moderation in eating 
strange dishes is a wise precaution. The American 
habit of drinking raw water is one to be indulged with 
discretion in regions of older civilizations, but safe water 
is easily obtained by boiling. It is worth while to pay 
attention to details such as these which seem small to 
those accustomed only to our own ways of living. A 
knowledge of the methods of first-aid and a few medicines 
is of great value. It is not necessary to go as far as Doc 

Milliken who, as you remember, would "take that 
bracket saw and the mild chloride and his hypodermic, 
and treat anything from yellow fever to a personal 
friend", but a little knowledge of simple medicines will 
ease your way greatly in strange countries. Learn to 
ride, to shoot, to swim, and to handle a small boat. I 
need hardly admonish a young American these days to 
learn to run a motor-car, but the accomplishment com- 
mon in the older days of country and village life are 
becoming rare. It is not always possible to ride up to a 
prospect in a Pullman or even in a Ford. In the nature 
of things, the finding of new mines will take one into 
countries where only other than mining industries have 
been developed, and in practice that means going into 
regions of country and village life. At times it means 
rolling back the centuries and living for awhile in the 
medieval ages. In such places one must know about 
horses, and mules — their habits, preferences, food, sim- 
ple ailments, and capacities for work. One may, too, be 
called upon to use a gun, though far more probably to 
afford the party fresh meat than as a means of protec- 
tion. To handle a boat or to swim may be a necessity at 
any time, though it must be admitted that in any country 
where small boats are used native boatmen are likely to 
be numerous and skillful. Skill in any of the forms of 
what we now call sport may well prove of first import- 
ance in an emergency and will always prove at once a 
means of relaxation and of establishing relations with 
strangers regardless of race or language. The latter is a 
matter of no small importance in work when the good- 
will of the whole party and of the people of the country 
traversed is. so important. 

Lastly, I would urge that to be successful one should 
have something of the spirit of adventure. Unless new 
scenes and new faces appeal to you, unless you find joy 
in the long days in saddle or afoot, unless the cheer of 
the camp-fire means more to you than the clank of the 
steam-radiator, unless to you coffee does not lose its fine 
flavor when served from a tin cup, unless you can sleep 
between blankets and not think of their scratching, do 
not undertake exploration. If you must have a napkin 
and morning paper at breakfast, if you cannot write 
save at a well-equipped desk, if you are not happy except 
with your family and intimate friends, if you need see 
the 'movies' before you can go to bed at night, you will 
be wise to find a routine job at home. But to those who 
have a venturing nature adventures come, and if you 
are one of the elect who feel the spell of the Yukon, or 
the lure of the little voices, then go 

"Adventuring! Adventuring! and oh, the sights to see 
And little fires along the trail that wink at you and me, 
Till the last adventure calls us from the old, the vain 

To a way that's still untrodden, though aglow with little 

Where no wanderer grows weary and a man is free to 

Or hang his hat upon a star and call the planet home." 

.lulv 0. 1921 




Mining Activities Near San Luis Potosi, Mexico 

By Robert B. Brinsmade 

The city of San Luis Potosi, the capital of the State of 
the same name, lies on the main line of the National rail- 
way from Laredo to Mexico City, and is the western 
terminus of the hraneh railway that ascends from the 
port of Tampico. Situated at an altitude of over 6000 ft. 
above sea-level, it has the climate of perpetual spring, 
which is usual at this elevation on the Mexican plateau ; 
and, being in Lat. 22°, it lies' on the northern edge of a 
semi-humid climate that makes the landscape more ver- 
dant than that of the northern border. "With its popula- 
tion of 40,000, central parks, and handsome public build- 
ings, it offers an attractive site for industrial plants. 
The city derives its name from the mineralized mountain 
of San Pedro, 20 km. to the east, thought to resemble the 
famous Potosi hill of Bolivia. 

The Mines op San Pedro. This town is situated on a 
railway of 3-ft. gauge built by the Cia. Metalurgiea Mexi- 
cana to connect its works, near San Luis Potosi city, with 
the forests on the Gulf slope of the plateau at Rio Verde. 
Discovered by the Spaniards in the 16th century, the rich 
streaks in the outcrops were first worked, large quantities 
of lean ore being left underground, either as filling or as 
pillars. The lead ores were smelted in adobe blast-fur- 
naces, and the silicious gold ores were reduced by amal- 
gamation or leaching. A dump of charcoal discovered a 
few years ago was found to contain 2J oz. of gold per 
ton — evidently the result of precipitation. 

The early wealth of the district can be judged by the 
fact that the 20% royalty collected by the Spanish Crown 
between 1575 and 1863 netted no less than $72,000,000. 
At the latter date an incendiary fire destroyed the tim- 
bering, and caused a collapse of the stopes in the prin- 
cipal mines, which remained almost entirely inactive dur- 

ing the remainder of the Colonial period. The old stopes 
were finally re-opened by the Victoria adit, which was 
started during the War of Independence ; but progress 
was slow until the general revival of Mexican mining in 
the 'seventies. In 1895 the construction of a modern lead 
smelter near San Luis Potosi enabled the mines to be 
again operated on the basis of large-scale production, 
after two centuries of almost complete inaction. Most of 
the old mines are now controlled by the Cia. Metalurgiea 
Mexicana ; and either by government titles or by lease, on 
royalty, of the properties of the Cia. La Victoria y 
Anexas, the company that completed the Victoria adit. 
The chief independent operator is the Cia. El Barreno y 
Anexas owning a mine that occupies the central part of 
the old workings and a cyaniding mill that has been run 
intermittently on silicious gold ores for over a decade.* 
As may be seen from the sketch in Fig. 1 the geology 
of the cerro is simple. An immense laccolith of por- 
phyry (hornblende porphyrite) has bored its way up- 
ward through the original sedimentary strata, and now 
appears as a wide dike-like outcrop on both sides of a 
central peak of blue limestone of Cretaceous age. There 
are thus three surfaces of lime-porphyry contact to ex- 
plore for possible orebodies, namely, K-e-f-g, p-q, and 
m-n; but, curiously enough, nothing of importance has 
been found except on the first contact. The mineral zone 
seems to have been all discovered and delimited by the 
ancients, for modern exploration outside the old work- 
ings and in virgin territory has had little success. There 
are three classes of orebodies: (1) lenses, following north 
and south from K-f along the lime-porphyry contact ; (2) 

*'Ore Deposits of Mexico', by S. J. Lewis. 
Vol. 120, p. 444. 

'M. & S. P.' 



July 9, 1921 

chimney-like veins in the limestone as a-e, c-b, and d-f 
which strike north and south and ascend from such con- 
tact nodes as e, b, and / to the surface: and (3) cross- 
fissures which occasionally connect the veins of Class (2). 
The best ore for smelting is that of Class (1) which, when 
in place, contains from 6 to 10% of lead. The old stope- 
fillings, as now shipped for smelting, contain 2 to 3% 
lead, under 50% of silica, 8 grammes of gold, and 200 to 
250 gm. of silver per ton. The veins of Class (2) con- 
tain 60 to 80% of silica ; when large, they are the richest 
in gold ; when small, they consist mainly of iron oxides, 
poor in precious metal, like the fissures of Class (3). 
The dividing line for the content of FeO is about 50% ; 
above that amount the orebodies are apt to be commer- 
cially worthless as far as gold and silver are concerned. 
The main working adit for present operations at the 
Victoria group runs north and south in the porphyry 
from e (Fig. 1). It is provided with double tracks for 

Fig. 1. geologic section op san pedro 

handling Koppel 1^-ton steel ore-ears which descend by 
gravity when loaded and outward bound. When empty 
they are hauled back by mules to the interior of the mine. 
Elsewhere the cars are also of Koppel make but have to 
be contracted in size in order to enter the shaft cages, and 
only hold 600 kg. The adit cars discharge into side-dump 
wooden cars — holding 4 to 5 tons — that are handled on 
the surface tramway, in trains of 10, by a Porter com- 
pressed-air locomotive. This tramway connects all the 
principal mines of San Pedro, and forms a feeder for the 
railway from Rio Verde to the smelter at Morales. Below 
the adit e, the lower levels are developed by inside vertical 
winzes. The cross-cut e-h connects the adit with the 
'Hidalgo' winze h-H, from the bottom of which the cross- 
cut H-b cuts the lime-porphyry contact again at 6. From 
H-b the 'Begonia' winze b-B has been sunk, from the 
lowest point of which another cross-cut B-f cuts the con- 
tact at /. Each of these winzes is 150 ft. deep and con- 
tains two single-deck cages running in balance from f-in. 
steel ropes, and handled by 15-hp. electric hoists, made 
by the Wellman-Seaver-Morgan Co. Steel-rope guides 
are used. 

At the time of my visit, the Victoria mines were pro- 
ducing 12,000 tons of smelting ore monthly, and em- 
ployed a force of 1300 men, nearly all of whom were 
working by the contract system. The zone of productive 
orebodies extended for 1000 metres north to south, and 

for 600 m. east to west. Much of the output consisted of 
old filling. The chunks of good ore were first picked out, 
the remainder being passed over 1-in. screens. The over- 
size was rejected ; the undersize, with a high lime content 
and containing some gold and silver, was shipped. Power 
for the tramway, hoists, air-drills, and repair-shops comes 
from the distant Guanajuato electric supply system. The 
alternating current, of 3-phase and 60 cycles, arrives at 
San Luis Potosi city at a pressure of 70,000 volts, but for 
passage to San Pedro it is transformed to 15,000 volts. 
In the receiving-house at the mines the voltage is finally 
reduced to 440 for power, and 110 for lighting purposes. 
The water-supply depends on the impounding of the 
scanty local rainfall in dams and tanks ; it is inadequate, 
and has to be supplemented by water hauled in tank-cars 
from wells in the San Luis Potosi valley at Kilometre 8 
of the railway. 

The present condition of the San Pedro camp is typical 
of many famous Mexican mining districts in that the 
cream of the rich ores near the surface was skimmed by 
the Spaniards. Nevertheless the ore deposits of the Cerro 
are so large and so numerous that modern methods of 
mining and metallurgy permit profitable operation, and 
at a rate of production many times greater than was 
attained in the olden days. 

Lead Smelting Plant op Cia. Metalurgica Mexi- 
cana. This plant is located at Morales, 5 km. from San 
Luis Potosi city, and is the terminus of the company's 
narrow-gauge railway to Rio Verde. About half of the 
ore comes from the near-by camp of San Pedro ; the re- 
mainder is purchased from other districts. Its capacity 
exceeds 1000 tons daily, of crude ore that by means of 
roasting and blast-furnaces is reduced to base bullion for 
export to the lead-silver refinery of Monterrey, N. L., 
and medium-grade copper matte for sale to the Aguas- 
calientes smelting works. 

There are 11 blast-furnaces. A dust-flue connects with 
the furnace down-comers from the smoke-hoods on the 
feed-floor. The feed is shoveled by hand through long 
doors in the sheet-iron hoods, the charge being brought 
in barrows from the ore-bedding bin in the rear ; the bot- 
tom of this is at the feed-floor level, the top being sur- 
mounted by the tracks that carry the entering cars of ore 
and fuel. Each furnace has a horizontal section at the 
tuyeres of 10 by 3| ft. and operates with a 17-ft. ore- 
column under a blast-pressure of 24 oz. The hearth is en- 
closed by 16 east-iron water-jackets, set six on each side 
and two at each end, each about 4 ft. high. A side-jacket 
has one 3-in. tuyere in its centre, and there is a total of 
12 tuyeres per furnace. The nominal daily capacity of 
a lead-furnace is 100 tons ; and this charge is handled by 
3 feeders and 11 wheelers on the feed-floor, and 2 tappers 
and 1 boss on the slag-floor. The coke consumption is 
12% for American or 15% for the native product ; the 
usual slag contains 33% SiO ? , 28% CaO, and 28% FeO, 
with a ratio of CaO to FeO of 1 to 1. The slag is tapped 
intermittently into a steel fore-hearth, lined with adobe 
brick and set on wheels, whence it overflows into Nasmyth 
slag-cars that are hauled by light steam-locomotives to the 

•Inly 9, 198] 



dump. The fore-hearth is 8 ft. long, 34 ft. high, inside its 
lining, and 3 ft. wide at the base, but only 2§ ft. wide at 
top — to permit quiet settling of the matte, which is tapped 
from a side spout into east-iron molds. Much of the 
base bullion must be liquated on a small reverberatory 
hearth before it is clean enough for shipment, the result- 
ing scum being re-smelted. The first matte is passed 
through a jaw-erusher and rolls, and roasted down to a 
sulphur content of 2 or 3%. After this it is re-smelted 
with silver ore, in two special blast-furnaces, one of 250 
and the other of 150-ton daily capacity. Before the 
cessation of operations in 1914, the second matte was con- 
centrated in the blast-furnace, re-roasted, and charged 
into a small reverberatory, where, mixed with half its 
weight of raw 60% matte and silver ore, it was reduced 
and east into anode copper for shipment to the Balbach 
refinery at Newark, N. J. Since the renewal of smelting 
in 1918, the second matte has been shipped to the A. S. & 
R. plant in Aguascalientes. Originally the matte was 
roasted in Bruckner cylinders, but these have been super- 
seded by hand-rabbled reverberatory hearths, which are 
built of local stone and provided, in the hot zone, with a 
lining of fire-brick. They are 15 in number, of which 
5 have 70-ft., and 10 have 60-ft. hearths. The fuel pre- 
viously used was cordwood, brought from the forests of 
Rio Verde on the company 's railway. Last year the wood 
fuel was replaced by crude oil obtained from the Gulf 

The sampling mill takes, according to richness, every 
fifth, tenth, or twentieth shovelful of ore as unloaded 
from the railway ears. The usual hand methods of con- 
ing and quartering are used to reduce the sample to a 
size suitable for assaying. For preparing fine ore, flue- 
dust, and roasted matte for the blast-furnaces, two 6-ft. 
briquette presses, made by Chisholm, Boyd & White, are 
used. The briquettes are hard enough for smelting after 
air-drying alone. The main boiler plant is of 1100 hp., of 
which 500 hp. is obtained from two Cook vertical water- 
tube boilers, and the remainder from four Stirling hori- 

zontal water-tube boilers. The blast is supplied by six 
Root and three Connellsville positive rotary blowers, all 
piped to a common main and operated by three single 
tandem-compound Corliss engines, made by Fraser & 

Before the Chamber of Deputies recently. M. Lou- 
cheur, Minister of the Liberated Regions, stated, accord- 
ing to a consular report, that when the French recovered 
possession of the mines in the Departments of Nord and 
Pas-de-Calais, 140 shafts were found totally destroyed 
and the workings flooded, 2800 kilometres of gallery had 
to be re-established, and a volume of water extracted 
estimated at 110,000.000 cubic metres. There were 
18,000 miners' dwellings completely destroyed, and 
12,000 partly demolished. Eight hundred kilometres of 
railway tracks attached to the mines was destroyed, as 
well as power-plants with a capacity of 383,000 hp. M. 
Loucher estimated that the total cost of reconstructing 
the destroyed mines in the two departments will be from 
four to five billion francs. It will require almost ten 
years before the devastated mines can produce on a pre- 
war basis. In spite of the admirable work already done, 
thousands of dwellings must still be constructed, and 
about 100,000,000 cubic metres of water remain to be 
pumped out. By a law of July 31, 1920, special facili- 
ties were granted to industries, which have suffered as a 
result of the war, to float loans destined to permit re- 
construction. In order to take advantage of this law, the 
damaged or destroyed mines in the north have combined 
to form the Groupement des Houilleres du Nord et du 
Pas-de-Calais, a joint stock company with a capital of 
50,000,000 francs. 

Silver deposits are found in Bulacaa, Paracale, Cebu, 
Marinduque, and Mindanao, states a consular report. 
The establishment of a local mine would serve to stimu- 
late interest in mining. Both China and India are on a 
silver-standard basis, thus assuring a near-by market for 
Philippine silver. 



July 9, 1921 

Conditions in Europe 

By Lewis W. Douglas 

The casual observer and traveler in Europe cannot but 
be impressed with two glaring conditions: a feeling of 
international suspicion, in eases almost approaching 
hatred, and, within nations, an attitude of unrest and 

Two years ago, the eleventh of November, the most 
destructive and, certainly, the most costly war in the 
history of mankind came to an end — perhaps a tragic 
end. During the period of five years, in which entire 
nations were concentrating every effort on the ghastly 
business of killing, much more than material destruction 
was taking place. Old ideas, long held to be true, were 
being silently refuted ; previously accepted conceptions 
were becoming no longer acceptable. Men were asking, 
and, if not asking, wondering "why" and "where", and 
"how" and "whence". People had had enough of the 
old order, and were eagerly searching for some new 
principle to which they might pin their faith. 

And out of that chaos of thought there came a great 
idea expressed by a great idealist. He has made many 
terrible mistakes; for them he has recently been over- 
whelmingly denounced by the people of his own country, 
and yet withal, there is a quality of idealism about him 
which must eventually, if not now, assure him a seat in 
the gallery of the world's greatest men. That man, two 
years ago, and more than two years ago, enunciated a 
principle of international ethics which everywhere 
touched the spirit of man. The Armistice came. He 
went to Europe ; he came, be saw, he conquered. Using 
his consistently most powerful weapon, he went over the 
heads of European diplomats and potentates. He ad- 
dressed himself directly to the great mass of European 
peoples, and in turn he received a popular applause such 
as few if any men in history have been given to hear. 
He represented a great nation at a great peace conclave. 
Sitting alone among more than twenty-five warring fac- 
tions, each schooled in the traditional diplomacy of 
secrecy, and subtlety, he drove Jhrough a principle of 
international conduct that, idealistic as it may be, im- 
practicable as it is quite possible to be, appealed, if not 
to the crowned heads and premiers and Ministers of War, 
at least to the humble millions. And men thought "at 
last we have something that will tend to decrease the 
number of wars with their horrible toll of dead and 
wounded, and their annual drain on the resources of 
nations". And men knew that such a principle, sup- 
ported whole-heartedly by a great moral people, must 
live and bear fruit. Then there happened unto them 
what befell the Lady of Shalott : the mirror was broken, 
their illusion was dissipated; for the United States, the 
enuneiater and one-time acceptor of high principles, had 
repudiated her code. Like Cain she now said "1 am not 
my brother's keeper". 

Regardless of the possible tragic consequences to her- 
self, the effect of that repudiation on European psychol- 
ogy was nothing short of tremendous. Lacking the moral 
support of a great nation, and lacking enthusiasm in her 
leaders, Europe has since reverted to the pre-war status 
of international feeling. France hates, or almost hates, 
England ; England suspects France ; both distrust Italy ; 
Italy has no faith in either; and all are indifferent 
toward us. Germany is still beyond the pale ; Russia is 
an unknown quantity; Poland has embarked upon a 
policy of aggression. The much advertised ' ' solid front 
of the Allies" has been broken; France is saying, ""We 
Allies are no longer united; go to, then; I alone shall 
enforce the Treaty of Versailles". Such is the inter- 
national condition in Europe. The principles for which 
we fought, and which we opposed to those of the Imperial 
German government have been forced under. We, the 
conquerors, have been conquered by that which we con- 
quered. Imperialism is rampant. The foundations of 
another war are being surely though unsuspectingly laid. 

But though Europe has been foiled in her attempt to 
lay hold upon a new principle of international action, the 
awakening caused by the emotional reaction of war is 
still shown in her search for some new principle of in- 
ternal action. France is perhaps the only nation that is 
not, seriously affected. The reasons are. quite obvious. 
The French, despite their light, life-loving, and perhaps 
frivolous, point of view, are a serious and logical people. 
And so. when some hundred and thirty-one years ago, led 
by a few men, some of whom were great thinkers, and 
some of whom were disgraceful characters, they decided 
that the medieval order must change, they set to with a 
will and literally wiped the slate clean. The French 
Revolution, bloody as it was, ghastly and terrible as it 
must have been, was the logical result of years of medi- 
eval rule imposed upon a post-medieval society. And 
yet through it and by it France laid the foundation of a 
sound economic order. The great landed estates — a 
medieval remnant — were broken up and distributed in 
small lots; political control by the few gave way to 
political control by the many. The burden of a landed 
aristocracy was once and for all removed. There were 
no half -measures. The past was obliterated. And out 
of that chaotic condition there emerged a new State, 
based upon a new political scheme. 

The industrial organizations such as we have in this 
country, and such as England has in some measure, have 
never appealed to France. It is always both difficult and 
dangerous to catalogue causes and effects. Nor is this 
truism any less true in the present case: Suffice to say, 
therefore, that there are, at least, two factors which tend 
to discourage in France huge industrial enterprises. 
France is an old centre of culture; the thread of that 

July 9, 1921 



culture has never been broken; she therefore accepts life 
as something in which the mere making of money plays 

an important part — in the sense that one must live — 
though an insignificant one — in the sense that to live is 
not to make money. Her every effort) consequently, is 
not given to the accumulation of tremendous wealth. 
And the corollary is that she is not interested in those 
forms of organization which tend to amass huge for- 

The first factor which apparently influences France 
against the tremendous industrial development is one of 
philosophy. The other is a matter of economic condi- 
tions, for France has never been — God grant that she 
may never he — a highly industrialized state. Had it not 
been for the Franco-Prussian war and the imposition on 
France of the treaty of 1871, in which France ceded 
Alsace and Lorraine to Germany, she might today despite 
her tradition and philosophy be a great industrial as 
■well as a great agricultural country, for in Alsace and 
Lorraine are the. iron mines that since 1871 have made 
■Germany what France has never been. The small pro- 
ducer therefore still survives in France. He, together 
with the peasant farmer owning property in his own 
name, constitutes over a half of the entire population. 
Under such conditions in which the employed class is 
relatively so small, bolshevism can gain little headway, 
for one of the conditions essential to blind radicalism is 
the existence of a large supposedly oppressed proletariat. 
And so France, in spite of a few sporadic efforts to arouse 
a spirit of rebellion, remains comparatively free from 
disturbing internal conditions. 

England, on the other hand, presents a striking con- 
trast. For years many have admired the English for 
their ability to shun extremes. ' One order has gradually 
replaced, or partly replaced, another. There has been 
little bloodshed ; there have been few revolutions, and 
such as there have been since the seventeenth century 
have been small and, in themselves, unimportant. There 
is now therefore in England a medieval shell enclosing a 
highly industrialized modern organization. That shell 
must be, and undoubtedly will be, broken. But the ques- 
tion arises, will the process of breaking extend deeper 
than the shell ? 

Already there are indications of a coming change. 
For many years the development of labor organizations 
has gradually, but surely, proceeded, until today more 
than half the laboring population is joined together in 
combinations. Originally those combinations were 
formed for the purpose of economic protection. That 
purpose, however, has changed slowly until it has now 
taken on a political phase. Witness the progress and 
growth of the Labor party, originally organized for the 
representation of labor's point of view (now, however, 
misnamed, for it represents little more than the liberal 
point of view) ; witness the attitude which labor took in 
regard to Poland; lastly, witness the political issue at 
stake in the recent coal strike. And so it can perhaps be 
safely said that English labor organizations, consciously 
or sub-consciouslv, have assumed a new character, and 

that they have formed a new theory of control, political 
as well as economic. 

The action of the coal miners presents a most inter- 
esting and, at the same time, a rather dangerous case. 
The situation was this: During the War, the control of 
the entire coal industry was transferred from the hands 
of the owners to the hands of the Government, and the 
power to regulate domestic and export prices for coal was 
vested, by Act of Parliament, in the hands of the Presi- 
dent of the Board of Trade j wages, during the War, were 
increased in such a way as to make an addition to the 
original wage; and, further, twenty months ago the 
famous Sanckey Commission imposed, upon the original 
wage and the additions made thereto during the War, 
another award; the wage system in the coal industry is 
now therefore so complicated that a higher mathema- 
tician is scarcely capable of figuring accurately the total 
wage for each miner. The President of the Board of 
Trade set and changed the domestic price of coal several 
times, during the last few years, but sold the export coal 
at the highest possible price, the profits from which were 
to accrue to the Exchequer rather than to the owners in 
the form of profits, or to the miners in the form of wages. 
The miners objected to wars and insisted that the profits 
accruing from trade in export coal were being expended 
on the maintenance of a war force ; further they objected 
to the principle of indirect taxation ; in addition, they 
have been advocating for some time past the nationaliza- 
tion of coal mines. Such then is the background neces- 
sary to a complete understanding of the issues at stake 
in the coal strike. It is not necessary to point out that 
therein the miners have expressed themselves emphat- 
ically on certain questions of governmental policy, both 
domestic and foreign, and that by so doing they have 
taken unto themselves a new role. 

The reason for this action is not solely an economic 
one, nor is it. altogether a selfish one. Certainly on the 
part of some of their leaders and associates it is not a 
selfish one. Labor, or rather particular groups of the 
labor body, felt, perhaps justly, that those in whom po- 
litical power is now, and has been for some few decades, 
vested have failed in their duty to themselves, the nation, 
and the world. They see old hatreds, old jealousies, old 
policies recurring ; they see little if anything done in an 
endeavor to stem the tide of those hatreds, jealousies, and 
policies. And so they demand for themselves an oppor- 
tunity to direct the government. It is that demand, im- 
plicit in the labor agitation of England, which makes the 
issues at stake in the recent coal strike not only one of 
two shillings or not two shillings, but also one in which 
Canada, South Africa, Australia, New Zealand, the 
British Isles, in fact, the whole Empire is involved, and 
one in which are implicit the questions of economic and 
political control. 

What with the pressing, more pressing, and ever more 
pressing demands of labor, what with Ireland knocking 
at the door and insisting on an unsatisfactory settlement 
for a historically dissatisfied people ; what with the final 
disintegration of the Empire looming on the horizon, we 



July 9, 1921 

cannot but extend across the ocean to the mother country 
— for after all England is our mother country — a feeling 
of sincere sympathy and a hope that, just as she has 
"muddled through" crises in the past, so will she muddle 
through the present one. 

Of Russia, few if any persons are entitled to speak. 
A veil of secrecy and mystery enshrouds her. We hear 
of the Whites, the Reds, rebellions and counter-rebellions. 
We read one morning that the Lenin-Trotsky regime is 
about to totter and fall. The following morning the 
newspaper tells us that quiet reigns in Moscow and that 
the government, if there be such a thing, has success- 
fully quelled all revolution. We are told that Russia is 
on the road to industrial and agricultural recovery, and 
within the hour we read of the chaos into which all 
things have been plunged. We know not whither to 
turn for comfort or truth. Of two things, however, we 
can be reasonably certain: The revolution of 1917 was 
engineered by the Prussians, who deserve no country, 
and it was executed by the Jews, who actually have none. 
But whoever engineered it, and whoever executed it, we 
can rest assured that something worth-while will event- 
ually emerge out of it. Just as Prance in the eighteenth 
century developed out of her chaos a new workable sys- 
tem so will Russia in the twentieth. And that which de- 
velops will be like nothing that we know ; yet will it stand 
the test implied in the question "does it work"? 

Italy too has been torn asunder. DAnunzio, Trieste, 
and Pinme are ever-present causes of irritation. And 
the historical cities of northern Italy in which during the 
Dark and Middle Ages municipal independence was first 
realized, again, in another form, are expressing a desire 
for what is disguised as freedom. Is there nothing new 
in the world ? In Germany Der Tag is secretely still the 
toast, more popular than before, and, who knows, more 
possible of realization. Belgium is on the road to eco- 
nomic recovery. But there are dark clouds ahead of her, 
for there is taking place a substitution of intensive cor- 
porate enterprise for individual endeavor. 

The Determination of Zinc by the Potas- 
sium Ferrocyanide Method 

By E. Olivier 

*The determination of the zinc in Australian concen- 
trate is usually carried out volumetrically, either by the 
so-called American method (the potassium ferrocyanide 
method) or by the Sehaffner method (titration of the 
ammoniacal solution with sodium sulphide) ; this latter 
method is als'o sometimes termed the Vieille Montague 
method. In the American method the ore or concentrate 
is decomposed by means of nitric acid and potassium 
chlorate, the mixture evaporated to dryness, the residue 
boiled with ammonia and ammonium chloride solution, 
and the filtrate acidified : the copper is removed by means 
of lead foil, the liquid is neutralized with ammonia, a 

•Abstracted from the 'Journal' of the Society of Chemical 

solution of potassium hydrogen tartate and ferric chlo* 
ride is added, the solution heated to about 75°C, and 
titrated with standard potassium ferrocyanide solution in 
presence of ammonia until a spot-test with acetic acid 
shows a blue coloration. 

The method used for preparing the solution for analy- 
sis results in the extraction of the zinc together with the 
copper, cadmium, calcium, and magnesium, and part of 
the lead, iron, and manganese. Of these elements only 
the zinc, copper, cadmium, and manganese are precipi- 
tated by the ferrocyanide, and only the copper is re- 
moved prior to the titration, so that the cadmium and 
manganese present are returned as zinc. Although the 
amount of cadmium present in the concentrate is usually 
so small as to be negligible (it averages about 0.1% ) , this 
is not so in the case of manganese, which may be present 
to the extent of considerably more than 1%, with the re- 
sult that a high figure is returned for zinc. In one case, 
for example, I found 1.16% of manganese (as Mn 3 4 ) in 
the zinc solution before titration. 

That amounts of manganese such as are found in con- 
centrate vitiate the titration is shown by experiments in 
which manganese corresponding to 2% and 4%, respec- 
tively, of Mn 3 4 was added to solutions of known zinc 
content: on titration of these solutions 0.8% and 2.3% 
or zinc in excess of the quantity present was indicated. 

To separate the manganese completely from the solution. 
a few cubic centimetres of hydrogen peroxide is added 
to the mixture of ammonium chloride solution and am- 
monia used to treat the residue resulting from the de- 
composition of the ore; this renders the manganese in- 
soluble, and the results obtained agree closely with those 
found by the Sehaffner method. AVhen the percentage of 
manganese present is small (that is, 0.25%) the results 
obtained by the two methods (without the use of hydro- 
gen peroxide) agree within about 0.1%, but in most cases 
manganese will be present in amounts sufficiently great 
to necessitate the use of hydrogen peroxide. 

The American method has another disadvantage, espe- 
cially where a large number of titrations have to be made 
daily : the titration is performed in hot solutions ; this is 
necessary in order to obtain complete precipitation of 
the zinc ferrocyanide in a dense gelatinous form. Fur- 
ther, the blue coloration produced in the spot-test is not 
entirely satisfactory; the reaction is sensitive, but the 
color is not always distinctive in presence of colored 
ferrocyanides ; the intensity of the color is not apprecia- 
bly increased with increasing amounts of ferrocyanide. 

In my opinion, the Sehaffner method is preferable to 
the American method; the zinc precipitated as colorless 
sulphide, which affords a ready indication of its freedom 
from other metallic sulphides. The only other colorless 
insoluble sulphide known is the double sulphide of zinc 
and cadmium, discovered by me in 1886, but the error 
arising from this source is negligible because, as already 
pointed out, zinc ores contain very little cadmium : and, 
moreover, the greater part of the cadmium is separated 
as sulphide, together with the lead and copper. 

July 9, 192] 




^^ ■ ■ 


The Fordney Tariff Bill introduced in the House on June 
29 contains provisions for the following duties: 

Barytes, crude $4 per ton; ground $7.50 per ton; pre- 
cipitated barium sulphate or blanc fixe, lc. per pound; 
lithopone and other combinations or mixtures of zinc sul- 
phate and barium sulphate, lie. per pound. 

Manganese ore and concentrates in excess of 30% metal- 
lic manganese lc. per pound of metallic manganese con- 
tent; ferro-manganese 2Jc. per pound of metallic manganese 

Molybdenum ore or concentrates 75c. per pound on the 
metallic molybdenum contained. Ferro-molybdenum, all 
molybdenum compounds and alloys, $1.25 per pound of 
molybdenum contained plus 17% ad valorem. 

Tungsten ore or concentrates 45c. per pound on metallic 
tungsten contained. Ferro-tungsten, tungsten powdered, 
all other compounds of tungsten, 72c. per pound on tungsten 
contained plus 15% ad valorem. 

Bauxite $1 per ton; aluminum 5c. per pound; in plates, 
sheets, bars, etc., 9c. per pound. 

Magnesium $1 per pound; magnesium alloys and manu- 
factures $1 per pound on magnesium content plus 20% ad 

Quicksilver 7c. per pound. 

Nickel in pigs 5c. per pound; manufactured 30% ad 

Tin in bars or pigs, scrap or granulated, 2c. per pound. 

Lead ores and mattes lje. per pound on lead contained, 
with a proviso for the admission of 2000 tons of lead con- 
tained in copper matte free of duty each year; lead bullion, 
antimonial lead, scrap-lead, type-metal, babbit, solder or 
alloys or combinations of lead, 2Jc. per pound of lead con- 
tained; lead in sheets, pipe, shot, etc., 23c. per pound; lead 
acetate, white, 3jc. per pound; brown, gray, or yellow, 2jc. 
per pound; nitrate 2ic. per pound; arsenate and resinate, 
30% ad valorem; litharge, orange mineral, red and white 
lead 2|c. per pound; pigments containing lead 30% ad 

Zinc-bearing ore, including calamine under 10% zinc, 
free; over 10 and less than 20% zinc, lc. per pound of zinc 
contained; over 20 and less than 25% zinc, lc. per pound 
of zinc contained; over 25% zinc, lie. per pound on zinc 
contained for the next two years. Zinc in blocks, pigs, slabs, 
old and worn out zinc, 2c. per pound; in sheets, plates, 
strips, fabricated or zinc dust, 2|c. per pound. Thereafter 
duties shall be as follows: over 10 and less than 20% zinc, 
ic. per pound of zinc contained; over 20 and less than 25% 
zinc, }c. per pound on zinc contained; over 25% zinc, lc. 
per pound on zinc contained. Zinc in blocks or pigs and 
zinc dust, 13c. per pound; in sheets, l£c; in sheets plated, 
lfc; old and worn-out zinc, 1 cent. 

Graphite 10% ad valorem. 

Fluorspar $5 per ton for one year; thereafter, $4 per ton. 

Kaolin $2.50 per ton. 

Antimony lie. per pound. 

Mica 6c. per pound plus 17% ad valorem, unmanufac- 
tured 12c. per pound and 17%. Ground mica, 6c. per 
pound and 20% ad valorem. 

Potash, for two years, 21c. per pound on potassium oxide 
contained; one year thereafter 2c. per pound; one year 
thereafter lJc. per pound; one year thereafter lc. per 
pound; after five years, free. 

Petroleum, crude, 35c. per barrel of 42 gallons; fuel-oil 
25 c. per barrel. 

Magnesite, crude or ground, Jc. per pound; dead-burned 
and grained fc. per pound. 

The Bill will be vigorously debated in the House, of 
course, and it is expected that it will come to a vote within 
two weeks. It is not expected that there will be any changes 
in the Bill on the floor of the House. 


An employees' representation plan, unique in its liber- 
ality, has been adopted by the Copper Queen Branch of the 
Phelps Dodge Corporation at Bisbee. The plan is modeled 
after the constitution of the United States, and delegates in 
the fullest measure to the employees themselves, the regu- 
lation of the conditions of their employment. An idea of 
the radical trend of the plan may be seen in Sub-section 10, 
Sec. 9, Art. 1, which declares that the congress (of em- 
ployees) shall have the power "To pass such measures as 
may be necessary for the peaceful settlement of all differ- 
ences arising between the employees and the company". It 
is clear that under this provision the employees may regu- 
late the hours of their employment as well as their pay. 

The plan was drawn up by the Employees' Conference 
Committee, and submitted to the management for approval. 
It was approved by the board of directors and the manage- 
ment of the company, conditional upon its being adopted by 
a large majority vote of the employees of the company, at 
a special election held for that purpose. This election was 
held on June 28, and the plan adopted by the affirmative 
vote of S2% of the employees. 

In adopting the plan the employees are taking a big 
burden of responsibility upon their own shoulders. In 
taking into their own hands the control of their relations 
with the company they will necessarily acquire a more in- 
timate knowledge of the business and internal affairs of 
the company. Under Section 11 the question of closed or 
open shop is done away with by the declaration, "The right 
to work shall net be denied to anyone because of member- 
ship or non-membership in any organization, the principles 
of which are not in conflict with the Constitution and the 
Laws of the United States and the State of Arizona." 

In returning the plan to the employees for their action, 
G. H. Dowell, general manager, said in part: 

"The plan submitted for your approval and adoption is 
modeled after the Constitution of our own Country, under 
which every individual is given an opportunity for advance- 
ment according to his ability and determination, and every 
citizen is given a voice in making the laws that shall govern 
him. So it is to encourage the individual employee in ad- 
vancement, and to give him a voice in making the rules that 
shall govern his conduct, that we favor the adoption of the 
proposed constitution. I have often said that the interest 
of the employee and his employer are the same, and that 



July 9, 1921 

neither can succeed unless both succeed. Under this pro- 
posed constitution I believe we may have a fuller measure 
of co-operation, greater success and more complete satis- 
faction in our work." 


Directors of the United States Smelting, Refining & Min- 
ing Co. have declared the regular quarterly dividend of 87Je. 
(1}% ) on the preferred stock payable July 15 to holders of 
record July 8. The consolidated earnings for the first five 
months of this year are estimated at 5872,497 after pro- 
viding all interest. There have been deducted from these 
earnings reserves of $435, S82 for depreciation and depletion 
and $131,065 for further exploration work in Mexico. These 
reserves aggregate in all $566,947 and leave estimated net 
earnings for the five months of $305,550, of which $S4.219 
was earned in the first quarter. The preferred dividend 
requirements for the five months' period is $709,260. The 
company's power supply in Mexico on which production de- 
pends has been substantially curtailed owing to a dry sea- 
son. The rainy season now setting in will materially im- 
prove this condition. The demand for foreign silver has 
been sufficient to absorb the Mexican silver production and 
with any improvement of conditions in India and China 
increased earnings in Mexico may be hoped for. 


Failure of the operators of the Empire, North Star, and 
Idaho-Maryland mines and the Mine Workers' Protective 
League to agree upon a new wage-scale has halted virtually 
all mining in the district and 700 men are idle. The mines, 
however, are being kept unwatered. While George W. Starr, 
speaking for a group of operators, declared that negotiations 
would continue, William Southcutt, chairman of the scale 
committee of the workmen's league, stated that there was no 
immediate prospect of resumption and that the league had 
no proposals before it. The reduction of $1 per day in the 
wage-scale announced on June 2 to become effective on 
July 1 would make the wage for miners $4.62} per day, 
while that for shovelers would be $4.25. The operators 
stated in making the announcement that the mining problem 
in Grass Valley had resolved itself into a question of lower 
operating costs or abandonment of the mines. 

The workers replied with a rejection of the proposed new 
scale and a criticism of the operators for making the an- 
nouncement through the press before laying it before the 
miners' organization. A step in the direction of a settle- 
ment was started on June 19 when the workers proposed 
that the reduction be made 50c. per day instead of $1 as at 
first intended. The operators replied that they could afford 
to pay only the scale originally announced and that the 
mines would close if the $1 cut was not accepted. The old 
scale agreement expired on June 30'and the miners refused 
to go to work under the operators' intended scale. 


The Standard mine, at Silverton, B. C, which contributed 
millions of dollars to its stockholders in the past, is to be 
sold for $75,000. Negotiations for its sale were opened by 
the, board of directors of the company several weeks ago 
and ratified by the stockholders at a recent meeting at 
Spolfane The property will pa<s to New York people under 
a bond and lease which must be exercised within 3 days. 
The identity of the purchasers has not been repealed. 
Their acquisition will include mining claims, mill, tramway, 
dock, and all other improvements. The transaction will 
leave the company without a mine, but with a surplus of 
$250,000 to $300,000. This money will not be disbursed, 
but will be retained for the purchase and development of 

another property if it can be found. Several properties 
hare been examined. "We sold the mine because we be- 
lieved it was worked out," said an official. "The Standard 
was believed to have been worked out on three occasions, 
but as often new ore-shoots were uncovered by persistent 
operators. Its dividend yields aggregate $2,700,000 made 
under the Finch & Campbell management, a sum that is 
raised to $3,000,000 by the surplus." 


The properties of the Dolores Esperanza Corporation in 
Mexico, formerly owned by the Mines Company of America, 
which have been closed down for nearly eight years, are 
being re-opened. During the ten years from 1903 to 1913 
th*? properties comprising Dolores Esperanza disbursed near- 
ly $5,000,000 in dividends. They were forced to close down 
in 1913. An effort was made to keep the mines open, but 
this proved very expensive, with the result that in 1918 the 
old company found itself not only with a depleted treasury, 
but in debt to the extent of $500,000. The Dolores Esper- 
anza Corporation was then formed to take over the proper- 
ties. It has issued and outstanding 864, S02 shares, par 
value $2, which shares were underwritten at that price. 

The Dolores mine, in Chihuahua, one of the group, has 
been unwatered, and development work is being carried on. 
Development work in the El Rayo is progressing satisfac- 

The Dolores Esperanza Corporation now has approxi- 
mately $400,000 of cash or the equivalent thereto, and no 


The Garfield Smelting Co. has increased operations and 
is now smelting 50 tons of ore per day, as a result of work- 
ing out a high-silica smelting charge. This has rendered it 
possible for a number of the Tintic properties to increase 
shipments of silicious silver ore, and also has enabled the 
Bingham Mines Co. and the Montana Bingham Mining Co. to 
find a market for their copper-iron sulphide fluxing ore. The 
silica content of the slag at the smelter is said to average 
about 48%, and this is believed to be the highest silica 
slag made by any smelter in the world. Before working out 
the new charge, the company made a slag averaging 40% 
silica. The Engels Copper Co. in California is shipping a 
high-grade concentrate, which, with scattered small ship- 
ments from various places, enables the company to operate 
two reverberatory furnaces and one converter. 


The brisk business done by the Copper Export Association 
in the first five months of this year, fell off sharply during 
the latter part of June. In the period from January 1 to 
June 1 approximately 109,000,000 lb. of metal was sold for 
export at an average of 125c. per pound, a large percentage 
of it being contracted for in May. Since then, however, busi- 
ness has dropped off. England and Germany have ceased 
to inquire for large amounts of copper; 1,000,000 lb. was 
sold recently for 13c. per pound for shipment to England, 
but this was the only sale in the million-pound column for 
some weeks. Domestic demand is the same as it has been — 
for small amounts and with no buyers contracting for future 
delivery. There are today only about four leading mines 
producing copper. Toward the latter part of July the Ameri- 
can refineries will have worked off the metal now being 
treated and there will then remain only the South American 
mines and the quartette of domestic producers shipping to 
the Eastern reduction works. This outlook for i educed pro- 

July 9, 1921 



durtlon. however, has failed to influence domestic consumers. 
They cannot be stampeded Into buying ahead of Immediate 
wants, as they know today there Is over 860.000.000 lb. 
of raw and refined copper above ground. f which over 600.- 
000.000 lb. is ready for Immediate delivery. 

\gu;i Oallente. — The Royal Flush property is owned by 
('. W. Chilson and J. O. Percival. Two ore-shoots outcrop 
at a distance of 120 ft. A tunnel tupping No. 2 ore-shoot at 
a Oepth of 55 ft. cut a 'pay-streak' averaging 7 in. wide. 
Samples taken assayed from $81 to $286. The latest de- 
velopment is a drift 20 ft. from the bottom of an 80-ft. 
winze; it discloses a full face of ore. The district has a good 
record for gold production. 

Angels Camp. — The Victor Land & Mineral Co. is drifting 
for the west channel in its mine. At present work is in a 
good grade of gravel, below the rim. A new method of 
clean-up is being used, the material in the boxes being 
cleared of pebbles and light sand, the gold being left in the 
black sand, which is treated by amalgamation. The method 

Jamestown. — The Eagle-Shawmut company is employing 

23 men cleaning-up and sinking its main shaft. The 

Clio mine is erecting new houses for the staff. 

Jackson. The water in the Kennedy mine has been low- 
ered to within 50 ft. of the bottom, This will not be pumped 
out at present. Extensive repairs are being made in the 
Bhatt-Umberlng, and the company hopes to be ready to pro- 
ilii'i- regularly by August 1; -12 men are employed, 

Melones. — The Patterson mine has contracted for a mill 
of 20-stamp capacity. This mine has been doing explora- 
tion work lor the past two years and has developed a large 
block of ore which it is now proposed to mill. 

Nevada City. — Pay-gravel has been found in the Penn- 
California mine in Willow valley, according to A. W. Hoge, 
the manager. The discovery was made in a raise recently 
driven about 100 ft. vertically. Hoge states that the gravel 
prospects well, but that through a miscalculation the chan- 
nel was penetrated on the rim instead of near the centre as 
intended. The centre is supposed to be 40 or 50 ft. lower 
than the rim and to contain much richer gravel. Hoge says 

The Old Anchor Tunnel at Park City, Utah 

is quick, efficient, and cheap and removes all the gold and 
platinum. Cleaned black sand from previous clean-ups has 
yielded bullion in excess of J.4 per pound treated, in gold 
and platinum. 

Bishop. — Operations have been resumed at Bishop Creek 
gold property under supervision of Gaylord Wilshire. The 
management states that as soon as the workings have been 
placed in shape for production, from 30 to 50 men will be 
employed. The property is well equipped and has yielded 
some excellent ore. 

Downieville. — The Wisconsin Mining Co. has found gold- 
bearing gravel on the old Parkman ground. Work done so 
far indicates a large deposit of profitable gravel. 

Forest. — E. H. Graham, of Grass Valley, has brought 
10 millwrights to begin the erection of the 10-stamp mill 
of the Kate Hardy Mining Co. and to erect other buildings. 
The ore-bins at the mine are full and development work is 
progressing satisfactorily. 

Glencoe. — A discovery is reported at Glencoe on the 
Stoetzer ranch, by A. J. Bayless. The vein is reported to be 
18 in. wide, the ore assaying from 5 to 10 oz. in gold. 

Grass Valley. — A raise from the 400-ft. level of the Al- 
calde mine has been started. This raise, which will reach 
the surface, together with a winze sunk at the same point, 
will form a vertical shaft to replace the old incline. 

that in addition to the two miles of channel owned by the 
company, two promising lodes have been cut. A drift will 
be run on one of these to get directly beneath the gravel 

Quincy. — The first clean-up at the Australia placer mine 
was made last week; 41.56 oz. of gold was obtained. This 
does not come up to expectations, but considerable dead 
work in the building of flumes, ditches, and boxes has been 
completed and the company is very optimistic about the 
future results. The mine is situated about 12 miles from 
Quincy on the old Erickson claims. 

The Mason Valley smelter interests are developing their 
property, leased from J. E. Murphy and R. Barnes and 
situated about eight miles from Genesee. They are drifting 
on the ore and have already completed about 125 ft. of the 
tunnel. It is planned to cross-cut both ways at a distance 
of 150 ft. from the portal. Chris Smith is superintendent 
in charge of the property. 

Scales. — Preparations are being made by H. L. Berkey 
for making a final clean-up from his hydraulic operations 
near here that were begun last November. 

Boukter. — An important find has been made on the Bluer 
bird mine of the North Boulder Creek Mines Co., in the 
Caribou district. A vertical vein in contact with a strong 



July 9, 1921 

porphyry dike has been opened, that samples as high as 425 
oz. silver per ton, in the Santa La Saria tunnel. The com- 
pany's 50-ton notation mill is reported operating steadily 
and, concentrating 30 to 1, is saying better than 90% of the 
silver-lead content of the ore. Eastern capitalists are inter- 
ested. Lessees on the Caribou continue mining a good 

grade of ore. Chicago men have become interested in a 
lease on this property and the extension of the present 
tunnel, now in 6000 ft., is planned. 

Breckenridge. — Placer production in Summit county 
promises to increase as operations are being extended to 
properties not worked since before the War. The Washing- 
ton placer is active and one 'giant' is tearing down the high 
bar for Charles Siessler and son. The Carpenter placer at 
the head of Nigger Gulch will be prospected and the Tonopah 
Placers Co. has its big dredge operating. Other dredges are 

being put in condition for the season's work. Seepage 

water from melting snows has temporarily stopped opera- 
tions at the 300-ft. level of the 'Deep Shaft' by the Tymes 
company, and a pump has been ordered. The Tymes was 
cross-cutting to cut the Brooks-Snider and Ground Hog 

veins believed to extend across Tymes territory. The 

Royal Tiger Mines Co. is maintaining operations at full 
capacity under John A. Tray lor, manager. Lead carbonate 
ore containing gold and silver is being shipped to the A. V. 
smelter at Leadville by lessees of the Price, Standard, and 
Missouri lode properties. 

Central City. — A committee of the Metal Mining Associa- 
tion of Gilpin county is working to secure a sampling plant 
for this district. Sufficient funds seem to be assured for the 
erection of a plant. Returns from a 20-ton shipment from 
the Frontenac mine gave $85 per ton in gold, silver, and 
copper. Lessees are opening stoping ground and will shortly 

Increase production. The Midwest M. & M. Co. is mining 

a good grade of ore from two parallel veins in the Cyclops 
tunnel workings in the Hughesville district. 

Cripple Creek. — Operations have been resumed by the 
War Eagle Consolidated Mines Co. from the 1100-ft. level 
of the Blue Flag-Silverton shaft. A contract has been let 
for extension of the lateral to a point directly under the 
Scott or main shaft, when connection will be made by 
raising. The Moffat tunnel, connecting with the Blue Flag 
workings, is to be extended north-east through the Sheriff, 
thence to the Amanda and War Eagle. A cross-cut will also 
be carried from the Blue Flag through the Bogart and 
Happy Year holdings of the War Eagle company. Tully 
Scott of the "Colorado Supreme Court is president of the 
War Eagle company. 

Lessee Fish of the Vindicator Consolidated, operating a 
block of the Golden Cycle mine, extending from 600-ft. level 
to the surface operating through the Longfellow shaft on 
the Stratton estate, has opened what is believed to be the 
south-western extension of the rich Hayes ore-shoot. A 
drift has been carried about 5 ft. "on a good grade cf ore, 
with rich seams of sylvanite in four to six feet of vein mat- 
ter. The ground to the surface is virgin and the lease, 
should the shoot extend upward, will be a fortune-builder. 

Idaho Springs. — High-grade silver-lead ore assaying as 
high as 200 oz. silver and 45% lead has been opened in a 
vein 2i to 5J ft. wide on the property of the Blue Ridge 
Mining Co., in' the Montana mining district, south-west of 
Dumont in Clear Creek county. The ore was cut by the 
Upper West tunnel. The company is also developing its 
Happy Thought and Albro Hill groups, in the Morris and 
Fownieville mining districts, by extension of the, Hiawatha 
tunnel, now in 1400 feet. 

Leadville. — The Best Friend mine in the Big Evans gulch 
section, inactive for the past 10 years, has been leased by 
local operators who plan to extend the 2000-ft. tunnel to 
prospect unexplored territory. The Long & Derry mine, 

an old Iowa Gulch producer, has been leased for a long term 
to James McMullen, who recently returned from Montana. 

The Fidelity Mines Co. has resumed operations in the 

Twin Lakes district. The property, situated on a spur of 
Mt. Elbert, is producing ore from a three-foot vein assaying 
$87 per ton in gold with about five feet of $7 mill-ore in 

Silverton. — The Gnome Mining Co. has a crew engaged to 
resume development on its properties near Animas Forks. 

The Highland Mary mine in Cunningham gulch, has 

been leased to local operators and shipments will soon be 

resumed from the property. The mill and tramway at 

the Liberty Bell mine are again operating to clean-up and 
treat a big block cf ore "found sealed up" after the mine was 
closed-down last April. Power is furnished from the Deer 
Trail pipe-line and the mill will be kept in operation until 
the ore is exhausted. 


Bonner Count}-. — The Carpie Mining Co., owning a copper 
property at Cabinet, is installing a new hoist and com- 
pressor, and will sink the shaft from the 300-ft. level to 1000 
ft. The vein on the 300-ft. level is said to be six feet wide 
in the face of the drift. A 10-in. vein of silver-lead-cop- 
per ore averaging $105 is reported by W. M. Hollenback, of 
the Falls Creek Mining Co. on Pend Oreille lake. This com- 
pany has a 50-ton concentrator, a water-power plant, and 
other equipment; it intends to add flotation to save the sil- 
ver. A streak on the surface of the American Eagle Min- 
ing Co.'s property returned 112 oz. in silver and 48% lead. 
The values come from a contact vein along a dike about 100 
ft. wide. The vein is from two to eight feet wide. About 
1400 ft. of development work has been done. 

From the Bluebird mine lessees are shipping gray copper 
ore that is said to run from 400 to 1500 oz. in silver. A 
small carload was shipped two months ago; another is being 

loaded. The Bluebird adjoins the Armstead mine. At 

Claries Fork a long tunnel is being driven by contract on the 

property of the Clarinda Copper Mining Co. Spokane 

people are largely interested in the Lawrence Mining & Mill- 
ing Co. at Clarks Fork. The company's lead ore is said to 

be rich. Joseph Reed is manager. At Hope a small force 

is working the property of the Hope Mining & Milling Co. 
Copper, silver, and lead are contained in the ore. 

Coenr d'Alene. — A drift on the deep level of the West 
Hunter mine at Mullan lacks 200 ft. of a point where it will 
under-cut the shoot showing on the surface, according to 
Edward T. Davy, president. A vertical depth of 1000 ft. 
will be attained. A distance of 850 ft. has been driven 
from the American Commander tunnel through which en- 
trance to the West Hunter is obtained. 

Three feet of high-grade ore, said to be the best yet 
found in the property, was opened recently by lessees in the 
lower workings of the Western Union Mining Co. It is 
expected to assay well in silver. These lessees are loading 
another 50-ton car for shipment to the smelter. Other ship- 
ments have averaged 50% lead and 44 oz. silver. 

Moscow. — Although there are not more than a half-dozen 
heavy producers in Shoshone county, which includes the 
Coeur d'Alene, the Government report shows that 39 proper- 
ties, large and small, contributed to the total tonnage in 
1920. Idaho county had 18 small producers; Clearwater, 
5; Bonner, 3; Latah and Benewah, 2 each; and Boundary, 1. 
The one in Boundary was the Idaho-Continental, which had 
an output during the year of $348,138 more than the pro- 
duction of all other counties of northern Idaho combined, 
except Shoshone county. 


Baxter Springs. — Mining operations in this district are 
getting in shape to be able to take advantage of any im- 
provement in the ore market by sinking shafts and putting 

July 9, 192] 



their present properties In condition where they can be run 
at capacity when the market Improves. O. M. Billharz and 
associates are sinking a shaft on the property situated about 
a mile west of this city on the Chetopa road, known as the 
Hartley homestead. The derrick has been erected, work on 
the hole is progressing rapidly. This is the property on 

which a sensational find was made a few weeks ago. 

The erection of a big mill on the Brewster land, just west of 
the Hartley homestead, is well under way. This is being 
built by the Chanute Smelter Co. The same company is 
making preparations to erect a mill on the Karl Ebensteln 

land, which adjoins the Brewster claim. The Rakowsky- 

Billharz people also will have a mill on the W. T. Hartley 
property, just west of the R. F. Hartley mill and J. H. 
Goodwin and associates have everything ready for a mill on 
the race-track grounds. 


Houghton. — Equalization valuations of the Lake Superior 
copper mines, which are based on the market values of the 
respective shares, show an average reduction this year of 
30%. These havo been determined in other years in 
October, but under a new Michigan law will be fixed in June 

The total equalized valuation for Houghton county, the 
greater part of which is in mining property, is $64,081,653 
as compared with $91, S 78, 050 last year. Calumet town- 
ship, in which Calumet & Hecla is located, shows a reduction 
of nearly $10,000,000; Adams township, which includes the 
Copper Range mines, is reduced $7,500,000; Quincy, 
$1,000,000; Franklin, $1,000,000; Osceola, $2,000,000; and 
Portage, in which is located Isle Royale, $2,000,000. 
Keweenaw county's equalization values have, been fixed at 
$16,000,000, which compares with $21,000,000 last year. 
The greatest reduction was made in Allouez township in 
which the Ahmeek and Mohawk mines are located. The 
tax rates will not be set until fall. It is known they will be 
higher than last year but the mining companies still will 
benefit somewhat as a result of the reduced valuations. 

With the exception of a few small orders for domestic de- 
livery, there is little inquiry for metal and there have been 
no shipments out of the district in the past week. While 
Mohawk and Wolverine continue to produce at capacity, 
sending a total of 3500 tons of rock to the mill daily, 
Copper Range is still on a 60% basis and Quincy is barely 
keeping open with production one-third that of normal 
years. Calumet & Hecla is operating only 5 of its 24 fur- 
naces. It has only a small quantity of mineral on hand at 
the smelters and only enough cupola blocks to keep the 
plant in operation another month. When this supply is 
exhausted there will be no necessity for continuing unless 
special orders for metal are received in the meantime. The 
smelters are turning out anodes from cupola blocks and 
cathodes that are returned from the electrolytic plant are 
either smelted into bars or ingots or held in reserve for re- 
smelting into special shapes. 

It is unlikely that the reclamation plant, to be built on 
the Tamarack conglomerate sands by Calumet & Hecla, will 
be started this summer although steel and other material, 
ordered before the depression in the industry set in, has 
been arriving at the site. There are 12,000,000 tons of sand 
in the Tamarack deposit, carrying from 10 to 12 lb. of cop- 
per to the ton, which was laid down in Torch Lake at a time 
when milling processes were not perfected to the extent 
they are today and the losses were comparatively large. 
This copper can be recovered at a cost of not more than seven 
cents per pound, exclusive of smelting and selling costs. 


Joplin. — A semi-official survey of the Tri-State zinc and 
lead district reveals the fact that more than 40 mines have 
been operating on full time and several others on part time. 

In addition to this several mills are treating tailing. This ia 
a larger number than had been currently reported but thla 
is believed to have been due to the fact that several milling 
concorna are operating two plants each and that the drat 
survey had reference to the number of companies in oper- 
ation. Some of the planta are expected to close down thla 


Goldfleld. — The Silver Pick has started sloping the ore 
opened recently in the lease of that company on the Red 
Top of the Consolidated. This ore was found 100 ft. Into 
the foot-wall of the vein, at a depth of 265 ft. It is in en- 
tirely unexplored territory. The vein lies rather flat and 
apparently has a general strike north-west from the main 
ore-channel. A width of 10 to 20 in. on the hanging wall 
assays $150 to $800, but the ore as broken for shipment, 
from about half the drift, assays $50 to $150. The shoot has 

The Telluride District in Colorado 

been opened for a length of between 40 and 45 ft., without 
the end being reached and work has been started to explore 
for it on th 365-ft. level. This work is being done less than 
100 ft. from the Red Top shaft, but as the machinery haa 
been removed from this shaft, hoisting is done through the 
Laguna shaft, which is well equipped. Because of the posi- 
tion of the ore far into the foot-wall and the strike of the 
vein the find is regarded as the most important made in the 

district in recent years. Donald and Giles, lessees on the 

Florence, have exposed for a length of 18 ft. the rich ore 
found by them in the hanging wall of the old Reilly flat 
stope at a point 40 ft. above the 160-ft. level, and they have 
started stoping. The ore being broken for shipment in bulk 
assays $300 to $400. The first 10 tons of this ore assayed 
$360. The rich widths on the foot and hanging wall con- 
tinue and the gouge between is increasing in value. It is 
possible for the ore to have a length of 70 ft. and to extend 
to the surface. The stope in which this ore was found caved 
in the early days and had not been entered from then until 
Donald and Giles raised more than 50 ft. into the foot-wall. 
The shaft of the Deep Mines is 6 50 ft. deep. At 515 ft. it 
passed from the andesite into the latite and, except that the 
C. O. D. and Victor veins should be cut before the 10 00-ft. 
level is reached, no further change is anticipated. The 
main vein system is at 2400 ft., in the latite near the latite- 



July 9, 1921 

shale contact. The shaft is 5 by 17 ft. in the clear and it 
consists of three compartments, two 4J by 5 ft. for hoisting 
and one, 5 by 7 ft., for the pipes, electric cable, and ladders. 
The yentilating-pipe, 2 ft. in diameter, extends to the top of 
the head-frame and a suction ample to ensure good air at the 
bottom of the shaft is obtained by the natural heating of the 
upper length by the sun. Three stations will be established, 
at 800, 1600, and at 2400 ft. The water from the bottom 
will be pumped to the surface in three lifts, 2400 to 1600, 
1600 to 800, and 800 to the surface. 

Silverhorn. — Dan Foley has opened ore in several new 
places in the vein he recently discovered in the south- 
eastern end of the district and he reports assays ranging 
from $11 to $743 per ton. New work was started during the 
week on the Silver Carlisle group, located east of the Silver 
Peer and controlled by New York men. Robert Mulford, 
Frederick G. Corning, C. V. R. Cogswell, and Sidney Green, 
all of New York, are directors with Theo. Crampton, man- 
aging director at the mine. in the north cross-cut on 

the 50-ft. level of the Huson shaft on the Silver Dale the 
lode was 10 ft. wide at last reports and assayed from $12 
to $30 per ton. 

Tonopah. — The Belmont company's mill, the largest re- 
duction plant at Tonopah, has resumed operations on a 50% 
capacity schedule. This is the first time the Belmont mill 
has turned a wheel since the mine strike was declared 
nearly two months ago. The Tonopah Extension's mill has 
been in operation for a fortnight. It also is running on a 
reduced schedule, but the mine owners expect to increase 
operations as the importation of new men into the camp 

It is said that the Belmont now is employing 170 men and 
over 100 men are at work at the Extension. These are the 
two largest properties in the Nye County camp. 

No attempted disturbances have been reported since the 
arrival of the State police and the authorities expect no 
further difficulties. 


Alta, — Ore shipments from this district are averaging 
about 150 tons per day. Shipments are coming principally 
from the Columbus-Rexall and the South Hecla properties, 
each of which will average 50 tons per day within the near 
future. The Michigan-Utah mine is now making shipments. 
A new cable has been installed on the tramway from the 
mine to Tanners' Flat, and a spur of the Little Cottonwood 
railroad has been built to the ore-bins at the tram-terminal 
to avoid hauling by team. At the Sells property four or five 
carloads of ore are ready for shipment. 

Bingham. — Twenty miners have been added to the work- 
ing force at the Bingham-Galena property, formerly known 
as the Silver Shield, according to H. S. Joseph, a director 
of the company. Shipments are being made to the United 
States smelter at Midvale, averaging $2 in gold, 10 oz. in 
silver, and 15% lead. The ore is toming from the Bully 
Boy group. Eugene Grutt has been appointed general su- 
perintendent of the mine, under O. F. Brinton, consulting 
engineer. ' 

Delta. — R. H. Evans and associates have resumed work 
at the Purdy-Evans mine in the Sawtooth mountains, about 
50 miles south-west of this city. Development work was 
begun in April, but owing to a dispute with A. B. Knowlton, 
who claimed to have prior rights, the question of ownership 
was investigated and Evans and associates were found to 
be the lawful owners. Development was started on the Last 
Chance No. 1,2, and 3 claims. A body of molybdenum ore 
was opened which assays from 15 to 19%. 

A large deposit of strontium carbonate ore has recently 
been discovered in this vicinity by F. L. Byron and Daniel 
Potter. It is stated that the deposit has been opened for a 
distance of nearly a mile, with a width of 6 00 ft. and a 

depth of about 200 ft. It occurs in two forms; one hard and 
crystalline, and the other fibrous and soft. 

Eureka. — During June, approximately 150 men were 
added to the working forces of local mines, with the result 
that there is practically no unemployment of miners in this 
district. The greater part of this number has been em- 
ployed at the Tintic Standard and Eagle & Blue Bell prop- 

Output of ore from this district is increasing, owing to 
several of the mines having received permission to ship 
silicious silver ore to Salt Lake valley smelters. During the 
week ending June 25, the Tintic Standard shipped 46 cars; 
Chief Consolidated, 42; Iron Blossom, 14; Eagle & Blue 
Bell, 12; Dragon, 8; Iron King, 7; Victoria, 5; Gold Chain, 
4; Swansea, 3; Gemini, 2; Eureka Bullion, 1; Mammoth, 1; 
making a total of 145 carloads, the heaviest in many weeks. 

A shipment of ore from the Eureka Bullion mine during 
the latter part of June averaged 25 oz. silver and 15% lead. 
This is the best ore yet found at that property, according to 
J. M. Bestlemeyer, manager. 

At a meeting of the directors of the Chief Consolidated 
Mining Co. on June 3 0, a dividend of 5c. per share was de- 
clared, payable August 1. This is the third dividend to be 
paid this year and will aggregate $44,201, bringing the 
grand total up to $2,004,122. 

Frisco. — Regular shipments are being made from the 
Quad Metals mine, according to Grant H. Snyder, manager. 
This ore, a high-grade silver-lead sulphide, is being mined 
on the 700-ft. level. Smelter returns on two carloads 
shipped recently netted the company $1700 and $2800. 

Park City. — The largest output of ore in many weeks was 
made by local mines during the week ending June 25, when 
175 5 tons were shipped. Shipments are being increased by 
the Silver King Coalition, and the Naildriver property has 
again become a shipper. The Silver King Coalition shipped 
661 tons; Judge companies, 579; Ontario, 335; and Nail- 
driver, 180. Shipments during the previous week totaled 
88 7 tons. 

Salt Lake City. — The assessed valuation of metal and 
coal-mining property in Utah for 1921 is $64,232,112, as 
compared with $61,598,942 for 1920. Salt Lake county, in 
which is situated the Utah Copper property, heads the list 
with a valuation of $32,254,757, or slightly over one-half of 
the grand total. The State constitution requires that all 
mining property shall be assessed by the State Board of 
Equalization; that metalliferous mines shall be assessed at 
three times their net proceeds for the preceding year, plus 
the value of real estate at $ 5 per acre, plus the actual cash 
value of machinery, mine buildings, and other surface im- 
provements. Non-metalliferous mines are assessed by the 
State Board at a valuation to be determined by it from a 
study of the probable deposits. 

The annual meeting of the Rocky Mountain Coal Mining 
Institute was held in this city on June 28 and 29. Four 
States were represented — Colorado, Wyoming, New Mexico, 
and Utah. The coal-men attending the convention repre- 
sented mining companies which produce annually about 
40,000,000 tons of coal. One of the features of the meeting 
was the reading of a paper by A. C. Watts of the Utah Fuel 
Co. on 'B'ighting Mine Fires'. 

Tooele. — The International smelter suspended operations 
entirely on July 1, for an indefinite period. The copper de- 
partment of the plant was closed down last autumn, but 
for the past few months two of the five silver-lead blast- 
furnaces have been operated. Lack of ore was given as the 
reason for the closing. About 300 men will be thrown out 
of employment as a result of the shut-down. 

Lead. — The Homestake Mining C°. has issued a second 
dividend of 25c. per share. The first dividend since March 

.lulv 9, 1921 



1919 was declared on Muy 2f>: the latest, on June 25. De- 
creased operating costs resulting from lower wanes and 
lower prices of supplies, together with increased efficiency 
of mine labor, have made the resumption of dividends pos- 


Greenwood. — The first shipment of the year from the 
Providence mine has been made to the Trail smelter. Be- 
tween 35 and 4 men are employed at the mine, and from 
now on It Is expected that weekly shipments will be made. 
The ore contains gold, silver, and lead; 33S tons that was 
shipped In 1919 yielded 267 oz. gold, 38,903 oz. silver, and 
7616 lb. of lead. Treatment charges and freight cost about 
$11 per ton. 

Kaslo. — A. J. Curie has uncovered a promising new vein 
on the Klrby property. The vein is well mineralized and 
ranges from 25 to 35 ft. in width. Last year Curie dis- 
covered a 13-ft. vein on this property, assays from which 
have run from 25 to 2000 oz. in silver; the vein Is being 
developed by a shaft. The property adjoins the Bluebell 
mine, which shipped steadily to Trail last year. 

Princeton. — P.ert Powell has bought the Condit brothers 
interests In the Horn Silver mine. In the lower Similkameen 
valley, and now is sole owner of the property. Several ship 
inents have been made from the mine this year, but Powell 
now purposes to try to interest capital for the purpose of 

erecting a small reduction plant at the mine. The Tula- 

meen Mines Operation Co. is getting out lumber for the 
erection of a flume at Bear creek, where the company pur- 
poses to operate placer deposits for the recovery of gold and 
platinum. The best specimens of placer platinum that have 
been found in British Columbia have come from tributaries 
of the Tulameen river. 

Stewart. — The Linderbourg brothers, of Hyder, have 
started to develop their property at Seven-mile, where there 
is a large body of medium-grade ore. A tunnel that has 

been driven for 340 ft. is to be extended. The Fish 

Creek Mining Co. has re-started the development o£ its 
property on Fish creek, on the Alaskan side of the inter- 
national boundary. 


Torreon. — La Pluma, a group of ten silver-lead mines, 
situated in the San Lorenzo mountains near Matamoros, has 
been taken up by Jesus Rodulfo and associates, of San 
Pedro. Development work is being carried on. Several 
other promising properties are being filed on in this dis- 

Durantro. — Gen. Enrique R. Najera recently located a 
group of seven pertenencias in the Avino district. The 
claims adjoin the Socavon, Bolso, and Cuatro Amlgo mines. 
General Najera acts as Governor of the State when Governor 
Agustin Castro is absent. He has extensive land and min- 
ing interests throughout the State. The old Cedro mines 

in the Escobar district have been re-located by Abdon 
Alanis of Tepehuanes and will be patented under the title 
of San Luis. These properties are producers of gold and 
silver and were recently declared forfeited for non-pay- 
ment of taxes. 

Guanacevi. — Herald McLeod Cobb is exploring the San 
Valentine mine in La Luz mountains. This property lies 
contiguous to the old Veta de Oro mine which has produced 

an abundance of rich ore. The old Ofelia group of mines 

in the neighborhood of La Violeta and Veta Grande groups 

has been filed on by Charles Suayfeta. Another recent 

filing in this district has been made by Manuel Bolivar, who 
has applied for titles to a group of three claims to be titled 
under the name of Cabadena. It is situated near the San 
Francisco and Isaura mines, which are gold, silver, and lead 


Klk l.nke. — The hematite Iron deposit recently discovered 

Id Morel and Yarrow townships, is being explored by the 
owners, and it is stated that the result points to a large 
body of ore. Another outcrop of high-grade hematite is 
staled to have been discovered In the vicinity. These dis- 
coveries have stimulated prospecting and a large number are 
engaged In the work. 

Kirl, I. mil Lake. — Much new capital Is seeking Investment 
in this field, where many mining engineers representing im- 
portant interests are making investigation. The White- 

Kirkland Gold Mining Co., capitalized at $500,000, in which 
Cleveland, Ohio, men are interested, has secured a property 

of 130 acres and will shortly begin development. The 

Lebel Lode, Ltd., has been incorporated with a capital of 
$2,000,000, to develop three claims aggregating 100 acres 
north of the Lebel Oro and the King Kirkland, on which 
veins have been found showing good gold content on the 
surface. The Wood-Kirkland has a force of men en- 
gaged in surface work. A plant will be installed before 
winter for underground operations. The Ontario Kirk- 
land has placed an order for electrical equipment for their 
mill to cost $22,000. The Lake Shore during May pro- 
duced gold to the amount of $29,637 from the treatment of 
1865 tons of ore, being an average recovery of $15.88 per 
ton. Harry Oakes, the president, states that the matter of 
enlarging the mill has for the present been left in abey- 

Larder Lake. — A Toronto syndicate headed by S. J. 
Thomas has taken up options on seventeen claims and has 
eleven more under options. The plans of the syndicate are 
to some extent dependent upon the construction of the pro- 
jected light railway. 

Porcupine. — Owing to the increased activity in gold min- 
ing, the town of Timmins is overcrowded with people who 
are unable to find house accommodation and are obliged to 
find shelter under canvas. The present building program 
appears inadequate to meet the requirements of the coming 
winter. A scheme for the formation of a company to build 
a number of small houses for sale is under consideration. 

The Mclntyre will close one of the most prosperous 

years in its history on June 30. It is understood that the 
annual statement will show profits in the neighborhood of 
$1,000,000 before providing for depreciation, and that the 
grade of the ore has been well maintained at around $11 

per ton. Preliminary work is being done on the Big 

Dyke, formerly the McRae Porcupine. The company has 
secured an option on the Pike Lake property adjoining. 

South Lorrain. — The mill of the Keeley has been put into 
operation and good results are officially reported. A good 
concentrate is being produced at the rate of 1J tons per 
day and a substantial amount of high-grade is being cobbed 
for shipment. 

West Shining Tree. — The Wasapika Consolidated has a 
large amount of high-grade ore in sight. The vein has a 
width of 25 ft. on the 200-ft. level and there is much ore 
that can be worked from open-cuts. The management has 
decided to proceed immediately with the construction of the 
first 50-ton unit of a 200-ton mill. 


Cloncurry. — An important deposit of cobalt ore is being 
worked 20 miles south of Selwyn. Four shafts have been 
sunk on the lode, to depths varying from 20 to 112 ft. The 
lode, as exposed, is 4 to 5 ft. thick, and extends along the 
surface for upward of 300 ft. The assay is about 6% 
cobalt, with no other valuable metals. A trial shipment of 
50 tons of ore hap been sent to England. A Email crushing 
and concentrating plant is to be erected. 



July 9, 1921 


The Editor invites members of the profession to send particulars of their 
work and appointments. The information is interesting to our readers. 

P. B. McDonald is in London. 

Howard D. Smith is here from New York. 

J. Parke Channing recently visited Miami, Arizona. 

Galen H. Clevenger has returned to Boston from Mexico. 

Lyman P. Barber is at Los Angeles, where he will spend 
the summer. 

James S. Douglas has returned from France and is now at 
Jerome, Arizona. 

W. H. Blackburn, of the Tonopah Mining Co., is in San 
Francisco for a week. 

W. V. Griffith has moved from Christmas, Arizona, to 
Geyserville, California. 

E. J. Franklin, mechanical engineer for the Ray Consoli- 
dated Copper Co., is at Chicago. 

R. D. Beats is general superintendent for the Shasta Zinc 
& Copper Co., at Bully Hill, California. 

Samuel W. Traylor was married to Miss Lottie Greenwood 
Lakel on June 24, at Allentown, Pennsylvania. 

Edwin Higgins has gone to Telluride, Colorado. He will 
visit Michigan before returning to San Francisco. 

John V. Richards is in eastern Oregon for the summer, in 
charge of a field party of the Oregon Bureau of Mines. 

Edgar N. Rhodes has been appointed president and gen- 
eral manager of the British America Nickel Corporation. 

Charles Bocking, manager for the Butte & Superior Min- 
ing Co., has returned to Butte after a trip to Eastern cities. 

William T. MacDonald, mill superintendent for the Mocte- 
zuma Copper Co., at Nacozari, Mexico, is at Salt Lake City. 

R. E. Howe and A. D. Wilkinson, of the Greene Cananea 
Copper Co., Sonora, Mexico, were in San Francisco recently. 

H. Steele has gone to Mexico City to take charge of the 
enterprises of the American Metal Co., Ltd., in that country. 

Brent N. Rickard, assistant superintendent of the A. S. & 
R. smelter, at Murray, Utah, is on a vacation at Fish Lake, 

J. C. Kinnear, smelter superintendent for the Nevada 
Consolidated Copper Co., was in San Francisco on his way 
from Los Angeles. 

Stuart G. Taylor, treasurer for the Judge mining interests 
at Park City, Utah, has returned to Salt Lake City after a 
vacation in Los Angeles. 

Alan M. Bateman has gone to Alaska to report upon the 
exploration and development of the properties of the Ken- 
necott Copper Corporation. 

J. B. Jensen, mining engineer of Salt Lake City, is making 
an examination of shale deposits for the Standard Shale 
Products Co., near De Beciue, Colorado. 

G. F. Williamson has resigned from the position of super- 
intendent of the Blue Mountain gold mine in Kern county, 
California, and is now at Amador City. 

F. C. Calkins, geologist of the U. S. Geological Survey, is 
in the Big Cottonwood mining district, Utah, completing a 
survey that was started some years ago. 

George S. Rice, of the U. S. Bureau of Mines, passed 
through San Francisco on his way to Alaska, where he will 
make a study of the Matanuska coalfield. 

Roy H. Elliott was staying at the Ohio House, at Placer- 
ville, when it was burned on June 26, and narrowly escaped, 
suffering some burns, fortunately not serious. 

R. C. Gemmell has been elected a director of the Nevada 
Consolidated Copper Co., and Louis S. Cates a director of 
the Utah Copper Co., these engineers respectively replacing 
William Potter, who has resigned. 


Arthur Kinney Adams died on November 2, 1920. He 
was born in Worcester, Massachusetts, on July 9, 1883, and 
attended the four-year course in general science at the 
English High School there from 1896 to 1900. He then 
spent three years at the Worcester Polytechnic Institute, 
from 1900 to 1903, combining the chemical and mechanical 
engineering courses. In the autumn of 1903 he entered 
Lawrence Scientific School, where he specialized in geology, 
receiving the degree of B. S. in 1904. The summer of 1904 
was spent at the Harvard Engineering Camp, in field work 
in surveying. That autumn he returned to Harvard Uni- 
versity, to the Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, study- 
ing advanced geology, especially applied geology, and acting 
as laboratory and field assistant in geology. There he re- 
ceived the degree of A.M. in 1905. In June of 1905 he was 
appointed field assistant in the U. S. Geological Survey, and 
spent the summer in topographic and geologic mapping of a 
coal- and oil-field in north-west Pennsylvania. Between 
1905 and 1906 he spent half a year in studying mining, 
milling, and economic geology at the Massachusetts Institute 
of Technology while he was acting as laboratory and field 
assistant in mineralogy, lithology, field geology, and ad- 
vanced field geology. In 1906, again as field assistant for 
the Geological Survey, he did further topographic and geo- 
logic mapping in Oregon and Colorado, later returning East 
to travel from Maryland to Alabama sampling and inspecting 
bituminous coal and mines in the Appalachian mountains. 
From 1907 to 1909 he taught in the New Mexico School of 
Mines at Socorro, New Mexico, as professor of geology and 
mineralogy. From 1909 to 1912 he was again in the gov- 
ernment service, this time in the U. S. General Land Office 
as Mineral Land Inspector. As geologist and assistant min- 
ing engineer for the Socorro Mining & Milling Co., of Mogol- 
lon, New Mexico, he spent the better part of 1912-'13. He 
worked during the summer of 1914 in the smelter at El 
Paso, Texas. Further teaching followed in 1914-'15 at the 
Texas School of Mines, Fort Bliss, Texas, where he was 
professor of geology and coal mining. Between 1915 and 
1916 he studied mining and milling methods in the South- 
west, especially with regard to the flotation of copper, silver- 
lead, and zinc ores. In 1916 he left for foreign work, enter- 
ing the employ of the Andes Copper Mining Co. After 
eighteen months in Chile he returned to enter the U. S. 
Army. In July of 1918 he received a commission as 1st 
Lieutenant of Engineers, U. S. A.; and in August entered the 
Engineer Officers Training School at Camp A. A. Humphreys, 
Virginia. In October, after only two months as a student 
officer, he was appointed 1st Lieutenant in the Second En- 
gineer Training Regiment. Two weeks previous to his dis- 
charge from the Army, in April 1919, he was appointed 
Instructor in Mineralogy and Senior Instructor in Geology 
at the Engineer School at Camp Humphreys. After his dis- 
charge from the Army, on May 1, 1919, he sailed from New 
York for a trip to Bolivia as geological engineer for the 
Guggenheim Brothers. In January 1920 he entered the 
employ of the Sinclair Consolidated Oil Corporation of New 
York. In February he proceeded to San Jose, Costa Rica, 
in charge of surveying the boundry line of a concession 
granted them by the Costa Rican government. His health 
was already affected as a result of work at an altitude in 
Bolivia. In July he contracted malaria; late in October he 
suffered a second attack, which occurred after he had re- 
turned from the field to his home in San Jose, where he died. 
He was twice married — in December 1909 to Helen Terry, of 
Socorro, New Mexico, whose death occurred five years later 
in El Paso, Texas; and in December 1919 to Dorothy Cobb, 
of Falls Church, Virginia. 

July :>. 192] 




San Francisco, July 5 

Aluminum-dust, cents per pound 76 

Antimony, cents per pound 6 

Copper, electrolytic cents per pound 13.00 — 13.25 

Lead. pig - , cents p«*r pound 4.65— 5.65 

Platinum, pure, per ounce S"5 

Platinum. 10% iridium, per ounce 5**5 

Quicksilver, per llask of 75 lb $48 

Spelter, cents per pound 8-50 

Zinc-dust, cents per pound 900 — 9.50 

(By wire from New York) 
j u ly 4. — Copper is inactive and soft. Lead is quiet but firm. Zinc is 
dull, but steady*. 


Below are given official or ticker quotations for silver in the open market 
as distinguished from the fixed price obtainable lor metal produced, smelted, 
and refined exclusively within the United States. Under the terms of the 
Pittman Act such silver will be purchased by the United State- Mint at 51 
per ounce, subject to certain small charges which vary slightly but amount 
to approximately three-eighth of one cent. The equivalent of dollar silver 
(1000 fine) in British currency is 46.65 pence per ounce 1925 fine), calcu- 
lated at the normal rate of exchange. 

Zinc Is quoted as 
in cents per pound. 


New York London 
Date o^nts pence 

June 28 69.00 35.13 

• 29 59.50 35.83 

■ 30 59.00 35.38 

July 1 58.50 35.25 

2 58.50 35.25 

•' 3 Sunday 
" 4 Holiday 

1919 1920 1921 

Jan 101.12 132.77 05.95 

Feb. 101. 12 131.27 69.55 

Mch 101.12 125.70 58.08 

Apr 101.12 119.68 58.33 

May 107.23 102.69 69.90 
June 110.50 90.84 58.51 
Prices of electrolytic, in cents per j 


















New T 



Aug - . 

Average we 

>k ending 


58 93 







ek ending 


30. . 


27. . 
4. . 









;rage we 

35 IS 



. .12.62 




. . 12.62 


3 Sunday 

4 Holiday 




1920 1921 
19.25 12.94 
19.05 12.84 
18.49 12.20 
19.23 12.50 
19.05 12.74 
19.00 12.83 

i cents per pound. 





. . 22.51 

. .21.66 


ek ending 


Apr 15.23 

Lead is quoted ij 


ork delivery. 
Average we 






. . 4.45 

. 4.75 


3 Sunday 

4 Holiday 








. 4.47 


. 4.32 
. 4.43 





. . 6.02 
. . 6.40 





. . 7.12 


Prices in New York, in cents per pound. 

Monthly averages 




Jan. . . 

.. .71.50 



Feb. . . 

... 72.44 



Mch. . . 

. . .72.50 



. . .72.50 



. . .72.50 







July 70.11 

Aug 62.20 

Sept 55.79 

Oct 54.82 

Nov 54.17 

Dec 54.94 



spelter, standard Western brands. New York, delivery. 




3 Sunday 

4 Holiday 




Average week ending 







4 4.75 

Monthly averages 

Juue 6.91 


!i 16 
















The primary market for quicksilver is San Francisco. California being 
the largest producer. The price is fixed in the open market, according to 
quantity. Prices, in dollars per flask of 75 pounds. 

Date | June 21 50.00 

June 7 50.00 " 28 48.00 

14 50.00 I July 5 48.00 

Monthly averages 


Jan 103.75 

Feb 90.00 

Mch 72.80 

Apr 73.12 

May 84.80 

June 94.40 







July . . 

. . .100.00 




Aug. . . 

. . .103.00 




Sept. . . 

. . .102.80 




Oct. . . 

. . . 86.00 




. . . 78.00 




. . . 95.00 




Gold imports into the United States in the fiscal year just ended aggre- 
gate, in round terms, S650.000.000. or more than in any year except 1917. 
when they aggregated S977.000.000. says a statement by the National 
City Bank. Of course, adds the bank's statement, not all of the S3. 630.- 
000,000 of gold imported since the beginning' of the War has remained 
with us. for the gold exports in the same period (1914-1021) aggregated 
SI, 4.35. 000. 000 leaving 1 the i-et imports (in excess of exports) for the en- 
tire period of 1914-1921 SI. 190, 000. 000. while the S530.000.000 turned 
out by our mines during that period brings the total additions to our gold 
stock since 1914. by importation and domestic production, up to 51,725.- 
000.000, of which, however, nearly S300.000.000 has been used for indus- 
trial and scientific purposes, leaving the net additions, since 1914. to our 
gold available for currency purposes about SI. 350, 000. 000. It is not sur- 
prising- then that the Circulation Statement of the Treasury Department 
shows the total stock of gold in the United States on June 1. 1921, as 
S3, 175. 000. 000, against SI. 892. 000. 000 at the beginning of the War. 

What has the remainder of the world done about gold for monetary pur- 
poses meantime? The Reports of the Director of the Mint showing the 
"approximate stocks of money in the principal countries of the world" put 
the total of yold for all countries for which statistics were available at 
$8,240,000,000 at the beginning of 1914 and 88.340,000.000 at the be- 
ginning of 1919. though the 1919 tabulation fails to include figures for 
certain countries which are known to have been at that time about $500,- 
000.000, suggesting that the total of world's gold stock at the present time 
is nearly $9, 000. 000. 000. though only a small proportion of this is in 
actual circulation, most of it being held in banks and public treasuries as 
a basis for the enormous paper circulation. 

This world total of approximately $9,000,000,000 of gold stock avail- 
able for currency seems to add weight lo the often expressed belief that 
only about one-half of the world's gold production passes into coin or be- 
comes a basis for currency, since the known figures of gold production 
from the discovery of America to the present time show a grand aggregate 
of ¥ of which total about one-half is now recorded as in 
exisience, either in the form of coin or as a basis for circulation. Curiously, 
too. about one-half of this enormous total of S18. 000. 000. 000 produced by 
the mines of the world has been turned out 9ince the famous gold versus 
silver campaign of 1S96. since the records of world gold production show 
the total outturn from 1896 to 1921 at $9,335,000,000 out of a grand total 
of $18,115,000,000 from 1492 to 1921. 

The share of the United States in the existing gold 'monetary stock' of 
the world has advanced from about 22% prior to the War to approximately 
37% at the present time, though this figure as to present conditions can 
only be a rough approximation owing to the difficulties of obtaining late 
figures for certain countries under the now existing conditions. 


Foreign quotations on July 5 are as follows: 

Sterling-, dollars: Cable 3.74 >£ 

Demand 3.73 W 

Francs, cents : Cable 8.11 

Demand 8.09 

Lire, cents: Demand 4.95 

Marks, cents 1-39 



July 9, 1921 

Eastern Metal Market 

New York, June 29. 

The approaching holidays incident to Independence Day, 
together with the- usual summer dullness, has intensified, if 
any thing, the prevailing inactivity of all markets. 

Copper buying is reported as being fair by some and 
absent by others, with prices easier. 

Buying of tin is moderate and spasmodic with prices 

The lead market is quiet and easier. 

There is a little more activity in the zinc market at lower 

Antimony has again declined. 


Reports have persisted that announcements of fresh re- 
ductions in steel prices would be made on July 1 by the Steel 
Corporation, but there are ho indications of such a formal 
step, says 'The Iron Age'. Actual market developments 
further confirm what was in evidence last week that both 
the Steel Corporation and leading independent makers are 
meeting competition as it appears. This process is causing 
a gradual settling of prices. 

The most encouraging indications are the activity of the 
administration at Washington in hastening the payment of 
the Government's debts to the railroads; the prospect that 
railroad bonds will be accepted by the Government on its 
counter-claims; and the placing of a fair amount of steel for 
the repair of cars, with the prospect that considerably more 
will follow shortly. 

The scale of mill operations is little changed, being from 
15 tc 25% for a number of independent companies and 
about 30% for the Steel Corporation. There is agreement 
in the expression coming from several steel-making centres 
that the falling away in demand is entirely without parallel 
and that the extent of unemployment is greater than leaders 
in the trade had believed possible. 

The iron and steel duties in the new tariff bill are a sur- 
prise to the trade in their close approach to the then fully 
protective schedules of the Payne-Aldrich Act of 1909. 


Opinions of the market vary, some sellers reporting a fair 
business each day for both foreign and domestic account and 
others asserting that there is practically no demand. Those 
sellers who refuse to quote less than 13 to 13.25c. for early 
or July delivery are the most pessimistic, while those who 
are willing to meet the market reasonably are more opti- 
mistic and are selling copper almost daily. For instance one 
seller sold recently about 100,000 lb. on one day and 150,- 
000 lb. on another with quotations reported on 400,000 to 
500,000 lb. on another day which were reasonably sure to 
result in sales. In such circumstances sellers have done a 
fair business about equally divided between foreign and 
domestic buyers and they predict that for June their sales 
will amount to a fair total, though not as large as in May. 
While sales of small lots of electrolytic copper have been 
made as low as 12.50c, New York, the great bulk of the 
July metal has gone at 12.S7*c, delivered, or about 12.62+c, 
New York, which we quote as the market, these being the 
prevailing prices for present day business. Lake copper is 
largely nominal at about the same levels as the electrolytic 
market, or 12.87Jc, delivered. 

Prices of spot Straits tin have been steady to firm all the 
week, remaining close to 29c, New York, which was the 
quotation yesterday. On most days the market has been 
quiet and inactive, excepting one day the middle of last week 

when sales, estimated to total from 300 to 500 tons, were 
made. These were largely purchases by dealers with some 
consumers sharing interest. Aside from this one day, the 
market has been almost stagnant. London prices have also 
been steady with quotations yesterday at £166 10s. for spot 
standard, at £169 for future standard, and at £167 10s. for 
spot Straits, all about £2 per ton above the prices a week ago. 
Arrivals thus far this month have been 1540 tons with 2000 
tons reported afloat. 

The market is generally quiet and devoid of much interest. 
The only feature has been the reduction late last Wednesday 
by the leading interest of its price from $4. 50c to 4.40c, 
both New York and St. Louis. In the outside market prices 
have been lower with sales made down to 4.25 to 4.30c, 
New York, during the last few days of last week, but there 
was not a broad market. Yesterday the market was fairly 
stable at 4.40c, New York, or 4.15c, St. Louis, with some 
sellers quoting the latter base at 4.25c. Statistically this 
market is the soundest of all. 

A little more interest is reported but it is small. The 
market has been stagnant so long that even a flutter of buy- 
ing is almost sensational. However, some producers at least 
are more willing to meet the market, due perhaps to low 
ore-prices and a probable readjustment in labor. During 
the week values have declined quite sharply so that prime 
Western is quoted and has sold at 4.25c, St. Louis, or 4.75c. 
New York, for wholesale lots for early delivery. The market 
is not active but is showing a little more life than in many 
weeks and the bottom is believed to have been about reached. 
Importations have been very heavy in recent months, due to 
the desire probably to forestall any increase in duty. These 
stocks have, therefore, depressed the market all this time. 


Prices are lower with wholesale lots for early or July de- 
livery quoted at 4.874c, New York, duty paid, with jobbing 
lots from \ to Jc. higher. 


There has been no change in the reported quotations of 
the leading interest of 28c. f.o.b. plant, for wholesale lots of 
virgin metal for early delivery. For foreign metal of the 
same grade prices vary according to the seller and the source 
of the metal, or from 22 to 23.50c, New York. 

Tungsten: The market continues exceedingly quiet with 
quotations largely nominal and unchanged from those pre- 
vailing a week ago. This is also true of ferro-tungsten. 

Molybdenum: No interest in the market is reported with 
quotations nominally unchanged at 50c. per pound of MoS L - 
in regular concentrate. 

Manganese: There is absolutely no demand. While the 
quotation is 22.50c per unit, seaboard, for high-grade 
foreign ore, it could be possible without doubt to shade this 
on a firm offer. 

Manganese-Iron Alloys: The markets for both ferro- 
manganese and spiegeleisen continues featureless and in- 
active. A carload lot of spiegeleisen is reported to have been 
sold. The quotation for the 20% grade is $30, furnace, as 
a minimum. On an inquiry for 100 net tons of ferro- 
manganese for the Government, bids made public reveal 
prices down to an equivalent of $72.80, delivered, for the 
British alloy, equivalent to about $70, seaboard. This com- 
pares with $75 recently asked. Domestic alloy is still quoted 
at $80, delivered, but could be bought at less. 

Julj 9, 1921 





| urn iiiHiiiiiiiiinitiiiiiiiiiiiiiii iiiiiiimiiiiiiimiiiiiiimimiiiiiiitiiiiimtiiiiiiiiiiiiiiimiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiimiiiiimiiimMiiii 



The design of fractional-size automatic couplers manu- 
factured by the American Steel Foundries of Chicago are 
identical with those of the full-size standard railway couplers 
manufactured by this company. 

All of the operating features of the full-size couplers are 
incorporated in these smaller ones, so that they may be 
operated entirely by means of an operating lever at the side 

Fractional-size bottom-oper- 
ating Alliance coupler 

Fractional-size side-operat- 
ing Simplex coupler 

of the car, doing away with the necessity for the operator 
going between the cars to make or break a coupling. It is 
this safety feature and the great saving in operating time 
which has made the automatic coupler such a success on the 
railroads of the United States. 

The operating features of the American Steel Foundries 
fractional-size couplers consist of a positive arrangement 
to throw the knuckle open preparatory to coupling; auto- 
matic locking o£ the knuckle when cars are moved together; 
an anti-creep device on the lock to prevent its creeping up 
and permitting accidental unlocking; and a lock-set whereby 
the lock when raised rests in a position above the knuckle- 
tail to permit knuckle opening freely when uncoupling. This 
feature does away with the inconvenience and dangerous 
practice of a man running beside the car and holding up the 
locking-pin until the cars have parted in making a running- 
shift. It is also a great convenience when making a cut in 
a standing train to be able to set the lock and then give the 
signal from any point at a distance from where the cut is 
to be made. The automatic coupler is always ready to make 

a coupling; there are no loose links or pins to be lost or 

The material used in the small couplers is the same as 
used in the standard couplers, and consists of high-grade 
open-hearth cast-steel for the coupler body and all other 
parts that are not dropped forgings. 

Fractional-size couplers are made in two designs: the 
Simplex and I he Alliance. The former is the same design 
as the well-known standard Simplex coupler, of which there 
are over a million and a half in use. They are noted for 
their strength, simplicity, and positive coupling action. 

The half-size Simplex coupler is furnished in the top- 
operating type only and is adapted for use on narrow-gauge 
cars up lo 10 -tons capacity, such as mine-cars, tunnel-cars, 
dump-cars, etc. Both lock and lifter are dropped-forged. 
The standard design weighs 4 7 pounds. 

The three-quarter size Simplex coupler is furnished in 
the top-, side-, and radially-operated designs, the latter 
two being recommended where there is danger of the un- 
coupling rigging being bent from projecting loads. These 
couplers are suitable for use on narrow-gauge cars of from 
10 to 20 tons capacity or on standard-gauge cars such as 
open-hearth charging-box cars, dump-cars, etc., where it is 
not desired to use full-size couplers. Standard couplers 
weigh 124 pounds. 

The Alliance coupler represents the latest development in 
couplers, embodying all of the Improvements which have 
been found desirable to meet the present-day demand of 
traffic. These improvements are just as valuable in the 
fractional-size as in the full-size coupling. They consist 
mainly of interlocking lugs, or pin protectors on the hub or 
knuckle, and pulling lugs on the tail of the knuckle which 
interlock with corresponding lugs in the head of the bar. 
Both of these features add greatly to the strength of the 
coupler, and by relieving the pivot-pin of the greater part of 
all strains, prevent wear and consequent loosening, thus 
greatly increasing the service life of the coupler. 

The Alliance half-size coupler is made in top-, bottom-, 
and side-operating design suitable for narrow-gauge cars 
of 12-tons capacity, such as mine-cars, tunnel-cars, dump- 
cars, etc. The weight of the standard design is 57 lb. This 
is about 20% heavier than the Simplex half-size, but the 
increase in strength over the Simplex is about S0%. 

The three-quarter size Alliance coupler is furnished in 
top-, bottom-, side-, and radial-operating designs, and is 
suitable for application to narrow-gauge cars of from 12 to 
25 tons capacity, such as mine-cars, dump-cars, etc., where it 
is not desired to couple with the standard full-size coupler. 
The weight of the standard design is 145 pounds. 

In addition to the standard styles of shanks, all of these 
couplers can be furnished with any design of shank desired 
to meet any special requirements. Some of the special 
applications are couplers to fit in the link-slot on cars for- 
merly equipped with link and pin; round-shank couplers 
for use on mine-cars, to allow one car to be turned over 
completely and dumped while remaining coupled in train; 
and numerous designs of long-shank, off-set shank, and 
pivoted heads, for electric, steam, and gasoline locomotives. 



July 9, 1921 

Where it is desired to handle cars such as charging-box cars 
with a locomotive that also handles standard cars, the 
fractional-size coupler is placed beneath a standard coupler. 


"Hollow drill-steel is made by various methods: (1) The 
drilled billet with a sand-filled core, the general method 
used in this country. (2) The drilled, pierced, or the drilled 
and pierced billet, not sand-filled, is rolled down over a 
projecting ball much the same as in ordinary pipe manu- 
facture. System (2) is employed largely in Sweden. In 
Sheffield, England, the general scheme is sand-filling. Swed- 
ish hollow drill-steel is particularly good and has a world- 
wide reputation for excellency. It does not follow, however, 
that steels made by other methods are not efficient, because 
they are. 

The method employed by the Ludlum Steel Co. in the 
manufacture of hollow drill-steel is to insert a high-grade 
low-carbon mild-steel tube, suitably cleaned by sand-blast, 
into an ingot mold and cast the hot metal around the tube. 
We fill up the tube with some air-excluding material so as 
to prevent oxidation and scaling of the inside of the tube, 
generally using a high-grade sand for this purpose. The 
ingots are then rolled in the usual way down to the finished 
bar. The bars are cut to required length and the sand 
extracted by a special method, which is very speedy and 
extremely effective. 

The tube method of making hollow ingots for the manu- 
facture of hollow drill-steel is a decided departure from the 
old methods, and the logic of it seems to show that the re- 
sultant hollow drill-steel should be superior to that made 
by the older method. Tests made by the Ludlum Steel Co. 
to date show that such is the case; whether or not our 
premises are accurate, we believe that hollow drill-steel 
made this way will withstand alternating stresses better 
than anything that has yet been produced of similar analysis. 
The reasons why we believe the tube method of hollow drill- 
steel manufacture is superior to the older methods are: 

1. Greater freedom from external and internal straining. 

2. Because of the inherent small crystal size. 

3. Absence of harmful segregations resulting in weakness 
of the wall of the hole. 

4. Less liability for the steel to crack in the inside of the 
hole during forging or hardening. 

5. Toughening effect, arising from the mild-steel wall of 
the hole, limiting the intense hardening on quenching. 


With the rapidly increasing use of gas- and oil-engines, 
particularly for units of larger size, and with the continued 
demand for electric generators driven by reciprocating 
steam-engines, the 'Engine-Type Alternator' finds many ap- 
plications in modern central stations, municipal plants, and 
industrial establishments. This type of generator, used with 
any of these prime-movers, provides a compact generating 
unit, which on account of its convenient arrangement, re- 
quires a minimum of attention. 

Allis-Chalmers alternators are of the revolving-field type, 
as this construction has proved superior to all others in 
both mechanical features and electrical performance. The 
armature-coils are stationary, and hence are not subject to 
mechanical vibrations or centrifugal force. They can, there- 
fore, be readily insulated for high voltage and, as modern 
machines are frequently wound for high pressure, anything 
that contributes to perfect insulation is an important ad- 
vantage. Moreover, with the stationary armature construc- 
tion the collector-rings are not subjected to high pressure. 

"Abstract of a paper by P. A. E. Armstrong at February 
1921 meeting of the A. I. M. & M. E. 

The revolving field is excited by current supplied at low 
pressure so that the collector-rings are easily insulated and 
involve no undesirable features. Following the usual prac- 
tice for engine-type generators, Allis-Chalmers alternators 
of this type are arranged so that the revolving field or rotor 
is mounted directly on the engine-shaft. These generators, 
designated as Type "AI", are therefore regularly furnished 
without base or bearings, the engine-bearings being used 
to carry the rotor as well as engine fly-wheel, while the 
stator is mounted either on the engine bed-plate or directly 
on the foundations. 

Allis-Chalmers engine-type alternators are regularly listed 
in all sizes up to 1875 kva. for several types of prime- 
movers, and for the usual requirements of engine-speeds. 
Machines of larger size or for special requirements can be 
furnished to meet particular service conditions. 


The Dayton-Dowd Co., of Quincy, Illinois, has opened a 
new district-office, for the sale of pumping machinery, in 
the Pioneer building, St. Paul, in charge of the George M. 
Kenyon Co., a firm of engineers of long standing in St. Paul. 

The Pawling & Harnischfeger Co., of Milwaukee, has 
issued Bulletin 6-X, describing the P & H excavator-crane 
No. 206. The crane moves anywhere on its 'corduroys' de- 
signed to give traction on any service, and operates eco- 
nomically by gasoline power. Easily interchanged buckets 
and devices fit it for a variety of uses. Equipped with a 
crane-hook, it can be used for handling machinery, laying 
pipe, and similar work; a lifting-magnet may be attached if 
desired. With a clam-shell bucket the machine can be used 
to handle ore, stone, sand, coal, and similar material. An 
orange-peel bucket serves for dredging and a shovel-attach- 
ment can be conveniently utilized for any work where a re- 
volving shovel is required. 

In order to handle more satisfactorily its growing de- 
tinning business in the West, the Metal & Thermit Corpora- 
tion has constructed and will shortly place in operation in 
South San Francisco a large new plant for the production 
of de-tinned billets, in addition to the de-tinning plants 
already operated by this company for several years at 
Chrome, New Jersey, and EasL Chicago. The new South 
San Francisco plant has been equipped with a large welding- 
shop containing excellent equipment and facilities for un- 
dertaking repairing by the Thermit process. With this new 
equipment at its disposal the company is exceptionally well 
prepared to render prompt and efficient service to its West- 
ern customers The new plant will be in charge of Em. 
Kardos. The cost of the plant is estimated in the neighbor- 
hood of $800,000. The former offices of the company, situ- 
ated at 329-333 Folsom St., San Francisco, have been moved 
to the new plant. 

The Link-Belt Co. has acquired all of the capital stock of 
the H. W. Caldwell & Son Co., and Frank C. Caldwell has 
been elected a director of the Link-Belt Co. Two experi- 
enced and successful companies in the conveyor-machinery 
world have thus joined forces, with the result that the 
Link-Belt Co. has added two new lines, 'Helicoid' conveyors 
and power-transmission machinery, to its line of manu- 
factures. While the H. W. Caldwell plant will continue to 
operate under separate corporate existence and under its 
present name, the joint facilities of the two companies, and 
the broader avenues of distribution of the Link-Belt Co. 
ought to prove of distinct advantage to the customers of 
both. There will be no modification of the policies of the 
Caldwell plant, no impairment of its service to its customers, 
no change in the diversity or character of its product. The 
plant-management will remain substantially the same, and 
the new owners, like the old, will proceed on the theory that 
the goodwill of its customers is the company's best asset. 

. . ii iimtiimiimmitu mil 

mmm ami 


T. A. RlCKARO. CoiroR 
A. W. Allen \ 

A. B. Parsons) 

.- associate Editors 

Member Audi! Bureau of Circulations 
Member Associated Business Papers, Inc. 


b\t the I>' n't < ' ■ 



E, H. LESLIE. 000 FisMKN Boa . Cnicaio 

F. A. WEISLE, 91 Nassau St.. niwVokk 

iiuiitiiiiiimiimiiiNtini in I'tiiiiiiiiiiiuniiiMiiiii mi uiiitiiiiiiiiniit inmnmi i nmt utii imtintimnni ntii nmtinumnii nnm nun ■ niimiin i miiiiiimiimi'miiiiNiiiiiimmiiiimiiiiiiiuiiiiiii mimimr: 


Issued every Saturday 

San Francisco, July 16, 1921 

$4 per Year — 15 Cents per Copy 





British control of oilfields. Denial from Viscount 
Curzon. Restrictions during the War. Domestic 
iiroduction and imports of oil into Great Britain. 
Oil exploitation in Persia and Mesopotamia; in Co- 
lombia and Mexico. Royal Dutch combine. Brit- 
ish government stimulation of oil production. Ab- 
surdity of quarreling over such matters. 



The licensing of professional engineers in the State 
of New York. American Association of Engineers. 
Immorality of legislation in vogue. The profes- 
sional engineer in the employ of the engineering 
corporation. The violation of codes of ethics. 
Respect for the profession. A suggestion for the 
Mining & Metallurgical Society of America. 



By E. M. Hamilton 81 

Free cyanide and total cyanide. Correct method 
of determination of free cyanide. The solubility 
of gold in double zinc cyanide. Mr. Del Mar's 
method. Results of the addition of lime. Addition 
of sodium carbonate. Substitution of caustic soda. 


By Waldo Lee Clark 8 2 

Soldiers who were disabled in the War should be 
exempted from assessment duty. 


By L. C. Denny 83 

Lack of uniformity in laws. Alaska. Protection 
of locators and mine operators in new territory. 

By Frank P. Davis 


Rigid enforcement. Difficulty of location. Survey- 
in of claims. Recording fee. The mining engi- 
neer and the prospector. 


By Robert B. Brinsmade 84 

Source of taxation. Export Tax. Import Tax. 
Merchandise-Sales Tax. Land-Sales Tax. Real- 
Estate Tax. Poll Tax. License Tax. Land-Value 
Tax. Unearned-Increment Tax. Personal-Prop- 
erty Tax. General-Property Tax. Income Tax. 
Excess-Profits Tax. Inheritance Tax. Discussion. 




By L. V. Waterhouse 

Introduction. Coarse-crushing. Fine-crushing. 
Tube-milling. Dorr thickeners. Flotation. Sam- 
ple-reducer. Filtering. Sampling. Flow-sheet. 


By Clyde E. Williams 94 

Establishment of an iron and steel industry. Coke. 
Iron ore. Refractories. Market for steel prod- 
ucts. Japan's steel industry. Smelting process. 
Electric smelting. Conclusion. 



By A. G. Dingle. 


Need of ore-testing facilities by the prospector. 
Cost of 'powder'.* 





Established May 24. 1860, as The Scientific Press: name changed October 
20 of the same year to Mining and Scientific Press. 

Entered at the San Francisco post-office as second-class matter. Cable 
address: Pertusola. 

Branch Offices — Chicago. 600 Fisher Bdg.: New York, 31 Nassau St.: 
London. 724 Salisbury House. E.C. 

Price, 15 cents oer copy. Annual subscription, payable in advance: 
United States and Mexico, S-l : Canada. $5: other countries, $6. 



July 16, 1921 

Eliminating delay in mine operation 

BY keeping equipment in perfect running order with the oxy-acetylene 
process, progressive operators are doing away with break-downs and 
dollar-eating delays. 

For it is now easy to use the welding and cutting blow-pipes for every 
sort of reclamation work in and about mines because uniformly pure. 



is supplied in readily portable, instantly available cylinders which may be 
taken to any job, anywhere. 

Any quantity of Prest-O-Lite Dissolved Acetylene, large or small, is 
promptly supplied by Prest-O-Lite Service operating through forty plants 
and warehouses. 


General Offices: Carbide and Carbon Building, 30 East 42nd Street, New York 

Balfour Building, San Francisco 

In Canada: Prest-O-Lite Co., of Canada, Limited, Toronto 

PW-5 18-31 

July 16, L921 



T. A. H.ICKARV. .... Editor 

iiiiiiiiinii inn imiiiiiimiiiiiiiiii iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiint in ilium iiiimmiiiiiiim itiimi n I iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiitiintimn 

XpLOTATK »X of a mixed copper ore at Mount Lyell, in 
A Tasmania, is described by Mr. L. V. Waterhonse in 
a detailed article appearing in this issue. Several in- 
teresting devices will he noted. It is curious t hat euca- 
lyptus oil is still being used, in admixture with coal-tar. 
At one time the kind of oil used in a flotation mill varied 
with the geography; thus pine-oil in the United States, 
eucalyptus oil in Australia, and camphor oil in Korea. 


IVIDENDS to be paid to stockholders of some of 
the gold-mining companies of the Witwatersrand 
indicate a healthy return on the basis of the original 
investment. On June 30, the New Modderfontein Gold 
Mining Company set aside, for early payment, an amount 
equivalent to 42% of its original share-value; the Mod- 
derfontein B. Gold Mines company, 40% ; the Rand 
Mines company, 35%; the City Deep company, 20%; 
and the Crown Mines company, 10%. Unfortunately 
the public purchased most of these stocks at a big pre- 
mium, but the returns indicate a handsome profit on the 
real investment by the original shareholders, if they still 
retain their stock. 

"PROSPECTS of a resumption of mining in Siberia 
*■ seem to be brighter by reason of the negotiations in 
London between the representative of the Soviet gov- 
ernment, the British Board of Trade, and the officials 
of the Russo-Asiatic Consolidated Company. This com- 
pany has mines and smelters in the Altai district and on 
the Irtish river. It is an English company, but it has 
employed, and is still employing, several well-known 
American mining engineers, notably Mr. J. Power 
Hutchins. The Board of Trade has signified its approval 
of the agreement whereby the Soviet Government re- 
turns the Russo-Asiatic concessions to that company and 
permits a resumption of work. It is stated, in the 
'Financial Times' of London, that the company, a large 
affair, capitalized at £12,000,000, has an organization 
and equipment that will enable it "very soon to produce 
supplies of gold, copper, lead, zinc, etc., all so much 
needed by Russia". It is conceded that the company 
shall have "the right to allocate a substantial proportion 
of its profits for the payment of an adequate dividend 
to shareholders, that a further proportion shall be laid 
aside as reserves for future requirements, and that only 
on the surplus shall the Soviet Government levy taxa- 

tion, say, to the extent of a quarter". Of course, adjec- 
tives like 'adequate' and 'substantial' leave scope for in- 
terpretation, but the agreement is an interesting ex- 
ample of a compromise between the forces of sentimental 
anarchy and those of industrial capitalism. The Soviet 
Government, moreover, we are informed, "is prepared 
to lend all assistance possible to the concessionaires in the 
way of facilitating the supply of labor and transport". 
This sounds delightful, but, as we are nearer to Missouri 
than our friends in London, we have our doubts and 
even our suspicious regarding both the ability and good 
faith of Messrs. Lenin, Trotzky, et al. 

TN this issue we publish an article that discusses the 
■*■ principal factors bearing upon the establishment of 
an iron and steel industry on this Coast. We heard the 
article delivered as an address by the author, Mr. Clyde 
E. Williams, on the occasion of the last meeting of the 
International Mining Convention at Portland. It seemed 
to us to contain much useful and interesting information 
and we hope that it may elicit further discussion from 
those who have investigated the subject. Obviously, the 
Pacific Coast will not achieve industrial independence 
until it produces its own iron and steel. We feel certain 
that it will; the question is, when? We hope that Mr. 
Nicol Thompson, of Vancouver, Mr. B. L. Thane, of San 
Francisco, and others will state their views for publica- 
tion in our pages. We take the opportunity of adding 
that the work done by Mr. Williams marks the useful 
co-operation of the College of Mines, in Washington 
University, at Seattle, with the Northwest Experiment 
Station of the U. S. Bureau of Mines. 

I? ROM the Kansas State Agricultural College comes a 
-*- true word. Mr. H. W. Davis, the director of that 
useful institution, asserts that "newspapers and mag- 
azines control the language in this country". He told 
the National Education Association, in convention as- 
sembled, that a newspaper 'story' that carries its message 
'across' has done its duty; in short, that good English is 
effective English. We agree that the development of our 
language is largely in the hands of those who use it most 
— the newspapers and periodical press ; and that is why 
we deplore the fact that they indulge in so much sloppy 
writing, because they are undoing the work of the schools 
and universities, where our youth of both sexes is taught, 



July 16, 1921 

among other things, how to use the language correctly. 
Where we disagree with Mr. Davis is in his supposition 
that the English of the newspaper story is usually ef- 
fective ; it seems to us, from daily experience, that much 
of the reportorial work is ineffective hecause it is written 
carelessly and ignorantly, by those who prefer the lan- 
guage of the gutter to that of the library. 

T\ISCUSSION this week is again enriched by several 
*-* notable contributions. The first is from Mr. E. M. 
Hamilton, who writes on a subject in which he has won 
recognized place as a specialist, apart from the fact that 
he ranks among the most scholarly and conscientious of 
our technical writers. A soldier, Mr. Waldo Lee Clark, 
asks that special consideration be shown, in the matter 
of assessment work, to those who were disabled in the 
War; and his plea will meet with sympathy. A pros- 
pector, Mr. A. G. Dingle, complains that he cannot get 
anybody to inspect his mineral discovery, but we feel 
certain that he could get friendly treatment in the mat- 
ter of an ore-test, if he made the acquaintance of those 
at the School of Mines of his own State. Mr. L. C. 
Denny recognizes the honest intellectual effort that has 
been made to improve the mining law, but, like others. 
he demurs to the requirement that the claim-lines must 
be run so as to conform with the existing subdivisions of 
the General Land Survey. This protest is seconded by 
Mr. Prank P. Davis, who likewise anticipates that the 
rigid enforcement of such a regulation will prove a hard- 
ship to many prospectors and be impracticable without 
a systematic survey in localities where the Land Survey 
is incomplete. He is unfair, we think, to the mining en- 
gineer, in supposing that the members of our profession 
mean to euchre the genuine prospector; the regulations, 
of course, are meant to simplify and to assist the location 
of mining claims in the interest of the legitimate pros- 
pector ; they should be discussed from that point of view, 
and corrected if they do not further their implicit pur- 
pose. The last contribution to 'Discussion' is a long, and 
interesting, one, from our correspondent in Mexico. Mr. 
Robert B. Brinsmade. 

serted the claim, presumably without at once notifying 
Mr. Brady; when he finally learned of Mr. Connolly's 
departure, the receiver sent to the property a party of 
miners who started work at 8 p.m. on the night of June 
30. On the morning of July 1, twelve men, one of whom 
was Mr. William Cavanaugh, the original locator of some 
of the claims, posted new notices of location for each of 
the 11 claims. They are said to be ready to go to court to 
obtain title to the property. However, we venture to 
predict that further legal advice will dissuade them from 
starting any litigation. The courts have repeatedly held 
that if a man start work prior to the expiration of the 
year, and continue it with reasonable diligence and with- 
out interruption until the prescribed amount has been 
performed, any adverse claimant is in the position of a 
trespasser. The Act of Congress approved by the Presi- 
dent on December 21, 1920, whereby the final date for the 
work of 1920 was deferred until June 30, 1921, obviously 
is special legislation, but it seems improbable that any 
court would deviate from the established precedent on 
that account. 

f"P ROUBLE has arisen at Hornsilver, 28 miles south of 
-*- Tonopah, in Nevada, over the interpretation of the 
Statute regarding the performance of assessment work 
on unpatented mining claims. The issue raised is this : 
must the prescribed amount of work be completed on the 
last day specified, or may the work continue until com- 
pleted, providing a start was made before the expiration 
of the period provided by law. The particular claims in- 
volved comprise the property of the Southwestern Mines 
Company, for which Mr. S. H. Brady is receiver. Two 
of the 11 claims are of particular value because they ad- 
join, on the strike of the vein, the Orleans claims from 
which Mr. J. W. Dunfee is mining rich ore. A small mill 
is situated on the property. It seems that Mr. Brady 
arranged a lease with Mr. Tim Connolly, with the ex- 
pectation that his labor would satisfy the requirement of 
the law as to assessment, work. The lessee, however, de- 

SUCCESSPUL industrial operations abroad depend, in 
no small measure, on confidence in the stability of the 
government in power; without this confidence, capital 
looks elsewhere for investment opportunities. An auto- 
cratic and erratic president may plunge a country into 
chaos; a weak monarch can do no more. Conditions in 
Peru are being watched with some concern, although the 
national game of politics has been played so uninter- 
ruptedly of late years that the Peruvians themselves, as 
well as their neighbors, are past being surprised at what 
does or may occur. Mr. A. B. Leguia, the President, 
assumed office under circumstances that are reminiscent 
of the plots of a Gilbert & Sullivan opera. He was a 
candidate for President, and the elections were to be held 
in August 1919. Not willing to rely on the popular 
choice, he drove to the presidential palace in the early 
hours of July 4 — choosing the date so that the sound of 
any promiscuous shooting would be attributed to the 
exuberance of the Americans resident in Lima — and 
seized the reins of Government, apparently without op- 
position. The military were annoyed at being disturbed 
at such an hour, but otherwise the revolution passed off in 
a manner typically Peruvian. Mr. Leguia assumed office 
without national protest. His friends were jubilant, for 
the majority of them trusted their favorite, and honestly 
thought that the revolution would be for the ultimate 
good of Peru. But they were soon disillusioned as to 
Mr. Leguia 's intentions, as well as with regard to his fit- 
ness for the high office of Chief Executive. Many of 
them saw the handwriting on the wall, and beat a hasty 
retreat to Paris or to London. Recently the President 
has become arrogant. Needing money for the centennial 
celebrations that are to be held to commemorate the ad- 
versary of the independence of the country, on July 28. 
he applied to the banks for a loan ; but the financiers of 
Lima were not impressed, and they refused to lend. The 
President then retaliated by prohibiting them from en- 

July 16, 1921 



pacing' in foreign business; and the money he needed was 
raised through the aid of British oil-operators in Pern, 
Three newspapers have been suppressed recently on ac- 
i-iimit of their outspoken criticism of the President's 

autocratic actions; the university of San Marcos has I n 

closed; and reports indicate thai Mr. Leguia is su 1- 

ing in killing all opposition to himself and hi* tactics by 
banishing some of liis political opponents to Australia, 
and by imprisoning the remainder on an island quaran- 
tine Station near Callao. Tin- administration has been 
regarded as a joke for many years, and this is one of the 
reasons why the country is rightly classed among the 
unprogressive States of South America. The people 
appear to take the antics of their political mountebanks 
as a matter of course; they are too tired to arable ahout. 
Or to protest against, the conditions that seriously imped" 
the development of Peru. 

r PHAT the use of good English is a specialized study 
-*- in university training, rather than an essential in 
every phase of the curriculum, is an objection that is 
voiced by an anonymous member of a faculty club, 
whose opinions appear in a recent issue of the 'Christian 
Science Monitor'. The standard of undergraduate Eng- 
lish is on the decline. The poor composition of college 
men has been attributed to the newspapers; an educa- 
tional diet that ignores Greek and Latin is said by others 
to be responsible ; but it is clear that neither of these, in 
itself, can be the cause. The trouble, in the opinion of a 
professor of English, is because the entire question of 
verbal expression of thought is a matter that is confined 
to the English department of the university, which, it is 
clear, should not be obliged to shoulder the whole re- 
sponsibility for instruction in written and oral expres- 
sion of specialized branches of learning. The student, 
for instance, does not bring his biology into the class- 
room for inspection ; but he does take his English, or a 
substitute for it, into the biological laboratory ; the pro- 
fessor of biology incurs a responsibility in this connec- 
tion; and if he realizes that knowledge and adequate 
expression cannot be divorced, he will not throw the 
entire responsibility upon the department of English. 
He will see that every man in the faculty must be, from 
time to time, a teacher of expression. At present it is 
natural for the freshman, when he leaves the English 
class-room, to east aside all concern about commas or 
dangling participles ; they are mere English, in his 
opinion, for which he hopes to get separate credit. In 
the history class he is concerned with facts; and so he 
writes and speaks as he pleases. It is this separation of 
expression from thought and knowledge that defeats all 
efforts to improve undergraduate English. The remedy, 
according to the professor, is co-operation ; failure will 
result if all is left to the department of English ; it is 
folly, he saj's, to expect that one course in the freshman 
year will uproot all the weeds of faulty speech, and will 
sow the seeds of excellent expression that will continue 
to blossom throughout the student's later life. Only 
steady and concerted effort on the part of the entire 

faculty can achieve such a result; students must be 
taught that true knowledge and clear expression are one 
and inseparable. Satisfactory speech and writing will 
result only when in every class-room — and whatever the 
subject being taught — accuracy, correctness, and even 
grace of expression are demanded of all students at all 
times in their written and in their oral work. We con- 
sider that there is much that is logical in this viewpoint. 
In too many cases the acquisition of an easy and correct 
style in the presentation of technical facts comes, if it 
comes at all, long after college days have passed. 

Oil and Friction 

Vehement denial, says a press dispatch, was made 
recently by Viscount Curzon that Great Britain seeks 
to control the world's undeveloped oilfields. This is one 
of the questions that are supposed to 'strain' friendly 
relations between the two English-speaking countries, 
and it is well to refer to it if by doing so that strain can 
he lessened or removed. Lord Curzon denied that the 
British government is "co-operating with British inter- 
ests to secure an oil monopoly"; he said that such an 
idea was "entirely without foundation". We accept his 
statement, of course, because a man of his character and 
position does not say what is untrue. He acknowledged 
that "there were some restrictions" on exploitation for 
oil in British territory, but that was "during the War", 
and the restrictions "have now been removed". Lord 
Curzon stated that whereas GVeat Britain imported 
3.368,600 tons of oil in 1920, her domestic production 
was only 166,000 tons. Of the oil imported, 61% came 
from America, 37% from other countries, and only 2% 
from the British possessions. Yet 90% of the British 
navy is now oil-fired, and the use of oil is increasing in 
the mercantile marine; so that the urgency of a supply 
of oil is manifest. Canada's oil exploitation is confined 
to companies of British register, but the chief of these 
is the Imperial Oil Company, a subsidiary of the Stand- 
ard Oil Company. Various charges and counter-charges 
have been made in consequence of the rivalry in oil ex- 
ploitation, of the British in Persia and Mesopotamia, 
and of Americans in Colombia and Mexico. Much of the 
newspaper talk is misinformed, if not malicious. For 
instance, the shipment of oil from Wyoming to a Cana- 
dian refinery owned by the Imperial company is in- 
stanced as a British depredation, whereas the Imperial 
company is controlled in the United States. Not long 
ago the same authority, Lord Curzon, who, we believe, 
is Secretary for the Colonies, denied the rumor that his 
Government was interested directly or indirectly in the 
Royal Dutch combine, although our Secretary of State, 
Mr. Hughes, thought it necessary to send a note to Hol- 
land demanding participation in the Djambi oilfield, 
which is owned exclusively by the Dutch. We believe in 
protecting our nationals in their mining enterprise 
abroad, whether in Mexico or in Persia, but, as the 'New 
York Journal of Commerce' said wisely not long ago, 
"We cannot be international where American foreign 



July 16, 1921 

trade is concerned and national where the foreign trade 
of other countries is at stake". 

American enterprise is that of individuals and syndi- 
cates, it is in no way backed by our Government, whereas 
the British government during the War did take active 
steps to stimulate the production of oil within its own 
or protected territories, and that is why objection has 
been raised by some of our oil-operators, who demand a 
free field for their competition. The world needs the 
initiative of the Dohenys and Bedfords, just as it needs 
that of the Cowdrays and Deterdings. Our people con- 
trol 80% of the oil production of the world, and we 
ought to be able to meet others in competition without 
getting hot about it. There is need for the enterprise 
of all in finding and producing the ever-increasing 
quantity of oil demanded by modern industry. Surely 
it makes no difference whether an American exploits oil 
in Burma or an Englishman in "Wyoming, provided the 
oil in the one case goes to the English market and in the 
other to the American market, as assuredly it would in 
either case. The English-speaking peoples cannot afford 
to quarrel over such matters, when issues so much bigger 
are at stake. We have been comrades in arms recently 
in defence of our civilization ; we have a common pur- 
pose in striving for world peace; our peoples desire in- 
tensely that general disarmament may be brought about 
by conference between our leaders and those of other 
nations; most, of us are sick of the petty jealousies and 
mean recriminations that have followed the successful 
conclusion of our war with Germany and her dupes; is 
all the fine emotion to be lost in petty spites and com- 
mercial rivalries ? Can we not recapture the vision of the 
heroic years but lately past, and once more rise above all 
meaner things to a plane of manly goodwill and friendly 
competition ? 

Evasion of Licensing 

The problem of the licensing of engineers is beset with 
difficulties, because the passage of legislation may result 
in evasion, on the one hand, or it may inflict hardship, 
on the other. In the State of New York there is a law 
to provide for the licensing of professional engineers, 
but unfortunately it permits corporations and unre- 
stricted partnerships to practise, irrespective of the con- 
ditions of this law. They are exempt. This particular 
State legislation was enacted in the face of strong opposi- 
tion from the American Society of Civil Engineers, among 
others. The American Association of Engineers, founded 
to promote the economic and social welfare of the mem- 
bers of the profession, at its recent convention in Buffalo, 
adopted a resolution that indicates opposition to the en- 
actment of laws for the licensing of engineers, which, at 
the same time, permit corporations, unrestricted part- 
nerships, or joint-stock companies to practise in a simi- 
lar capacity and without legal restraint. Such a law is 
discriminating; its enforcement nullifies the purpose of 
licensing by permitting groups of men who are not en- 
gineers, to do, indirectly it may be, those things that the 

individual who is not an engineer is probihited from 
doing ; it allows them to act in a professional capacity in 
the same manner as one whose technical training and 
moral qualifications have been subjected to a searching 
examination, and who is permitted to practise only after 
he has paid the prescribed fee. Such legislation sanctions 
a procedure that may become immoral, in permitting an 
aggregate of individuals, in whole or in part composed 
of men who are not engineers, to serve in the dual ca- 
pacity of supposedly disinterested advisers to a client, 
and at the same time as self-interested financiers, sellers, 
or contractors in the execution and supervision of work 
in connection with which such advice is given. Such 
sanction is opposed to the sentiment that an engineer 
shall not be personally interested, directly or indirectly, 
in a company with which he has relations in behalf of 
his employee or client; it sanctions a condition under 
which an engineering corporation may have bankers, 
manufacturers, and contractors on its board, who may so 
dominate the policy as to influence the management, in- 
cluding its engineering employees, in the preparation of 
reports, plans, contracts, and specifications, and in the 
supervision of work, in such a manner as to favor the 
outside interests of such directors and to the injury of 
the public. Thus the professional engineer in the employ 
of an engineering corporation or unrestricted partner- 
ship, which is made up in whole or in part of persons 
who are not engineers, is relegated to a position of 
anonymity, and is relieved of all professional responsi- 
bility to the client; he is placed under the direction of 
those whose primary interests in the work may be in the 
making of a contractor's profit. Conditions are permitted 
under which a group, constituted in whole or in part of 
men who are not engineers, may violate, with impunity, 
the codes of ethics that have been adopted by various 
professional societies for the guidance of their mem- 
bers and for the protection of the public. Corporations 
are free to advertise in a blatant manner and to solicit 
patronage ; professional engineers are restrained from so 
doing either by good taste or from a sense of professional 
etiquette. There have been instances in which engi- 
neering corporations have adopted methods that are in 
direct violation of the codes of professional ethics to 
which some of their officers or members in their indi- 
vidual capacities have subscribed. This, it is maintained, 
is unfair to the independent engineer, and is destructive 
of that respect for the profession which should be of 
public concern. The result is that engineers are forced 
to give up independent practice and are obliged to aban- 
don purely professional work in order to affiliate them- 
selves with contracting organizations, thus denying the 
public the disinterested and effective service of the men 
who, hitherto, have been chiefly responsible for progress 
in the art of engineering. We have given the Associa- 
tion's argument in full detail; the subject warrants this 
action. We suggest that the Mining & Metallurgical 
Society of America, which is now considering the ques- 
tion of licensing in all its aspects, should include in its 
researches a study of this phase of professional work. 

Jul} 16, IB21 



D I 3 pC -U 

yi». A 

Cyanide Regeneration During Precipitation 
The Editor: 

Sir — Regarding the question of cyanide regeneration 
daring one precipitation raised by Mr. Del Mar. in your 
issue of June 11, 1 think that both in his article and in 
other writings on the same subject the point at issue is 
obscured by a failure to distinguish between free and 
total cyanide. The author of the article does not ap- 
parently recognize such a distinction, and yet it is an 
important one. By "free cyanide" is meant, of course, 
the simple uncombined cyanide salt in solution. The 
term "total cyanide" is more conventional, since such 
compounds as ferrocyanides and sulphocyanates arc ex- 
cluded : indeed as ordinarily used it does not even cover 
the gold, silver, and copper double cyanides, since the 
first two arc not titrated in terms of cyanide by the 
ordinary silver nitrate method, and the copper only in 
part or not at all ; so that for practical purposes the term 
"total cyanide" may be taken to mean the free or un- 
combined alkaline cyanide plus the double zinc cyanide. 
Na,ZnCy,. Now there is a distinction to be observed 
between these two compounds both (1) as to their de- 
termination in the solution and (2) as to their relative 
functions in the dissolving of the precious metals. 

(1) The nearest approach to a correct determination 
of free cyanide by the silver-nitrate method is made by 
titrating to the first faint bluish-white cloudiness pro- 
duced in an originally brilliantly clear solution, and 
needs to be observed carefully with the right incidence of 
light and against a dark background. The determina- 
tion for total cyanide (understood as already explained) 
is made by adding potassium iodide indicator and titrat- 
ing to the yellow opalescence characteristic of silver 
iodide. For the accurate determination of this com- 
pound it is usual to add caustic soda as well as KI to the 
solution to be tested, but if the free alkalinity (whether 
it be the result of lime or caustic soda) already present 
in the solution amounts to about 0.1%, in terms of NaOH, 
the reading obtained will be the same as if caustic soda 
be added ; so that the common practice of adding KI 
indicator and titrating to the yellow end-point will give 
a reading that often represents the "total" cyanide or 
the free plus all the double zinc cyanide, and will nearly 
always give a reading in excess of that demanded by the 
free cyanide alone. The above distinction in titrating 
methods has to be modified somewhat in cases where a 
considerable amount of copper is present in the solutions, 
but for the purpose of the present discussion it may be 
allowed to stand. 

(2) It may be asked, "Why trouble about any distinc- 
tion in the titrations when the double zinc cyanide is as 
effective a dissolving agent as the single alkali-metal 
cyanide?" But is it? I maintain it is not. In the case 
of silver I made a long series of experiments some years 
ago on precipitated silver sulphide dried and pulverized, 
and found that a solution of Na 2 ZnCy 4 had almost no 
dissolving action on it, such small action as there was 
being accounted for by the slight degree of dissociation 
of the double salt in solution, since a free cyanide titra- 
tion made as already described indicated the presence of 
a small quantity of uncombined cyanide. 

On gold, the action of the double zinc cyanide may be 
considered open to question. Julian and Smart state that 
their experiments showed that gold was soluble in 
K.ZnCy.,, the ratio of efficiency being 96 as against 109 
for simple KCy solution. This observation, however, is 
somewhat marred by the admission that the zinc solu- 
tion was "probably" saturated with zinc, implying that 
the actual constitution of the solution was not deter- 
mined. The same authors quote W. R. Feldtmann in 
support of the solvent action of the double zinc com- 
pound, but the quotation deals only with the effect on 
its dissolving power produced by addition of alkali, 
which is not the point at present under discussion and 
belongs to an entirely different category, since we are 
now dealing with the actual dissolving power of the 
double salt in its combined state and not with its poten- 
tial dissolving power after having been partly or com- 
pletely dissociated by addition of alkali or by other ex- 
pedients. J. A. Sharwood (American Chemical Society, 
Vol. 25, p. 580) states that the solvent action on gold of 
solutions of potassium zinc cyanide is less than that of a 
solution of simple potassium cyanide containing the same 
amount, or one-half the amount, of cyanogen in equal 
volumes, and that it is increased by addition of caustic 
alkali. Gerard W. Williams (Journal Chem., Met. & 
Min. Soc. of S. A., Feb. 1904, p. 298) in summarizing 
the results of a long and careful investigation into the 
subject says that "although the 'free' cyanide increases 
proportionately with the alkali present, it is not prac- 
tical to have all the cyanide in the double zinc cyanide 
in the 'free' state, owing to the secondary effects of an 
excess of alkali on the solutions. Hence the bulk of the 
ICZnCy, present is inert and useless for the purpose of 
solution of gold". 

To return now to the article of Mr. Del Mar, it is easy 
in the light of what I have already said to conjecture 
what has given rise to the observation of an apparent 



July 16, 1921 

regeneration of cyanide during the act of zinc precipi- 

1. He states that KI indicator was used in the titra- 
tion, and it may be assumed, therefore, that addition of 
silver nitrate was carried to the usual yellow opalesence. 
Under these conditions the reading obtained would in- 
dicate both the true free cyanide and a part or all of the 
double zinc cyanide also. 

2. The ore dealt with was chiefly a silver ore and 
therefore the press-head solution would contain some 
double silver cyanide, which would not be recorded as 
cyanide in the titration. 

3. In the press-tail solution the silver has been re- 
placed by zinc and its associated cyanide is now re- 
corded as such when titrated with KI indicator to the 
yellow end-point. Hence the reading obtained on the 
press tail is higher than that on the press head. 

Had the titration in both cases been made to the first 
faint white cloudiness and not to the yellow iodide opal- 
escence it would have been found that a considerable 
drop in the free cyanide content of the solution had 
occurred during its passage through the zinc-precipita- 
tion process. This I have found to be invariably the 
case, and it is quite in accordance with the accepted 
theories of the reactions that take place during precipi- 
tation. That this fall in free cyanide during precipita- 
tion does not necessarily imply the loss of the whole of 
cyanide apparently consumed I have always maintained, 
since a part of the inert double zinc salt is usually dis- 
sociated and rendered available (in other words, regen- 
erated) when the solution comes in contact with fresh 
lime, as happens when it is pumped back to the mill or 
to a new charge of ore. Sulphides in the ore may also 
produce a further regeneration from the combined cya- 
nide by formation of alkaline sulphides which would 
precipitate some of the combined zinc as sulphide with 
formation of simple alkaline cyanide. 

It is thus evident that while some of the free cyanide 
consumed in dissolving the silver in an ore may later on 
be rendered available for further use through the in- 
direct action of zinc precipitation, yet such regeneration 
does not take place in the act of precipitation but is a 
secondary result produced in the previously precipi- 
tated solution by contact with alkalies or other sub- 

Regarding the three propositions that Mr. Del Mar 
offers for consideration at the end of his article, there 
is no doubt that the addition of lime (or caustic soda) 
to a zinc-press tail solution will regenerate free cyanide 
from the double zinc salt, and the increase may be 
observed by titrating to the true free cyanide end-point. 
As to the form assumed by the zinc as a result of the 
reaction, if the alkali added be caustic soda the zinc 
would no doubt remain in the solution as sodium zincate. 
If the alkali be lime there may be a formation of an in- 
soluble zinc compound, either calcium zincate or, as 
Walter Virgoe supposes (Journal of Chem.. Met. & Min. 
Soe. of S. A., August 1903). in presence of carbonic 
acid, a double carbonate of zinc and calcium. 

K,ZnCy 4 + 2Ca(OH! 2 + 2C0 2 = ZnCa(CO s ) 2 + 
2KCy + CaCy, + 2H 2 

The expedient of adding sodium carbonate to the bar- 
ren zinc solution I have never tried, but its first effect 
would, of course, be to precipitate the lime as carbonate 
with formation of caustic soda 

Ca(OH) = + Na.CO a = CaC0 3 + 2NaOH 

The substitution of caustic soda for calcium hydroxide 
would no doubt prevent any precipitation of zine, which 
would then remain in solution as sodium zincate. 

San Francisco, June 25. E. M. Hamilton. 

Assessment Work 

The Editor: 

Sir — I appreciate the position that you take on the 
question of assessment exemption. I feel that civilians 
should not be exempted but soldiers who were disabled 
in the service of their country and because of their dis- 
ability should not be penalized by the Government fail- 
ing to exempt them from assessment duty. The Com- 
mittee of Mines and Mining, of the U. S. Senate, is con- 
sidering it most seriously. It seems only fair to our dis- 
abled soldiers to exempt them from assessment duty as 
their condition physically cannot permit them to do 
their work, and their financial sacrifices during the War 
were such that they have no surplus now for the work. 
A paper like yours could help it out. 

Tucson, Arizona, June 19. Waldo Lee Clark. 

[We sympathize with this plea, naturally, and hope 
that some way may be found of putting it into effect at 
Washington. — Editor.] 


The Editor: 

Sir — I have been reading your articles on prospecting 
and your invitation for a discussion on its problems. It 
is good and timely that this should be done, for in our 
little city the buying on margin has brought disaster to 
many an individual; one I know has lost over $100,000 
in the recent drop of standard stocks ; others have lost 
homes, automobiles, and are down and out. They have 
not a dollar to finance mines at their very door. We have 
been working on mines for 15 years, two men working 
steadily the year around, and we cannot find even one 
who will go out and give them the look-over. What the 
average prospector needs most is ore-testing facilities, 
by the State. I wrote to the head of our mining school, 
and he curtly informed me tliey could not tell what our 
ore contained but would look it over if we would send 
him some of it ; our copper ore is complex like the Ross- 
land ore; our gold-iron property needs a mill of some 
kind to be selected by an engineer. I think the porphyry 
will show good mill-values in depth. The silver vein is 
great ; we shipped a test lot of ore to the Washoe smelter 
(now shut-down) last year and they charged $7.50 for 
smelting, $5 for sampling, and this, with the haulage 
charge, makes it unprofitable at 38 oz. per ton. What the 

July If.. 1921 



prospector Deeds must is gome means to gel in touch with 
capital that can help to patent and equip the property 

with air-drills, etc., as well as a mill to red the 0BB 

at its Bource. We bought .">n lb. of « J* ► ' . 'powder' and it 

-is, ;>ii at the store in town. The factor; is at Ram- 
sey, only eight miles from lure. No wonder the Du 
Pontsoan pay loiin 1 ; dividends. Big business is strictly 
against the •prospector at every turn; while immense 
arias lie unprospected that are richer than aything yet 
developed. You "ill tiiul a small circular enclosed, for 
all our treasury stock. 600.000 shares, is unsold and it is 
impossible to sell any stoek in a concern that has the ore. 
Please excuse this long statement, but it is the story of 
the modern prospector. 

A. G. Dingle. 
.Anaconda, Montana. June 14. 

[Our correspondent ought to send a sample, not a 
specimen, of his ore to the Montana School of Mines; we 
believe that he would ohtain the information he appears 
most to need. — Editor.! 

Revision of the Mining Law 

The Editor: 

Sir — A revision of the existing mining law is most 
vitally needed and the effort now being made seems to 
have all of the indications of being honestly and pains- 
takingly undertaken, as is so well pointed out in your 
issue of June 18. Needless to say there has been a de- 
plorable lack of uniformity in the laws of the various 
States and, even worse, there has been no general code 
that adequately covers the requirements in any new 
locality where local conditions compel a variance from 
the strict following of the statutes. 

Alaska is a pitiful example of this. So much o*"' the 
great wealth of the North was squandered in litigation 
that found its basis, primarily, in the unsuitability of the 
laws of the 'States' to the conditions there. In the 
formation of a new general code it would seem to me that 
no effort should be spared to provide for the protection 
of the prospectors and first locators in all new districts — 
especially districts outside of States already having more 
or less complete statutes covering their own peculiar 

Equally important with the provision for protecting 
locators and mine operators in new territory, and corre- 
lated to it closely, is the matter of laying out claims along 
lines conforming to subdivisions of the General Land 

While such a law would have the valuable effect of 
appreciably lessening litigation through the elimination 
of fractional, blanket, and overlapping locations, it 
would put upon the prospector and locator an unjust 
burden in two ways. .First, one always wishes to run his 
claim along the line of strike of the lode or the channel 
of a stream. It almost invariably happens that the 
course of a creek is the line which should be followed in 
making a placer location to permit the miner to realize 
his richest returns. Second, it is often most difficult to 

Follow survey line's, and Failure t'i do so under 1 1n* newly 
proposed law would often mean loss of valuable ground 
ami sometimes of develop nt work Tin- outcome might 

lie litigation not unlike what now often results from lack 
of regular boundary. 

It is better to have fractions and over-lappings than 
fur a prospector or operating company to lose the reward 
of discovery and pioneering of a district ! 

L. C. Den xv. 
Fresno, California, June 28. 

The Editor: 

Sir — I have just seen the draft of the new revision of 
the mining law in your issue of June 18. Some parts are 
all right, but others not so. The conditions with regard 
to position of end and side lines, the date for the start of 
the calendar year, and, in cases where it is convenient, 
the location in legalized sections of the land survey, are 
all right. But I do make a big protest against rigid en- 
forcement, as it is almost impossible for a prospector to 
comply unless he has a surveyor, with transit and a 
couple of rod-men, at his heels most of the time. Much of 
the public domain has not been surveyed, particularly in 
the mountains ; maybe a line was run 40 years ago, cor- 
rectly or by guess. I have been running lines for 40 years 
with a watch, a compass, or a Brunton, and it is difficult 
to find out where you arc. Lots of comers that were put 
up have been taken away, buried, or destroyed by the big 
cow-men. The Government knows about it, but does 
nothing, as someone drawing Government pay is behind 
them. Tt is effectual in keeping the little homesteader 
out, as it would cost him two hundred dollars to find out 
if the land is owned or not. They also make it difficult 
for the prospector. A month ago I was prospecting 
where it would have cost me $250 to find out what county 
I was in. I have been where we could not tell which 
State we were in without incurring big expense. 

In a year's time, after the Bill becomes law, we must 
get our claims surveyed and pay the recording fee; this 
would not he constitutional. We are satisfied with our 
present title, without incurring this extra expense. The 
land survey for claims and the making of a new title for 
claims, would be cause for much future legislation. This 
would give the engineers and surveyors permanent jobs, 
and the lawyers could cut in with their litigation. I am 
in favor of a law that would benefit them in any way, 
but not at our expense. 

The mining engineer has very nearly killed prospect- 
ing since we lost the small promoter; and it looks as if 
he wanted to ball us up on the mining claims we are now 
holding. I wrote an article about the revision of the min- 
ing law in the 'Press' of June 13, 1914. There was much 
discussion ; but what is the use ? Any law that was made 
to help the prospector or small-mine owner would be 
jumped upon by the mining engineer. Why doesn't the 
Committee get a few well-known prospectors to tell them 
about their part of the game ? The fundamental part of 
mining is the prospector's first location of a mining claim. 




July 16, 1921 

When the Utah legislature changed their laws in re- 
gard to mining 25 years ago they got two well-known 
prospectors to explain their views. The ideas were put 
into effect, and there was no kick from anyone, although 
the new laws were harder on the prospector than were the 
former ones. 

Frank P. Davis. 

Fail-view, New Mexico. June 23. 

Taxation and the Mineral Industry 

The Editor: 

Sir — Since the first year of the War, we have had to 
pay four or five times as much taxation, annually, to the 
Federation as in former years. Like a new broom, the 
Republican Congress in session is now engaging in sweep- 
ing away the cobwebs of Democratic taxation in favor, 
perhaps, of a new set of cobwebs of its own. So I beg 
leave to elucidate a few of the general principles of 
taxation, disentangled, as far as may be, from the parti- 
san webs that bind most of our periodicals, and many of 
our professional economists, when discussing this delicate 

Practically, taxes can be obtained from five sources: 

A. The consumer of merchandise. 

B. The producer of merchandise. 

C. The laborer. 

D. Capital (cash, buildings, machinery, and other 
labor products). 

E. Legal privileges and monopolies (land values, and 
patents or copyrights). 

As regards their incidence, taxes may be classified as 
either 'direct' or 'indirect'. The first are levied directly 
on persons or property, the second on merchandise in 
transit from the producer to the consumer. To assure a 
system of taxation which shall be difficult to evade and 
which cannot be shifted from the first payer to others, in 
a disguised form, two Golden Rules of Taxation have 
been enunciated: 

I. Tax only objects which cannot be hidden or 
spirited away. 

II. Tax only objects which cannot be reproduced, for 
only then will the tax rest on the original tax-payer. 
Every tax on objects capable of being reproduced can be 
shifted, in the form of higher prices, to the consumer. 
Moreover, such taxes tend to discourage production. 

In the following table I have arranged 15 tax classes 
with reference to their incidence, origin, and conformity 
with the Golden Rules: 

No. Name o£ tax Incidence Origins Rule I Rule H 

I Export Indirect B and A No No 

II Import " A and B . " " 

III Merchandise-sales . . . . " A " 

IV Land-sales " E Yes Tea 

V Real-estate-sales " EandD " " 

VI Poll Direct C. D. and E No No 

Vn License " A and B Yes " 

Vni Land-value " E " Yes 

IX Unearned-increment ..." E " " 

X Real-estate " E and D " Partly 

XI Personal-property .... " D and E No No 

Xn General-property " DandE Partly Partly 

XHI Income " CD, and E No " 

XIV Excess-profit " E and C " " 

XV Inheritance " D and E Yes Yes 

I. The Export Tax falls on producers, except in the 
special ease where the exporting country sets the price 
for the commodity in the world market — as in the case 
of German potash or Mexican henequen — when the tax 
might be shifted to the consumer. The inhibition against 
an export tax; in our Constitution is a needless handicap 
for the Government, in its control of exportation ; for it 
leaves no middle ground between free trade and a com- 
plete embargo. By an export tax, a government can 
favor its domestic consumers at the expense of its own 
producers and to the detriment of the foreign consumer 
of the commodity. Thus an export tax on pig-copper 
would favor both our brass founders and consumers, and 
advantage the former in their competition with foreign 
founders, while our copper miners paid the piper. 

II. The Import Tax has the opposite effect to the 
Export Tax, because it generally falls on the consumer. 
Only in an exceptional case (where the domestic market, 
can be fully supplied by our producers at the world 
price of the commodity) would the foreign producer be 
obliged to pay the tax before he could enter our markets. 
These statements seem almost self-evident, and yet there 
is no economic subject that has been more obfuscated, in 
an effort to confuse the popular mind, than that of the 
tariff. Originally devised as a source of revenue at the 
expense of consumers of foreign merchandise, the Import 
Tax has had its greatest modern development as a means 
of 'protecting' domestic producers by raising the price 
of commodities in the home market. 

Free competition, improved transportation, and new 
inventions tend to lower the cost of living, and are 
praised as beneficent, but often a tariff, designed for the 
special object of increasing prices, will be lauded to the 
skies. The dumping of foreign goods on our shores at 
trifling prices may seem a calamity for some producer, 
but I fail to understand why any consumer should object 
to getting the most for his money. As a temporary 
premium to aid the establishment of new industries, a 
protective tariff may be defensible ; but even for this pur- 
pose it is far costlier than a direct bonus paid to the new 
producer, in proportion to his output, as was long ago 
discovered by progressive British colonies such as 

But what of a system of permanent protection? At its 
best, it means the supporting of certain unprofitable 
industries at the expense of the rest, and is as sound 
commercially as would be the indefinite continuance of a 
hopelessly unprofitable mine by a company through sub- 
sidies paid from its dividend fund. At its worst, it 
means the plunder of domestic consumers by means of a 
monopoly formed by producers, who set their prices at 
the world price plus the tariff, irrespective of cost of 
production. This has been done in many instances, and 
in connection with the sale of borax, aluminum, iron, 
lead, soda, lime, and cement. 1 

III. The Merchandise-Sales Tax, when assessed na- 
tionally, must always fall on the consumer and will, 
therefore, like all indirect taxation, not only increase 

I'Protection and Free Trade', by Henry George, Chap. XI. 

.Inly 16, 1921 



prices by the amount of the tax bnl also by an additional 
sum to represent the interest and profit on the capital 
advanced by the merchant t<> pay the tax. Hailed as a 
new discovery by our contemporary statesmen, this tax 
lias long been a favorite in Spanish countries. In Mexico 
it exists as a stamp tax on all sales and at the rate of 
\%. An extreme form of this tax (rate 10%), applied 
in Holland by the notorious Duke of Alva in the 16th 
century, was one of the chief causes of the revolt of that 
plucky little country against Spain.'-' The United States 
excise levy on liquor and tobacco is a form of this tax.'' 

IV. The Land-Sales Tax will fall on the landowner, 
because land cannot be indefinitely reproduced, like mer- 
chandise, and its price is therefore not set by cost of pro- 
duction but represents merely the capitalization of net 
yield after the essential costs of operation — wages and 
interest — have been met. 3 

V. The Real-Estate or Improved-Land Sales Tax com- 
prises two levies, one on land and the other on its im- 
provements. The first does not affect prices, as it falls 
on the legal privilege of land-owning; but the second 
falls on the economic capital represented by property 
such as buildings, and will therefore increase house rents. 

VI. The Poll Tax is an annual sum collected from 
each citizen as such, irrespective of his wealth, and will 
fall on labor, capital, or land accordingly as the payer 
gains his income from one or more of these sources. 
This tax often represents a commutation in money of the 
medieval duty of every citizen to contribute, annually, 
one or more days of unpaid labor on the public roads. 
It tends to increase wages and, consequently, the price of 

VII. The License Tax was the favorite local method 
of levying on liquor saloons until the inauguration of 
national prohibition. For a decade it has been used by 
the Nation in the form of a tax on corporations, assessed 
according to their capital, for a permit to do business. 
This tax will always fall on the consumer; except when 
its payer is exposed to free competition from other dis- 
tricts or countries, where the tax is not levied, in which 
case it may be found impracticable to shift it from the 
producer's shoulders. 

VIII. The Land- Value Tax is the most direct form of 
levying on legal monopoly, as the ownership of land is 
by far the most important form of it. As far as I know, 
the earnings of patents and copyrights have never been 
specifically attacked by taxation, though they have un- 
doubtedly been made to contribute through such levies 
as the Income, the Excess-Profit, and the Inheritance 
taxes. The Land- Value Tax agrees perfectly with the 
two Golden Rules and cannot raise the cost of living, be- 
cause land rent has no effect on the price of commodities. 
Whether this tax be large or small is a personal matter 
between the landowner and the government ; what the 

2 'Rise of the Dutch Republic', by John Motley. 

s'Mr. Ingalls and Walkerian Economies', in 'M. & S. P.', 
Nov. 1, 1919, p. 627; also 'Federal Taxation of Mines', dis- 
cussion by myself, Trans. Inst. Min. & Met. Eng., March 
1920, Bull. 159. 

latter may train the former will lose, as this tax cannot 
be shifted elsewhere.* 

IX. The Unearned-Increment Tax is levied on the in. 
crease in selling value of land, computed between two 
transfers or, in default of such, at stated intervals. It 
has been adopted widely in Germany and England to 
absorb for society a portion of the future increase in land 
values, while leaving to the landowner that land value 
accumulated in the past which could only be absorbed 
by the Land-Value Tax itself. It was also used in Kiao- 
Chau, China, during German rule, as a means of avoiding 
undervaluation in the assessment of the Land-Value Tax. 
I consider this tax an awkward device, if used for the 
purpose of correct valuation, and one tending to compli- 
cate a correct settlement, later on, of the land question. 

X. The Real-Estate Tax is a combination of the l'n- 
earned-Increment Tax with one on buildings and other 
landed betterments. As the latter levy affects capital, it 
tends to raise the rate of interest and house rent, and to 
discourage construction. 

XI. — The Personal-Property Tax is designed as a levy 
on chattels of every kind from stocks and bonds to ear- 
rings and pug dogs. As most of these objects have a cus- 
tom of disappearing, shortly before the visit of the as- 
sessors, this tax has never been much of a success as a 
revenue-getter. This tax rests on capital when applied 
to bank deposits or household goods, and on legal privi- 
lege when applied to shares in corporations owning land 
or patent rights. 

XII. The General-Property Tax is a combination of 
taxes No. X and XI and has the same incidence and gen- 
eral effect. This still remains our favorite tax for local 
purposes ; but, owing to the ease of evasion of No. XI, it 
operates in practice chiefly as a Real-Estate Tax. 

XIII. The Income Tax in its simplest form may be a 
levy on labor, capital, or legal privilege, separately or in 
combination. In practice it is customary to exempt the 
incomes of manual laborers from the tax, so that any ten- 
dency it might have to lower the common standard of 
living may be avoided. Owing to the fact that the pro- 
portion of the national income produced by corporations 
is constantly increasing, the collection of this tax at its 
source renders its evasion at the present time much more 
difficult than it was half a century ago, when production 
was largely by individual entrepreneurs. Nevertheless, 
recent figures indicate that a large sum still evades the 
Federal assessor, and that many have enjoyed the pre- 
mium for perjury that this species of taxation offers. 

The surtax feature of the Federal Income Tax is de- 
signed to collect an extra sum from the larger incomes, 
on the theory that they proceed from investments rather 
than from the earnings of mental labor. But as no dis- 
tinction is made between incomes that are obtained from 
the interest on true capital and those due to the rent 
proceeding from land ownership, the surtax is evidently 
a crude way of attaining economic justice. Moreover, 
this tax does not impede the speculation and monopoly 

4'Natural Taxation', by T. G. Shearman, Chap. VI. 



July 16, 1921 

of natural resources, as no levy is made until cash profit 
is actually received. 

Tke decision of the Supreme Court in 1920, which ex- 
empted stock dividends from the Income Tax, enables 
corporations to evade this tax in the same way as the 
land speculators. If this tax were to be permanent the 
result, in the long run, might not be far different for the 
evaders; but the latter are hoping — and lobbying — to 
abolish the whole idea long before they get ready to 'cash 
in' on their profits. 

The existence of huge issues of public bonds which are 
exempt from the Income Tax forms another serious ob- 
stacle to proper functioning. Although the exemption 
may help to sustain the market price of such bonds, it is 
evidently a case of "paying too dearly for the whistle". 
Instead of abolishing the Income Tax, as is the proposal 
of the monopolists' lobby, would it not be wiser to change 
the law so as to withdraw all exemptions not specified in 
the bonds themselves ? And in the last case, these special 
issues should be paid off, or refunded as soon as possible 
on a non-exempt basis. 

XIV. The Excess-Profit Tax is a modification of the 
Income Tax designed in England during the Great War 
with the object of making the war-profiteer 'diwy up' 
with the Government. As levied by our Federal govern- 
ment, 5 it now takes 20% of the net income, beyond the 
excess-profits' "credit" and up to 20% on the invested 
capital, and 40% on any income above this 20%, of the 
capital. As the "credit" exempted from the profits be- 
fore this tax is levied amounts to a minimum of 10% on 
the invested capital, it evidently includes all normal 
profits. This tax may therefore be considered as affect- 
ing only extraordinary profits, or such as generally pro- 
ceed from the ownership of legal privileges or the prac- 
tice of monopoly. In unusual cases, such profits might be 
due to special ability in the management. Of course in 
war times a dazzling rate of profit for efficient plants 
often was due to the fact that the Government pursued 
the policy of paying excessive prices for commodities in 
order to encourage the operation of inefficient plants. 

In spite of the present hue and cry against the Excess- 
Profits Tax, as tending to maintain the high cost of living, 
I can see nothing in the theory of taxation to warrant 
such a conclusion. As it is levied on the residual profit, 
after all the normal charges for labor and capital have 
been paid, it is analogous to a tax on land rent, which 
cannot, normally, affect the price of commodities. The 
other accusation that the operation of this tax tends to 
restrict the amount of private capital available for new 
enterprises is certainly true, but so would any other tax. 
Our government cannot withdraw four billions of cash 
annually from the savings of its citizens, and spend it on 
war debts or preparations, and expect the money market 
to remain unaffected by the operation. 

XV. The Inheritance, or Estate, Tax, as newly levied 
by the Federation 6 in addition to the same taxation long 
established in many States, varies in its rate— from 2% 

^'Federal Revenue Act of Feb. 24, 1919." 

for estates between $50,000 and $150,000, up to 25%. on 
any surplus above $10,000,000. This tax tends to fall on 
the privileges of land ownership or patent rights in its 
upper reaches, as few great fortunes arise from other 
sources." With its $50,000 exemption for all resident 
testators, it does not affect a reasonable provision for 
natural heirs ; and with its exemption of all bequests for 
public purposes it allows a testator to decide how his 
fortune shall be spent for the common good. It is an 
ideal tax for the purpose of extinguishing war debts; 
its chief fault lies in the lowness of its rates. 7 

Before 1912 the Budget was mainly derived from the 
Import and Excise taxes, both of which raised directly 
the cost of living. It is true that anyone could legally 
evade the latter tax by affiliating himself with the W. C. 
T. U., but few miners knew enough of either taxation or 
personal hygiene to achieve this happy result. Later, 
with the inauguration of the Federal Income Tax, part 
of the budget began to be derived from the incomes of the 
rich instead of from the wages of the poor, but it was not 
until the inauguration of war taxation in 1917 that the 
subject became of vital importance. 

The extra three billions of revenue that we are now 
levying annually above the pre-war budget has been 
mainly derived from the Income, the Excess-profit, and 
the Inheritance taxes. The Import Tax has produced 
little, owing to the paralysis of European workshops, and 
the Excise Tax has been hard hit by the inauguration of 
national prohibition. Both of the latter taxes tend to 
raise the cost of living for the miner and consequently the 
cost of production for the operator, but the first three 
taxes do not affect prices, except in their influence on 
interest by lessening the quantity of private capital avail- 
able for new enterprises ; but this is a result produced by 
all taxation of savings, and there is no alternative but the 
taxation of wages in such a way as to reduce the general 
standard of living, thus causing disastrous social harm. 

If the direct taxes, now yielding the main Federal in- 
come, are replaced by indirect ones like the tax on mer- 
chandise sales, it means more than the shifting of the 
burden of government from the shoulders of the coupon- 
clipping classes to the consuming masses, though that is 
bad enough. All taxes on consumption increase prices, 
not only by their face value but by an additional amount, 
sufficient to cover the interest and dealer's profit on the 
amount advanced. This addition is often greater than 
the tax itself and represents pure economic friction. 

The most rational suggestion for improving Federal 
taxation seems to be the Ralston-Nolan bill, which pro- 
poses to tax the privilege of land ownership. By this 
plan, undeveloped lands, now almost free of the tax 
burden, would begin to contribute their quota, and land- 
speculation would be discouraged. 

Robert E. Brinsmade. 

Ixmiquilpan, Hidalgo, Mexico, June 10. 

"'History of American Great Fortunes', by Gustavus 

''Gold, Prices, and War Debts', 'M. & S. P.', August 16, 
1919, p. 224. 

July 16, 1921 



Flotation Practice at Mount Lyell 

By L. V. Waterhouse 

•Introduction. The flotation plant at Mount Lyell 
was erected, primarily, for the treatment of copper ore 
from the Lyell Comstock mine. The erection of a plant 
was delayed by the general dislocation of business at 
the outbreak of the War, but finally it became possible 
to secure all the necessary machinery in Australia and 
to import motors. Operations commenced on February 
17, 1916. with all the success anticipated. 

The sulphides in the Lyell Comstock ore consist of 
chalcopyrite and pyrite, finely disseminated through a 
gray schistose gangue, usually decomposed. Bands of 
hard quartzite carrying sulphides also traverse the ore- 

After operations were well established, trial lots of 
North Lyell silieious ore were put through the plant with 
such success that the mining department made arrange- 
ments to select underground in the stopes a lower-grade 
ore than the usual 6% smelting ore, to supplement the 
Lyell Comstock milling material, and finally it became 
possible to start a second shift. The North Lyell ore 
carries bomite, chalcopyrite, and pyrite in a silieious 
gangue, consisting mainly of a hard quartzite and some 

The following are typical analyses of the respective 

Lyell North 

Comstock Mt. Lyell 

Copper, % : 2.6 3.5 

Silver, oz 0.23 0.7 

Gold, oz 0.02 0.01 

Silica. % 46.0 66.0 

Iron. % 11.5 8.0 

Barite, % 1.4 2.0 

Alumina. % 15.5 7.7 

For the year ended September 30, 1919, concentration 
results were as follows : 

Tons Copper. 9S Silver, oz. Gold. oz. 

Lyell Comstock 13.695 2.18 0.2 0.028 

North Mount Lyell 14.873 4.74 0.88 0.008 

Total ore 30.468 3.43 0.54 0.018 

Concentrates 8,622 10.95 1.47 0.047 

Recovery 90.41 77.79 72.41 

Coarse-Crushing. Ore is received from the Lyell 
Comstock mine in self-discharging hoppered trucks of 
10 tons capacity (159 cu. ft.). Six trucks make up an 
ore-rake, which is hauled by 10-ton Krauss locomotives 
of 60 hp., the tractive force being 6490 lb. This ore is 
received on three days per week at the rate of 120 tons 
per day. The ore from the North Mount Lyell mine is 
drawn in If -ton trucks from bins at the top of the main 
Mount Lyell haulage. All ore is weighed on the main 
smelter Pooley 75-ton weigh-bridge. On account of 
limited bin accommodation, the ores are inadequately 
mixed, and consequently treatment has to be constantly 
varied as required by the different classes of ore. 

♦From the Proceedings of the Australasian Institute of 
Mining & Metallurgy, No. 33. 

The crude-ore bin is lined with discarded mangai 
steel crusher-jaw faces, and the only attention required' 
is the occasional renewal of steel lining-plates on the" 
face of the bin. 

An old Krupp crusher of the Blake type was utilized, 
with east-iron body in a single piece. The back toggle-' 
was made a shearing toggle with twelve 1-in. rivets. 
Imported Sheffield manganese-steel jaw-faces have an 
average life of 6100 tons of ore crushed, against 4500 
tons for Australian manganese-steel. The latter have 
shown large variations in quality, though the manganese 
contents are similar, probably indicating irregularities 
in the heat-treatment. The crusher is driven at 240 
r.p.m. by a 9-in. camel-hair belt, and set to crush to 2 in. 
A fine water-spray is provided immediately above the 
jaw opening, to allay dust. 

At the outset, considerable difficulty was experienced 
in wet weather in extracting Lyell Comstock ore from 
the crude-ore bin on account of its 'puggy' nature, its 
moisture at times reaching 10%. This was overcome by 
making an enlarged door opening, 4 ft. 3 in. long by 
1 ft. 9 in. high, with a radial door 3 ft. 10 in, long, and 
sluicing the ore in the bin with just sufficient water to 
form a slurry of the fine. The coarse ore discharges 
readily from the end of the conveyor into No. 2 fine-ore 
bin, while the slurry adheres to the conveyor belt, passes 
around the delivery dram, and is scraped off into a 
launder that delivers to the 'raff' elevator. It is thus 
immediately eliminated and treated. The adoption of 
this 'wet system' has rendered it possible to handle this 
class of ore without the least difficulty or loss of tonnage, 
and is an important factor under local conditions. 

Fine-Crushing. Ore is delivered to the screens from 
the fine-ore bins, which are fitted with ratchet-doors, by 
means of corrugated roller-feeders, and the undersize is 
thereby eliminated before roll-crushing. 

The screens are of the Broken Hill North type. Per- 
forated steel plates, with holes either 7/64-in. diam. by 
0.194-in. centres by 16 gauge, or ^-in. diam. by 0.22-in. 
centres by 14 gauge, are used. They have an average 
life of 2150 tons of crude ore screened. Soluble copper 
from the Lyell Comstock open-cut at times materially 
reduces the life of the screen-plates. The connecting- 
rods are built up of three plies of 4-in. by 4-in. ash, with 
^-in. plate cover. The screen is set at a 5" slope, and 
half the screen is below water-level. The power required 
is about 2 hp. each. Holes are bored in the screen-boxes, 
so that surplus water overflows into the iron-lined chutes, 
leading to the rolls. The undersize passes out of the 
screen-box through a lj-in. diam. wooden plug, and the 
discharge averages 25% solid. 

The oversize passes through the rolls, then is elevated 


July 16. 1921 

by the 'raff' elevator back to the screens. The flanged 
roll is belt-driven by 11-in. eamel-hair belting, and the 
plain roll is gear-driven through twin wheels, the speed 
being 24 r.p.m. Chrome-steel roll-shells have a life of 
9000 tons of ore crashed, against 5100 tons for carbon- 
steel shells. 

The screen undersize is elevated in the 'fines' elevator 
and passes through the sampler to a diaphragm-cone 
classifier and dewaterer with an automatic regulator, as 
in Fig. 1. 

The sliding weight requires adjustment for the two 
ores, greater leverage being necessary for that of North 
Mount Lyell. An arrow attachment in a prominent posi- 
tion serves to indicate the position of the cast-iron plug, 

with locally-made phosphor-bronze pinions, run in an 
oil bath, in which case phosphor-bronze bearings are used 
on the rotor-shaft. The mills are ran in both directions 
of rotation, thereby extending the life of pinions and 
inside liners. 

The mills are 16 ft. long by 5 ft. diam., with a hollow 
trunnion bearing on the feed end, and a forged-steel 
tire 2 ft. 9 T \ in. diam. running on cast-steel rollers on 
the discharge end. The shell is built in three sections, 
bolted together by means of heavy angle-irons. The cast- 
iron liners, which are ribbed, are made locally, and have a 
service of about 25,000 tons. The wear on the end liners, 
which are also ribbed, is more severe, and these are re- 
placed individually as required. 

The mills are equipped with scoop-feeders with a 
radius of 12f in., and through these the daily charge of 
pebbles is fed. Owing to the irregularity in supply and 

Feed Bo* 
21'Lor«.»22 Wim 

3-3'LowN piP£i 
*$PrtCCD 7 ' 



'2 Ldni,. 

I *~ £ Zi'CinM. 

2i OvfftfLQW PlP£ 

Fig. 3 

and is useful in detecting irregularities, which are very 
rare, as the regulation is almost perfect. The cone dis- 
charge averages 26% moisture. The plugs have a life 
of four months and the suspension-rods two months. 
The following are typical tests, on the cone products : 

• Lyell Comstock . • North Mount Lyell . 

Mesh, Feed. Spigot, Overflow, . Peed. Spigot, Overflow. 

I.M.M. % % % % % % 

+ 20 47.7 62.3 . . . 63.6 63.9 

+ 40 14.4 12.6 . . . 12.3 15.0 

+ 60 7.1 5.5 ... 4.2 5.8 

+ 90 6.8 10.2 . . 4.2 4.5 0.36 

+ 120 5.5 1.3 2.5 3.9 2.8 1.1 

+ 150 3.7 6.4 3.8 1.1 0.8 1.2 

— 150 14.8 1.9 93.7 10.7 5.2 97.34 

Tube-Milling. On account of the limited room avail- 
able for the plant, gear-driven tube-mills were adopted. 
These are driven by 75-hp. motors, and have flexible 
couplings on both rotor and counter-shafts. For the pur- 
pose of standardizing motor-speeds generally in the 
plant, 750 r.p.m. motors were used, but this high pinion 
speed cannot be recommended. 'Fabroil' pinions have a 
life of about five months, but better results are obtained 

quality, and also the high cost of flint pebbles, Tasmanian 
quartzite pebbles are now used. These average 1\ to 
4 in., and the consumption amounts to 11 lb. per ton of 

Fig. 2 shows the general arrangement of a tube-mill. 

The following tests exemplify the work of the tube- 
mills : 

Lyell Comstock North Mount Lyell 

Mesh. Feed, Discharge. Feed, Discharge. 

I.M.M. % % % % 

+ 20 62.2 . . . 65.9 

+ 40 12.6 2.1 15.0 2.4 

+ 60 5.5 6.2 5.8 6.9 

+ 90 10.2 15.4 4.5 13.0 

+ 120 1.2 S.7 2.8 8.1 

+ 150 6.4 3.1 0.8 5.1 

— 150 1.9 64.5 5.2 64.5 

The moisture averages 26%, namely, that of the cone- 
spigot product; and the rise of temperature is 18°, from 
56° to 74 °F. 

Dorr Thickeners. Two Dorr thickeners take the over- 
flow from the diaphragm-cone classifier, and are of the 
standard design for 20-ft. diam. tanks. No overload 

July it;. 1921 



Motor by E Co., Schenectady, Type I , Form M., 7ft h.p. , 

760 r.p m., 600 v , 60 cycles, 8 phase 
Motor Pinion SO teeth, I" in. p.c.d., BJ-in. face, phosphor 

Intermediate Spur Wheel 114 teeth, 57 in pcd,(j-Jin face, cast 

Intermediate Pinion 22 teeth, lOffl , 9A-in face, cast iron 
Spur Wheel on Mill 100 teeth, SO-ft, 9J-in. face, cast iron 

Flexible Coupling*. Laced Belt Type, Motor abaft coupling has 
2$ in. \ 4 ply Balata belt Intermediate shaft coupling haa 
4 in, x 4 ply rubber belt. 

Fig. 2. arrangement of tube-mill 

f £oi,t; 

32^1 Fi.« T Ine*. 












\ /'-< R..»m 

r"*^^- i. —-*^ r 


— r 

Vflcvwrt C / 

10" ' 





/ • 

_. ToY*<..-« P-«r 


V«wwwn Rtc.LvtR 


1 1 ] 

^5i*l(iPlflr L I^Gt.'Z2C(MrAlf.lCT IM1OB01. 


I I 

f i r 

Fig. 5. details op sample-filters 



July 16, 1921 

alarm is used, and an examination of the spring at start- 
ing is all that is necessary. The speed is £ r.p.m., and 
the discharge averages 40.0% solid. 

The tanks are of steel construction, with -fe-m. shell 
and ^-in. bottom. Gate-valves on a 4-in. pipe regulate 
the discharge. 

The feed is laundered into a wooden box, 2 ft. square 
by 1 ft. deep, with a central pipe 8 in. diam. that ex- 
tends 12 in. below the surface, covered by a screen to 
collect chips, etc. A diving-ring, 30 in. diam. by 48 in. 
deep, of iVin. plate, concentrically surrounds this pipe 
and prevents any surface eddies. 

Flotation. The tube-mill and thickener discharge 
join in the boot of the feed-elevator, which delivers to a 

phragm-eone discharge before being split between the 
two mills, and eucalyptus oil to each tube-mill through 
i-in. pet-cocks from pipes connected to a supply-tank. 
The consumption of tar is 0.1 lb. and of eucalyptus oil 
0.8 lb. per ton of ore. 

Compressed air is introduced immediately under No. 
1 stirrer in limited quantity, and tends to produce a 
crisper float on the first boxes. 

The float from the last four spitz-boxes is returned as 
a middling to the feed-elevator. 

The dilution of the flotation boxes is maintained at 
about 4J:1. On account of the difficulty in settlement 
of the slimed gangue of the Lyell Comstock ore and its 
tendency to sicken the float and lower the grade of con- 


balance cone, 2 ft. 6 in. diam. by 3 ft. 6 in. deep, at the 
head of the flotation boxes. Pebble fragments that 
escape the grating of the tube-mills are caught on a 
screen at the elevator boot. 

The main flotation unit is of the standard Minerals 
Separation type, and contains 12 agitation and spitz- 
boxes. The agitation boxes are 2 ft. 3 in. square by 3 ft. 
10 in. deep, and have cast-iron liners. The stirrers are 
four-bladed, 19 in. diam., revolving at 320 r.p.m., driven 
by a J twist-drive of four-ply 4-in. Balata belt, and the 
2-in. shafts are equipped with S.K.F. radial and thrust- 
ball races. The line-shaft, which is 4 in. diam., is 
equipped with five S.K.F. ball-races and driven by a 
75-hp. motor With 14-in. camel-hair belting. Two-bladed 
paddles, revolving at 19 r.p.m., are provided for skim- 
ming off the float at the lip of the spitz-boxes. 

The addition of frothing media is made to the tube- 
mill feed, with such additions as may be necessary at the 
flotation boxes, generally only at starting up, until the 
thickener flow is normal and regular conditions are 
obtained. A mixture of one part of eucalyptus oil to 
two parts of coal-tar is fed by a disc-feeder to the dia- 

centrate, the flotation section is arranged in open cir- 
cuit, that is, there is no return tailing-water. 

Sulphuric acid is not found to be necessary in the 
treatment, although indicated in the experimental in- 
vestigation of North Mount Lyell ore. The improve- 
ment in the grade of concentrate by the use of acid is 
offset by the drop in the recovery. 

The flotation solutions are not heated, but conditions 
improve with a rise in temperature. The temperature 
of solution varies from 47° in winter to 74°F. in 
summer. ' 

As the height of the discharge from the flotation boxes 
above the tailing-launder was sufficient to place a single 
cascade-box, a unit, as shown in cross-section in Fig. 3, 
was subsequently installed. This box acts as a tailing- 
scavenger and returns some pyrite as a middling, and at 
the same time is a guide in the operation of the flotation 
boxes, as it indicates changes in dilution and irregulari- 
ties in the float. 

A separate flotation unit, the subject of my Australian 
patent 2353/16, was installed to re-treat the concentrate 
from the M. S. flotation boxes. It consists in forcing 

Jul] it;. 1921 





July 16, 1921 

atomized air into the oiled pulp, in a launder-shaped box, 
by means of high-pressure water through an ejector. 

Water at 80-lb. pressure, through a -^-in. jet in the 
ejector, is used. Excellent results have also been ob- 
tained on crude-ore pulp, as well as in re-treatment of 
concentrates. The quantity of water returning with the 
middling from this unit, in addition to returns from the 
main boxes, filter, and cascade cleaner, produces an ex- 
cessive circulation, and since the introduction of the 
cascade cleaner this re-treatment unit has not been in 
constant operation, although conditions in the main 
boxes were improved by the addition of the emulsified 

The same type of water-pressure ejectors is used to 
pump out the overflow-pits, adjoining the elevator-boots. 

The following test on flotation products was made 
mainly on North Mount Lyell ore : 



+ 40 
+ 60 
+ 90 
+ 120 
+ 150 
— 150 
+ 40 
+ 60 
+ 90 
+ 120 
+ 150 
— 160 

Tailings + 40 

+ 60 
+ 90 
+ 120 
+ 150 
— 150 

Weight, Copper, 




Insol. Recovery, 
% % 



Filtering. Three steel draining-tanks, 30 ft. diam. 
by 8 ft. deep, with the usual filter-bottom, consisting of 
a grating covered with hessian and coco matting, were 
originally provided, also a wet vacuum-pump. Froth- 
rings and overflow launders were attached. After one 
week's drainage the moisture averages 15%. 

Subsequently an Oliver continuous-revolving drum 
filter, 8 ft. diam. by 8 ft. long, having a filter area of 
200 sq. ft., was installed, and has given excellent service. 
The concentrate is elevated to the filter direct from the 
M.S. boxes without any thickening, and averages 52% 
moisture. The drum makes one revolution in eight 
minutes, the cake thickness varies from J to 2 in. and 
contains 11.5% moisture. 

The following test indicates the work of the filter : 

Water in feed 52.0% 

Water in cake 11.5% 

Vacuum 22 in. 

Estimated capacity 600 lb. per sq. ft. per 24 hours 

+ 60 
+ 90 
+ 120 
+ 150 
— 160 


Weight, Copper, 


Bulk 100.0 







Silica, Alumina, 



The depth of pulp varies with the working of the filter, 
and submerges the drum up to 3 ft. 6 in., lower levels 
yielding a dryer cake and higher levels a greater ca- 

No steam-raising of the temperature of the pulp has 
been tried, but the experience of others is that it yields 
a drier eake and increases capacity. 

Ore-bin. capacity 130 tons, re- 
ceiving mine-size ore from 
Cometock and North Lyell 
mines, 35° rill. 

Grizzley, 5 ft. by 2 ft. 3 in. 
bars, spaced one inch. 

Jaw-crusher, 19% by 12 in. 

Crude elevator, 33 ft. 3 in. cen- 
tres, inclination 75°. 12 in. 
wide, 8-ply balata belt, speed 
380 ft. per min. Buckets 12 
by 6 by 5 ft., spaced 15 in. 

Conveyor, 18 in. wide, 6-ply belt, 
centres 30 ft., inclination 8 D , 
speed 275 ft. per min. 

Electro-magnet, 19 in. diam. 

Fine-ore bins, rill 45° each. 150 
tons capacity. 

Corrugated- roll feeders. 20% in. 
face by 20 in. diam.: 2 r.p.m. 

Submerged type shaking screens, 
240 1^-in. strokes per min., 
1/8 or 7/64-in, opening. 

May Bros, rolls, 50 by 15 in., 
24 r.p.m. 

Elevator, 25 ft. 9 in. centres, 
inclination 80°. 12 in. wide, 
8-ply balata belt, speed 367 
ft. per min. Buckets 12 by 
6 by 5 in., spaced 9 in. 

Elevator. 35 ft. 6 in. centres, 
inclination 80°, 12 in. wide. 
8-ply balata belt, speed 415 
ft. per min. Buckets 12 by 
6 by 5 in., spaced 9 in. 

Sampler, double-cone cut 1/3280. 

Diaphragm cone-classifier. 4 ft. 
11 in. diam. by 6 ft. 6 in. 
deep. 6^-in. diaphragm, 1%- 
in. annular opening, auto- 
matic control. 

Tube-mills, 16 by 5 ft., 29 r.p.m.. 
motor-driven through gears ; 
flexible coupling on rotor and 

Elevator, centres 27 ft. 6 in., in- 
clination 80°, 12 in. wide. 8- 
ply balata belt, speed 350 ft. 
per min.: buckets 12 by 6 by 
5 in., spaced 9 in. 

Dorr thickeners, 20 ft. diam., 10 
ft. deep. % r.p.m. 

Balance-cone. 2 ft. 6 in. diam. by 
4 ft. 4 in. deep. 

M. S. flotation machine. 12 com- 
partments. 18 in. diam. stir- 
rers, 320 r.p.m. 

Cascade cleaning-box, 5 ft. long 
by 10 in. wide by 2 ft. 6 in. 

Re-float box. Waterhouse patent. 

Elevator, centres 40 ft. 3 in., in- 
clination 80°. 12 in. wide. 8- 
ply balata belt, speed 367 ft. 
oer min.: buckets 12 by 6 by 

5 in., 6paced 24 in. 

Oliver filter. 8 ft. diam. by 8 ft. 

face: H r.p.m.: filter-area 

200 sq. ft., vacuum-pump SMt 

. in. diam., 8-in. stroke, 250 


Conveyor, 14 in. wide. 4-ply belt. 
137 ft. per min., centres 50 ft. 

6 in., 26° level. 
Concentrate bins, hoppered. ca- 
pacity 80 tons. 

Bochum trucks, %-yd. capacity. 

Avery weighbridge, 

capacity 60 


^Sample to Assay -office 

Tailing K\ 

Concentrate draining - vats. 20 
diam. by 8 ft. deep. ; filter 
bottoms connected to wet 

Bocnum trucks, % -yd. capacity. 

Fairbanks weig'hbridg'e, capacity 
60 cwt. 

ft. 5/hterinq Plant 


To Sintering Plant 

July 16, U'L'l 


The ilnim is wound, ovi-r the canvas, with 14-gauge 
eopper-elad iteel wire, the turns being aboal \ in. apart. 
It takes about lti hours to re-canvas ami rewire the 
drum. The canvas lasts about eighl months, and the 
beeaian under the canvas two years. One recent canvas 
handled ■"> 1 57 tons of concentrate The canvas is occa- 
sionally hosed and scrubbed. The scraper requires par- 
ticular attention, and is periodically filed, reversed, or 

The air-lifts and emergency air-agitatinn pipes were 
not found satisfactory, and were discarded. The speed 
of the mechanical agitators was increased to 7-1 r.p.m. 
The original agitator-shaft consisted of a heavy 3-in. 
pipe flanged to stub-shafts on each end. It was soon 
found necessary to use a solid 3-in. shaft. Wrought-iron 
paddles, 9 in. apart, and placed alternately to right and 
left to avoid thrust, have been used, but, on account of 
the presence of copper in solution, cast-iron paddles are 
now being tried. 

The attendant on the flotation boxes also operates the 
filter, which requires a minimum of attention. 

The filter delivers the concentrate onto an 18-in. in- 
clined conveyor, which, in turn, delivers to the bin. 

The concentrate is loaded into f-yd. Bochum trucks, 
and drawn to the smelter, distant about 200 yards, by 

Sampling. The feed sample is taken in the fine-crush- 
ing section by a sampler developed on the Broken Hill 
South mine, consisting of two inverted hollow cones, 
rotating on the same axis in opposite directions at dif- 
ferent speeds, and having knife-edge cuts through them 
at different radii from the above axis. 

Grab-samples are taken of concentrate and tailing at 
regular intervals for daily record. Filtered concentrate 
is officially sampled as dispatched to the smelter by means 
of cheese-samplers. 

The pulp-samples are reduced in the machine shown 
in Fig. 4. The reducer is made in three parts for the 
purpose of cleaning and inspection. 

On account of the difficulty in settlement of slime and 
the distance of the assay-office from the plant, filters for 
samples were devised, and have proved useful. Fig. 5 
shows the arrangement and general details. 

Elevators are framed of 6 by 3-in. Oregon pine with 6 
by J-in. pine lining. The width between lining is 2 ft. 
2 in., and the depth 6 ft. All top and bottom drums are 
36 in. diam. by 15-in. face by iVin. crown by 4-in. shaft, 
with ring oil-bearings on top and solid bearings with 
brass bushes on the bottom. 

All belts are 8-ply Balata, 12 in. wide, and driving- 
belts 6-ply Balata, 6 in. wide. Buckets are riveted mild- 
steel plate ; they weigh 1\ lb. and have 190 eu. in. ca- 

Sand-guards are provided on the bottom shaft, a de- 
fleeting saddle, at 45° above the drum, carrying rubber 
scrapers, and adjustable lips at the discharge. The 
centre of the top drum is 3 ft. 9 in. above the discharge 
lip, which gives a satisfactory delivery at the speeds 

The belts tor elevating the teed and concentrates have 
been running for four years wit hunt renewal. The belt 
that elevates the crude ore lias the must severe duty, and 
lasts about :!."> weeks, or 23,000 tons, against 58,000 tons 
for the raff-elevator, and 44,000 tons for the fine-elevator. 

The sulphide of cadmium is a brilliant pigment, states 
a U. S. Geological Survey bulletin. If properly prepared 
it is one of the most permanent pigments known, and is 
unaffected by hydrogen sulphide gas from coal smoke, 
whereas the common yellow pigments are blackened in a 
smoky atmosphere. Cadmium-yellow is therefore em- 
ployed as a protective coating over chrome-yellow in 
painting street cars and the passenger coaches on some 
railway lines. Sulphide of cadmium is used extensively 
to give color and lustre to glass and porcelain ; other 
cadmium salts are used in dentistry, dyeing, and pho- 
tography. The so-called cadmium lithopone, which is 
analogous to lithopone and in which cadmium replaces 
the zinc, has been experimentally known for some years. 
Hanley says: "It is believed that the pigment industry 
offers a good prospective field for the consumption of 
cadmium compounds. Cadmium-yellows and cadmium 
lithopone constitute the principal forms used, and the 
persistence of the color is a favorable feature of these 
pigments. They can therefore be used advantageously 
in an atmosphere vitiated with sulphur smoke, whereas 
the chrome-yellows darken under similar conditions. 
Cadmium has long been used by artists who require 
beautiful and persistent yellow or orange tints. The 
sulphide, which is the form used in paints, will stand con- 
siderable dilution with a transparent thinner, such as 
heavy spar, without losing the intensity of the yellow 
color. It may be possible, therefore, to develop a color 
using this pigment that could compete in price with 
cheaper yellows. This proposition would require devel- 
opment by experienced paint chemists in order to be 
definitely established. The shade of color can be accu- 
rately controlled from light yellows to deep vermilions 
by regulating by hydrogen sulphide the acidity of the 
cadmium sulphate solution from which it is precipitated. 
Consequently the color required by the trade could be 
consistently duplicated." Cadmium electroplating is a 
field that offers some promise of expansion. Cadmium is 
a better rust preventive than nickel, and at more nearly 
a parity in prices cadmium plating might be substituted 
for nickel plating on some articles. Or, as it has a 
greater tendency to tarnish than nickel, it might be used 
in combination with nickel, the first coat consisting of 
the rust -preventive cadmium and the second coat of the 
tarnish-proof nickel. The Udylite Process Co., of 
Kokomo, Indiana, has developed a commercial method 
for electroplating iron and steel articles with cadmium 
and is prepared to grant licenses for its use. 

The greatest depth yet found in any ocean is 32,088 
ft., at a point about 40 miles north of the island of 
Mindanao, in the Philippine Islands, states the U. S. 
Geological Survey. 



July 16, 1921 

Factors in the Production of Iron and Steel on the 

Pacific Coast 

By Clyde E. Williams, Metallurgist, U. S. Bureau of Mines 

*The question of the establishment of an iron and steel 
industry on the Pacific Coast has been the subject of dis- 
cussion and investigation for many years. Such an in- 
dustry is necessary if the West Coast is to develop and 
make the most of its wonderful natural resources. The 
cost of shipping iron and steel products from Eastern 
points to the Pacific Coast increases their cost one-half 
if shipped by water and two-thirds if shipped by rail. 
This same relation held before the War, when the cost of 
iron and steel and transportation rates were both lower. 

Admittedly, cheaper iron and steel are needed. 
Whether these can be obtained by producing them upon 
the Pacific Coast depends upon a number of factors. 
Chief among these are: (1) the supply of raw material; 
(2) the amount and nature of the market; (3) the size 
and type of smelting operation. 

Coke. The vital factor in successful blast-furnace 
smelting is coke. Iron ore can be brought from great 
distances cheaply, but it is costly to transport coke. 
Coke represents one-third of the weight and one-half of 
the volume of the ordinary blast-furnace charge. Nor- 
mally from 20 to 30% of the cost of production is due 
to coke. There are two outstanding characteristics that 
the coke must have. First, it must be cheap, and, second, 
it must have the mechanical strength to support the 
weight of the charge and sufficient hardness to resist too 
rapid solution by the ascending gases. 

There are several coals of good coking quality in the 
State of Washington. These coals are high in ash and 
must be washed before being used in the coking process. 
Even with careful washing, however, the best coke that 
can be made from these coals contains 15% or more ash. 
Perhaps the best supply of coking coal for the present 
consideration is that in the Wilkeson-Carbonado-Fairfax 
district in Pierce counts'. Coke made from this coal has 
suitable physical properties arid is sufficiently low in 
sulphur and phosphorus to be desirable for use in the 
blast-furnace. Its high ash-content will make necessary 
the use of more coke than is ordinarily the case, and 
hence the cost of smelting will be greater. There is some 
coal in this district whose content of ash can be lowered 
by washing to 7.5%. Coke made from this product would 
contain only 12% ash. "Unfortunately, however, this coal 
is said to be non-coking. 

There are coking coals in British Columbia at Cassidy 
and Cumberland on Vancouver Island, and in Nicola 
valley and Crows Nest Pass on the mainland. A coke is 
being made in by-product ovens at Anyox by mixing the 

*A paper presented at the International Mining Conven- 
tion at Portland, Oregon, on April 7, 1921. 

high-volatile coal found at Cassidy with the low-volatile 
coal obtained elsewhere. It is said that this coke has 
suitable physical properties for use in the blast-furnace. 
The ash-content is high and it is doubtful if any coke can 
be made from British Columbian coals that will be lower 
in ash than that made from the Pierce County coal. In- 
dications are that the ash-content will be higher. 

A large quantity of coking coal has not been developed 
in Oregon. It is said, however, that the Eden Ridge 
(Coos county) coal is of coking quality. 

California has no coking coal. Utah coke of excellent 
physical qualities and low ash is available, but only after 
a long rail-haul that approximately doubles the cost of 
the coke. 

From the above information it is evident that coke is 
available in British Columbia and in Washington, that 
this coke is suitable for blast-furnace use, and that its 
cost will be more than the cost of coke in Eastern districts 
because of its high ash-content and the higher cost of 
mining it. Coke should not be moved great distances. 
and Utah coke should not be shipped to California. 
The smelting centre should be near the coke-supply in 
Britsh Columbia or Washington. 

Iron Ore. The presence of iron ore near the smelting 
locality is not so important as is the presence of coke. 
Iron ore can be shipped as ballast cheaply from great 
distances. No large deposit of iron ore is found in 
Washington. However, if a smelter were established in 
the North- West, the many small deposits would undoubt- 
edly be drawn upon. 

Magnetite occurs in British Columbia on Texada, 
Louise, Redonda, and Vancouver islands, and on the 
mainland to the north of these islands. Some of these 
deposits contain as much as 60% iron and some only 
50%. In some instances, the content of sulphur and 
copper is so large that the ores must first be purified ; in 
others, no pre-treatment is necessary. A large tonnage 
of these ores is said to be available, but their true extent 
and composition will only be determined when a market 
has been established and large-scale mining operations 
are carried out. 

There is a vast supply of high-grade hematite ore in 
southern California in the Eagle mountains, of River- 
side county, and in the Cave Canyon district and in the 
Providence mountains of San Bernardino county. These 
ores are rather far inland, but fortunately not far from 
a railroad. It is probable that other ores nearer tide- 
water can be obtained at less expense. 

Large supplies of high-grade hematite occur in Mexico, 
the most accessible to the Pacific Coast being those on 

July 16, 1921 



tin- west coast of Lower California at St. Vincent, Other 
deposits in Mexico near the weal coast are in the States 
of Guerrero, Michaocan, and Oaxaca. These ores could 
be brought to the North-West on returning ships that 
carry lumber to the Southland. In the same way. the 
rich Chinese ores eould be brought over on ships that 
08X17 goods from Pacific Coast ports to the Orient. If 
this country is to engage in a profitable export business 
with the Orient, our ships must not return therefrom 
« it limit cargoes. 

Summarizing the facts, sufficient ore of good quality 
can 1r> brought to an iron smelter on the Pacific Coast ; 
the rich ores of the west coast of Mexico and of China 
offer the greatest potentialities ; the magnetites of British 
Columbia are available at tide-water, and the hematite 
of southern California can be obtained at tide-water 
after a rail-haul of about 200 miles. 

Limestone. The limestone at Roche Harbor, on San 
Juan island, that near Blubber Bay, on Texada island, 
and that near Cape Flattery, on Vancouver island, are 
available for use in the Puget Sound region. Sufficient 
limestone to maintain a plant in southern California may 
be obtained in San Bernardino county. 

Refractories. Clay for refractory purposes is avail- 
able at Clayburn in the south-western part of British 
Columbia, just across the line into north-western Wash- 
ington at Sumas ; also at Clayton, and Freeman, near 
Spokane, and at Moscow and Troy, both in Idaho. That 
at Clayburn is now being made into good firebrick and 
that at Sumas can be mixed with Kummer (Washington) 
flint, an excellent brick being obtained. 

Market. Much difference of opinion exists as to the 
scope of the market for iron and steel on the Pacific 
Coast. It is difficult to obtain reliable data. The cus- 
tomers are scattered over such an extensive area, and 
their purchases are so variable in amount and kind that 
it is almost impossible to obtain information from them. 
Those whose purpose it is to promote the establishment 
of an iron and steel industry on the Pacific Coast, such 
as Chambers of Commerce and similar organizations, are 
prone to be too enthusiastic. Their quantities are usu- 
ally several times too large. On the other hand, the iron 
and steel corporations, when asked to establish such an 
industry, will quote statistics that are much more con- 
servative, perhaps more nearly representative of the 
conditions, but undoubtedly on the smaller side of the 
scale. However, in this discussion the important factor 
is not so much what the present consumption is but what 
the consumption would be if cheaper iron and steel were 

No pig-iron is produced on the Pacific Coast. Most of 
that used comes by rail from the East. Small amounts 
arrive from time to time from China and occasionally 
from Great Britain and elsewhere. Two hundred tons 
of pig-iron is consumed daily, practically all of it being 
used for making gray-iron castings. With cheaper pig- 
iron the present output of castings will be increased, and 
thus the market for foundry iron will become larger. 

The production of steel in California, Oregon, Wash- 

ington, and Qtah is 1000 tons per day. Scrap-iron and 
scrap-steel arc used almost -entirely because they arc 
cheaper than piu'-irun. Cheap pig-iron would replace a 
large portion Of this scrap. The steel. makers would like 
to use part pig-iron in the charges to the furnaces be- 
cause at times scrap is hard to get, its cost increases with 
the demand, and a mixture of part scrap and part pig- 
iron is more desirable from the standpoint of melting. 

Although the total consumption of steel on the Coast 
is large, it consists of many different sizes and shapes. 
without a large continuous consumption of any one. 
Steel rolling-mills are complex and expensive and to be 
operated profitably must have a large production. It 
would be impossible to construct and operate a mill to 
produce so large an assortment of sizes and shapes on the 
small scale necessary to prevent flooding the Pacific Coast 
market. Those products must be made for which there 
is a large steady demand or which can be made by the 
same machinery. An example of a product for which 
there is sufficient demand to take the output of a modern 
rolling-mill is tin-plate. The consumption of tin-plate 
and tin-cans in California, Oregon, Washington, British 
Columbia, and Alaska amounts to 150 tons daily, and 
the amount exported through Pacific ports to 100 tons. 
Hence, a market exists for 250 tons daily, and it is reason- 
able to suppose that a portion of this market could be 
absorbed by a producer on this coast. 

The market for steel products will grow as the West 
grows; each will help the other. At the present time, 
however, there is little opportunity for the development 
of a large steel industry. The development to be antici- 
pated will come through the slow and substantial growth 
of the present producers, increasing their output and de- 
veloping new products (such as tin-plate) for which there 
is a sufficient market. 

Pig-iron produced on the Coast, if cheap enough, will 
be used by the foundries for making gray-iron castings 
and by the steel works as a partial substitute for scrap- 
iron and scrap-steel. The amount of pig-iron that will be 
consumed will depend upon its cost. There is sufficient 
outlet through these two sources for the output of one 
blast-furnace of about 400 tons capacity. A cheap source 
of pig-iron once established, new industries will spring 
up, consumption of iron castings and steel products will 
increase, and thus a larger production of pig-iron will 
gradually become possible. 

Japan is expanding her steel industry rapidly. Not 
sufficient ore is found in Japan, so ore and pig-iron are 
being brought to Japan from China. The production of 
iron and steel is now between 550,000 and 750,000 tons 
per annum. The consumption is between 1,500.000 and 
2,000,000 tons per annum. Japan, therefore, will be an 
importer of American iron and steel products for some 
time. However, her industry is expanding so rapidly 
that the time is coming when she will be able to take care 
of herself. Whether this expansion will become great 
enough for Japan to export to America and therefore 
compete in the Pacific Coast States is questionable. 

Much has been said in the past regarding the importa- 



July 16, 1921 

tion to this country of cheap Chinese pig-iron. It is true, 
Chinese pig-iron has been laid down on the Pacific Coast 
for less than pig-iron from eastern United States could 
be. But there is no danger of any great competition from 
this source. The so-called cheap Chinese labor is not 
cheap when reduced to terms of output per dollar. Coke 
is available in China, but it is expensive. Considering all 
things, the cost of producing pig-iron in China is com- 
paratively high ; and China, rather than engaging in the 
production and exportation of iron, will become an active 
consumer, particularly of steel products. 

Another factor entering into a discussion of markets is 
the attitude of the Eastern producer. In order to hold 

his present market on the Pacific Coast, he will fight any 
competitor on the Coast by cutting costs. On some prod- 
ucts it is likely that the reduced cost will be comparable 
with the cost of production on the Coast. This, of course, 
would reduce the possible output and make the project 
still more precarious. 

Smelting Process. The size«nd type of smelting oper- 
ation depends upon the size and the nature of the market. 
If there is a large enough outlet for pig-iron, the blast- 
furnace process will be used, because it is the standard, 
and, of course, the cheapest. The high cost of coke and 
the fact that the market for pig-iron extends over the 
vast area of the Pacific Coast States may make the cost of 
production of iron so large that the present margin due 
to the high cost of transportation will be eliminated. 

Statements have been made by engineers that pig-iron 
can be made as cheaply on this Coast as in the East. C. 
C. Jones of Los Angeles showed by calculation that this 
could be done by bringing coke into southern California 
from Utah. Others have suggested that this could be 
done in a plant in the Puget Sound region using Pierce 

County coke. The determination of the cost of produc- 
tion is a difficult problem. It can be done best by experi- 
mentation. This would be costly and should be. attempted 
only by those with the true pioneering spirit and with 
sufficient financial backing to be able to withstand great 
losses. In the beginning, costs of operation will be high, 
and unforeseen difficulties will arise. Absence of profit 
during the early days of operation must be anticipated. 
The most advantageous site for the plant is in the Puget 
Sound district. 

Electric smelting has been suggested as a substitute for 
the blast-furnace for the following reasons: (1) Good 
coke is not essential and the quantity of fuel needed 
amounts to only one-third that needed in the blast- 
furnace; (2) small-scale production is possible; (3) 
there is cheap power, or at least cheap potential power 
along the Coast. Were all these reasons facts, electric 
smelting would be a possible substitute. But power is not 
cheap, at least from the standpoint of electric pig-iron, 
and will not be cheap for many years to come. 

Another process has been proposed, a substitute for 
both the blast-furnace and the electric-furnace processes 
and a sort of combination of the two. It is the prepara- 
tion and melting of sponge-iron. Briefly, the process 
consists of grinding and purifying the ore by magnetic 
concentration, mixing it with a low-grade fuel, heating 
for two or three hours at a temperature of about 950°C, 
cooling, and passing the mixture through a magnetic 
separator. Metallic iron in a very finely divided condi- 
tion, free from impurities, is obtained in the concentrate. 
This product is called sponge-iron. It is then melted in 
the presence of carbon in an electric furnace, by which 
means various grades of iron and steel can be made at 
will. Prom a theoretical standpoint, this process has 
some promise. It will utilize fuel of poor quality and can 
be used with impure ores. The fact that various grades 
of iron and steel can be made makes it adaptable to the 
conditions existing on the Pacific Coast. For example, 
to large centres that have near them deposits of iron ore 
and cheap fuel and that consume both foundry iron and 
steel ingots, this process would be peculiarly adapted. 
Sufficient experimentation has not been done to point to 
either success or failure. 

Conclusion. The establishment of an iron and steel 
industry must not be undertaken without due considera- 
tion of all the relating factors. We need cheaper iron 
and steel ; we have the raw materials at hand ; we have 
only to determine the cost of production. The cost of 
production will depend upon the cost of coke, the size of 
the market, and, hence, the size of the metallurgical oper- 
ation. The size of the market will depend upon the 
cheapness of the pig-iron and upon the number of differ- 
ent steel products that can be made profitably in the 
rolling-mill. The presence of such an industry will 
stimulate the growth and development of the West. The 
determination of the cost of production can, and un- 
doubtedly will, soon be made, but it must be done by a 
strong organization and one with a fund of advice, both 
technical and commercial. 

.luiv n;. 1921 






■■■■ ■■*■ - ^ > > 


During the first six months of 1921, metal-mining com- 
panies in Utah distributed dividends to their stockholders as 

Chief Consolidated Mining Co $S8,403 

Grand Central Mining Co 6,000 

Gold Chain Mining Co 10,000 

Silver King Coalition Mines Co 1S2.415 

Tintic Standard Mining Co 117,470 

Utah Copper Co 2,436,735 

Total $2,841,023 

During the first six months of 1920, ten metal-mining 
companies in Utah paid dividends totaling $5,754,071, and 
for the corresponding period in 1919, a total of $5,565,579 
was disbursed. The dividend paid by the Silver King Coali- 
tion was the first in four years. The other disbursements, 
by the Chief Consolidated, Tintic Standard, and Utah Cop- 
per companies, all represent large decreases from former 


W. A. Clark, ex-Senator from Montana, is quoted as say- 
ing: "The copper market right now is about the flattest 
thing I know of, but it will not remain that way. As soon 
as things get straightened out in Germany there will be a 
big demand for copper all over Europe. We could sell 
copper now, but would not get- the price of its production, 
and I will not sell it that way. Others feel the same, and 
we have formed a pool in this country of $40,000,000 to 
protect the interests of copper producers, who have some- 
thing less than a billion pounds of it ready for the market. 
This does not mean, however, that the mines will remain 
shut-down until all of this is disposed of. Just as soon as 
there is a demand and the product starts to move, the 
mines and smelters will begin active work again. I 
imagine it will be nearly a year before things get to going 
full-blast again". 


The American Smelting & Refining Co. has cut it opera- 
tions to approximately 40% of normal. Notwithstanding 
the general curtailment in copper production, this company 
has closed but two of its copper smelters, the others operat- 
ing at part capacity. The lead-plants are doing relatively 
better. From its own ores the smelting company is produc- 
ing about 3000 tons per month, as against a normal of be- 
tween 6000 and 7000 tons. In addition, it has been treating 
toll ores from other properties, some being regular shippers, 
while others have switched their product to the Guggen- 
heims because of the shut-down of other plants. 

The smelting company has succeeded in disposing of all 
its own 19 21 copper since the first of the year, at which time 
it abandoned its selling agency. It has on hand, however, 
a substantial quantity of the metal which was brought for- 
ward from 1920 and which represents the unsold accumula- 
tion of the former agency. Two Mexican smelters have 
closed down, the others working part capacity on copper and 

silver-lead ores. The El Paso copper smelter has gone cold, 
but the lead-furnace remains in operation. The Hayden 
smelter, handling Ray Consolidated concentrate, has also 
closed. The big Garfield smelter, however, continues to run, 
partly on Utah concentrates which have not yet been cleaned 
up, and to some extent on ores shipped from California, 
principally concentrate from the Engels mine. The Tacoma 
refinery has sufficient material from Kenecott, Beatson, and 
Britannia ores and from South American blister to keep it 
going at part capacity. The Perth Amboy copper smelter 
and refinery have been closed for some months, but the 
plant still operates on tin concentrates. The Baltimore re- 
finery handles whatever copper comes to the East for treat- 
ment, while the rolling-mill department has continued op- 
erations at about 40% capacity. 




George Graham Rice, alias Jacob S. Herzig, whose name 
has been mentioned many times in connection with stock 
promotions in various parts of the country, was one of the 
group for whom warrants were sworn out in Oakland, on 
July 8, on the charge of violating the Corporate Securities 
Act of California. A warrant also was issued for John Doe, 
an unknown employee of Child, Barclay & Co., and a third 
warrant was issued for that company, a firm of. stockbrokers 
in Salt Lake City. 

A circular letter sent out by Child, Barclay & Co. is 
quoted as saying: 

"We have been requested by George Graham Rice, now 
sojourning in Salt Lake, to place your name on our mailing 
list to receive from us a copy of the forthcoming issue of our 
weekly market-letter, which will contain an analysis of the 
merits of the Bingham Galena Mining Co. stock. We shall 
be glad to send you an early copy. 

"Mr. Rice asks us to say that he believes an investment 
made in Bingham Galena stock at this time will, in all prob- 
ability, make up any loss which you may have incurred in 
Broken Hills stock. The Broken Hills situation is so dis- 
couraging that he is unable to hold out any hopes to you of 
an early improvement in the market price of that stock, and 
he feels that he owes it to you to put you in immediate 
touch with the situation in Bingham Galena stock. He is 
anxious that you make up your loss as quickly as possible. 
Mr. Rice is behind the Bingham Galena company and we 
need hardly acquaint you with his constructive methods. 
Mr. Rice asks us to say that he believes the stock will enjoy 
a quick rise to well above 75c. per share and will later sell 
as very much higher figures. We invite your business in 
the stock and would be glad to hear from you without 

At the close of business on July 7, the stock in Salt Lake 
City had been pushed up to a -price of 38c. per share, but 
on receipt of the news of a warrant for Rice's arrest on 
July S, the stock broke to 174c. per share. 

E. C. Bellows, Commissioner of Corporations for Cali- 
fornia, is quoted as saying: 

"The notorious George Graham Rice is once more at his 



July 16, 1921 

old tricks, and is reaching after gullible investors in Cali- 
fornia by unlawfully offering the Bingham Galena Mining 
Co. stock for sale through circular letters to unsuspecting 
dupes in this State. Assisted by the postal authorities, I 
hope to be able to extradite this public plunderer and bring 
him back from Utah to answer to the charge of violating the 
blue-sky law by offering stock for sale without a license." 


The slump in the market quotations for copper has af- 
fected Canadian production less than it has that of the 
United States. Today the Canadian production is 52% that 
of the 1920 total at the corresponding time, while the output 
of the United States is figured at 20% that of 1920. In 
1920 the United States produced 36,000,000 lb. of copper 
monthly while Canada produced 4,600,000 lb. Practically 
the whole of the Canadian production came from British 
Columbia, the output of Ontario being confined to that ob- 
tained as a by-product from nickel ores. The Granby Con- 
solidated Mining & Smelting Co. is reported to have had the 
biggest month of its history in point of production in May. 
The output ran to 91,000 lb. The recent fall in the market, 
following signs of a rally, has again started speculation as 
to the immediate future of the industry in this Province. It 
is possible that a further decline of a point or two would 
mean the closing down of the Anyox plant although it is 
explained by the management that this would be done as a 
last resort. There are 1150 men employed at the smelter 
centre at present and a considerable number at the Cassidy 
(Vancouver Island) Collieries which are operated by the 
same company and from which coal is secured for industrial 
uses at Anyox. 


Producing mines in the State of Arizona are valued at 
$413,082,735, or 9 % less than a year ago, in a report just 
made public by the State Tax Commission. The valuation 
placed on producing mines in 1920 was $453,094,846.26. 
"In view of the times, we consider a loss of only 9 % a good 
showing," declared Charles R. Howe, chairman of the Com- 
mission. He said that the total assessment on mines will be 
more than one-half of the assessment on all property in the 

The valuation of non-producing mines will be fixed by 
county assessors, but today it was estimated that this sum 
would be aproximately $10,000,000. Last year the valua- 
tion placed on non-producing mines was $8,786,621.26. Ac- 
cording to the Commission, only seven counties in the State 
have producing mines at the present time. Gila county 
leads in the valuation of its active mines, which are put 
at $115,478,479. The other counties and the valuation put 
on the producing mines in each are as follows: Cochise, 
$105,771,621; Greenlee, $26,514,131; Mohave, $6,372,846; 
Pima, $23,348,756; Pinal, $46,972,546; and Yavapai, $88,- 


Gleeson. — The Black Hawk Copper Co. has been organized 
by J. E. Pemberthy, and others, for the purpose of develop- 
ing the Pemberthy group of claims in this district. Work 
will be commenced at once. 

Kingman. — An increased scale of operation is planned at 
the C. O. D. mine owned by Morris P. Dudley and associates. 
The mill is handling 100 tons of ore per day and the com- 
pany is shipping $40,000 worth of concentrate per month. 
It is expected to increase the capacity to 150 tons. A double- 
compartment vertical shaft is being sunk 300 ft. north of 
the present incline shaft. 

Following the resumption of milling operations at the 
Dean mine comes the announcement of the discovery of a 

new shoot of high-grade gold-silver ore in a raise from the 
lower tunnel. The ore carries 80 oz. of silver and $16 in 
gold per ton, with the indications favorable for the con- 
tinuation of the shoot to surface, a distance of approximately 
200 ft. The reconstructed mill is supplied with oil-flotation 
units and is handling 50 tons of ore per day. W. W. Elliot, 
mill superintendent, expects to have the plant working at 
60 tons daily capacity within a short time. 

The Silver Trails Mines Co., owner of the Diamond Joe 
mine, has purchased the milling plant formerly operated 
under lease. It is to be remodeled anrl enlarged to meet the 
requirements of the Diamond Joe mine. The remodeling 
plans include the construction of an aerial tram from the 
mine to the mill. A generous tonnage of oxidized and sul- 
phide ore stands in the underground workings awaiting re- 
duction. In the upper levels the ore is almost entirely silver- 
bearing, but in the sulphide area, carries a gold content of 
$8 per ton in addition to average silver values of $15 per 

Miami. — The Miami Copper Co. has declared a dividend 
of 50c. per share for the quarter ended June 30, 1921, 
payable to stockholders of record at the close of business 
on August 1. The distribution will be made on August 15. 

Oatman. — The United Eastern Mining Co. has declared a 
quarterly dividend of 15c. per share payable on July 28, to 
stockholders of record, at the close of business on July 8. 

Patagonia. — Peter Hansen, who recently took an option 
and lease on the Rhea mine, three miles south-east of here, 
has moved the compressor from the Mansfield mine to his 
newly acquired property. Work is being done in the main 
shaft, which is 230 ft. deep. Hansen expects to ship lead- 
silver ore to the smelters within the next two months. 

John C. Holmes, who is working a placer claim between 
Bloxton and the Three R mine, says that his property is in 
excellent shape. He believes that the placer grounds would 
prove more valuable if worked on an extensive scale by 
dredging. Work is being rushed on concrete founda- 
tions at the Blue Nose mine of the Arizona-Patagonia Silver 
Mining Co. The new machinery has arrived at the mine. 


Angels Camp. — Fire of unknown origin destroyed the en- 
tire mine plant of the Sultana Mining Company on the night 
of July 5, the loss being estimated at between $75,000 and 
$100,000. The hoist, head-frame, compressor, and en- 
gine and boiler rooms, with all their equipment; the trans- 
former house, blacksmith shop, change-house, oil-plant, and 
storeroom full of supplies, went up in smoke. The mill was 
500 yards distant and escaped. The mine, formerly known 
as the Bovee, had an enviable record years ago. The prop- 
erty adjoins the Angels mine on the north; the shaft is 800 
ft. deep. 

Auburn. — The mining property owned by S. J. Caples has 
been taken over, under bond and lease, by James D. Stewart, 
and associates. Drifting into the old gravel channel has 
been started under the direction of F. A. Moss, superin- 
tendent. The property is located in the Last Chance mining 

Bridgeport. — William Sanger is reported to have found a 
vein of rich silver ore at a place called Cow Camp in the 
Silver Creek range. The ore was found in a 9 0-ft. shaft. 

A bed of rich gravel has been uncovered in Dog Creek 

canyon by J. N. Beck, H. G. Beck, and associates. After a 
period of profitable operation, the placers were abandoned 
years ago when a layer of lava was encountered. Working 
on the theory that this cap was not thick the present oper- 
ators dug through it and discovered a channel of rich gravel. 
A large number of claims were staked and C. B. McColm is 
said to be financing the work of hydraulicing the deposits. 

Grass Valley. — A tentative agreement to arbitrate has 

July 16. 1921 



been entered Into between the Mine Workers' Protective 
League, whose members are on a strike over wage condi- 
tions, and the Empire mine management, representatives of 
both sides announced on July 9. An order by the League 
to withdraw the pump-men from the Empire mine has been 
suspended for a week. In other mines the pumps are being 
operated by crews brought here from outside points. 

Approximately 600 miners have been absent from their 
places in the locnl mines since July 1, when they refused to 
return to work at the new wage-scale announceu by the 
operators during June. The operators published a state- 
ment early in June that when the old wage agreement ex- 
pired on July 1 wages would be reduced $1 per day. 

The miners' organization submitted a proposal to the op- 
erators that the pay be cut only 50c. per day, but the 

asks that its Sutro mine be reduced from 159.160 to $16,000, 
and Its Keystone group of mines from $32,000 to $13,200. 
The company owns fifty cottages in Kcnnttt. They are 
asaessod for $15,000, and It asks that the valuation be cut 
to $6720, as most of them are vacant. The smelter, ma- 
chinery, bag-house, railroad, tramline, and other appurte- 
nances of the smelter are assessed for $13 5,330. The com- 
pany asks that the valuation be reduced to $111, 780. 

Bedding, — The Mountain Copper Co. has petitioned the 
supervisors of Shasta county to reduce the assessed valua- 
tion of its property from $439,200 to $50,000. It is alleged 
that existing economic conditions are such that the com- 
pany's mines have only a "speculative" value. It is claimed 
that $100,000 is a fair cash price and since the appraised 
value of property is approximately 50% of its true value. 

No. 3 Mill of the St. Joseph Lead Co., at Elvino, Missouri 

operators were insistent that the reduction be $1, making 
$4.62 per day for miners and $4.25 for shovelers. 

The Alta Combination Mines Co. is engaged in driving 
an air-shaft, from the 500-ft. point in its adit, to the sur- 
face. The company is searching for the Alta Hill gravel 
channel which it expects to tap by means of the extension of 
the tunnel. 

Jackson. — The Crocker company is engaged in preliminary 
work for the exploitation of the Elephant Deep gravel mine. 
The old Volcano ditch that was used 40 years ago will be 
cleaned out to provide water for the project. This ditch is 
28 miles long. 

Kennett. — The United States Smelting, Refining & Mining 
Co. has petitioned the supervisors of Shasta county to re- 
duce the assessment on its property from $1,015,210 to 
$230,371, the former figure being the valuation determined 
by the county assessor. 

The company holds that because the price of copper has 
fallen from IS. 5c. to 12c. in the last twelve months, its 
smelter and mining machinery in Shasta county are worth 
only what they will bring as junk. A year ago there were 
119,322 tons of copper ore blocked-out in the Mammoth 
mine, but this could not be worked during the year except 
at great loss, and hence the mine and smelter have remained 

The Mammoth mine was assessed this year for $448,720 
The company asks that this figure be cut to $39,3 91. It 

$50,000 should be a fair assessment. The company has com- 
menced work on the construction of an aerial tram from 
the Hornet mine to connect with the Southern Pacific rail- 
way at a point three miles east. 


Aspen. — Samples taken from the raise in the Hope tun- 
nel, have shown a silver content of from 87 to 100 oz.; ore 

is piling up at the portal for later shipment. John Cor- 

tellini of Leadville and associates are pushing development 
in the Park tunnel. An aerial tram for transportation of 

the ore is under construction. The Midland tunnel is 

being extended to cut workings of the Midnight mine at 

depth. A good grade of silver-lead ore is being saved 

for shipment by the Aspen-Silver-Lead Mines Co., of which 
J. J. Yeckel is manager. Lessees on the Little Annie re- 
port cutting what is believed to be the apex of a rich shoot. 
The property is operated by the Richmond Hill company. 

Cripple Creek. — Persistence of rich ore at great depth in 
the mines of the Cripple Creek district is evidenced by de- 
velopments in progress at the Portland, Vindicator, and 
Cresson mines. At the Portland No. 2 shaft the orebody at 
the 24th level has been opened by drifts north and south 
of No. 2 shaft, 240 ft, north and 170 south. Ore in the 
north drift has been uniformly of smelting grade. Seventy 
feet of the south drift has been high-grade, the remainder 
mill-grade. On the 1500-ft. level the Lee shoot has re- 
cently been opened with rich ore appearing. The 12th- 



July 16, 1921 

level shoot was 70 ft. long; whereas the newer shoot is not 
yet proven. 

At the Vindicator the new shoot opened up at 2000 ft. 
(Golden Cycle 19th level) is the extension of the Lillie 
shoot opened last year on the Vindicator 19. The new ore- 
body, carrying "a very good grade of ore", according to 
George Stahl, manager, has been proven 300 ft. in length, 
and due to its sharp dip will afford around 200 ft. of stoping 
ground. The shoot extends within the area where the 20th- 
level station will be cut preparatory to raising the shaft 
through to connect. 

The Cresson ore is being broken with machine-drills in 
stopes from 125 ft. to 150 ft. wide. This is in virgin terri- 
tory, north, between the 1100- and 1200-ft. levels. This 
huge orebody is making 90% ore with but the coarsest 
sorting; the average assays are from $12 to $15 per ton. 
Many cars have returned one ounce gold per ton. 

Georgetown. — The Mendota shaft has been unwatered by 
the Wasatch management and operations resumed under- 
ground. E. E. Bush, with California backing, is operat- 
ing the O'Connell property in West Argentine. Opera- 
tions are to be resumed by W. H. Barber of Denver on the 
Barber group at Empire. At Apex the Saco de Oro com- 
pany has opened a vein, new to the property, sampling close 
to four ounces gold per ton. The tunnel is projected to cut 
the Rochester vein that produced rich silver-lead ore from 
the Rochester shaft-workings before water brought a sudden 
termination to operations. 

Kokomo. — Ore-bins at the Silver Queen mine of the 
Kokomo-Recen Mining Co. are full and awaiting cars for 

shipment of silver ore to the A. V. Smelter at Leadville. 

The Kokomo Mining Co. continues development of the Pearl 
Consolidated group on Chalk mountain and is saving ore 
tor shipment. 

Ouray — The capacity of the Mountain Top mill is to be 

increased 100%; the equipment is being delivered. The 

Union Mining & Milling Co. has obtained transformers and 
other equipment saved from the Gold Crown mill, when the 
plant was destroyed by fire, and with new machinery is 

equipping the Union mill. The working force at the 

White Cloud-Paymaster mines is to be increased as soon as 
a compressor is installed; machine-drills will then replace 
hand-steel. A mill is being considered. 


Coeur d'Alene. — Work on the tram at the Sidney mine 
is almost completed and shipments to the Bunker Hill 
smelter will soon be made from the stock of carbonate ore 
opened in the surface workings while tracing the vein along 
the hillside. The lower cross-cut tunnel is to be extended. 

The new 50-ton concentrator at the property of the 

Sunshine Mining Co. on Big creek is rapidly nearing com- 
pletion. The plant will be in operation within the next 6 
days. Reports from the Sterlng Silver Mountain prop- 
erty, situated near the Yankee Boy group on Big Creek, 
state that the lower cross-cut adit has been advanced nearly 
600 ft. and is now within 200 ft. of the main vein which has 
been opened by surface workings and by means of an upper 
adit from which good silver ore was obtained. The present 
cross-cut will reach the vein at a depth of 500 ft., while a 
drift into the hill will add an additional 500 ft. when 
vertically beneath the outcrop. 

Development work at the Liston property, now known as 
the First National group, will include a cross-cut to the 
vein and drifting to a point beneath the No. 2 tunnel, where 
a body of ore was exposed. The property is well equipped 

with machinery for rapid and economical work. The 

Coeur d'Alene Syndicate Co., owning a group of claims near 
the west fork of Big Creek, has a crew of men at work driv- 
ing a cross-cut adit. On the west fork of Big creek the 

Hartford group, the Silver Dale, and Big Hill are all being 
actively developed. 

A shoot of rich lead-silver-zinc ore, more than 100 ft. 
long, with some of the clean ore reported to run 60 and 70 
oz. in silver is reported in the old Sisters mine. Five car- 
loads already have been shipped to the smelter, returning 
33 oz. silver, 32% lead, and 16% zinc. Dan Murphy, super- 
intendent of the Tamarack & Custer mine, is president of 
the Sisters Leasing Co. that is operating the mine. 

Rush J. White has taken a bond on the Argentine prop- 
erty and has sublet his bond and lease to skilled miners who 
are working under his direction in an attempt to find ore. 
The ore is one that is particularly desired by smelters for 
its fluxing qualities. High-grade silver ore was mined 
20 years ago. 

The Callahan Zinc Lead Co. is actively developing its 
mine during the period of suspended production. The main 
three-compartment shaft has been sunk another 200 ft. 
from No. 10 to No. 11 level; drifting on this lower level has 
now been started. The work in progress at this point will 
open the orebodies at a point 1450 ft. below No. 4, or main- 
tunnel level. 

Lake%'iew. — A geological survey of the area adjacent to 
the south half of Lake Pend Oreille, including the mining 
districts of Lakeview, Blacktail, and Granite creek, will be 
conducted this summer as one of seven projects undertaken 
by the State Bureau of Mines in co-operation with the U. S. 
Geological Survey. The area is one of considerable promise; 
small bodies of silver ore, accompanied by lead and zinc have 
already been found. The work will be in charge of the 
U. S. Geological Survey, under general supervision of F. B. 
Laney, head of the department of geology of the University 
of Idaho. 


Houghton. — Beginning July 1, the Quincy Mining Co, 
lowered wages about 6%, making miners' wages $3.15 per 
day and trammers' $2.80. The new scale is about equal to 
that paid by Copper Range and the other operating mines 
of the district. There is no change in operating conditions 
at Quincy. The mine is working 41 days each week with a 
minimum force. Production is understood to be about 
1,000,000 lb. per month. 

Sinking is under way in the Champion No. 1 shaft, in 
Trimountain No. 2 and No. 4, and in Baltic No. 2. Sinking 
in No. 3, Baltic, is about to start. Copper Range is well 
opened ahead and will be in a position to bring production 
up to a miximum when metal market conditions permit. 
No construction work of any extensive character is under 
way and no changes are being made in the milling plants. 

Copper Range costs from this time on should show a con- 
siderable reduction. Wages are down to a pre-war level 
and the company is now operating with a new supply of 
coal which cost approximately half the price of that shipped- 
in last summer. Coal is still 100% higher than in the 
pre-war normal years, but the saving effected will be large 
nevertheless. Nearly all of the old supply was used up early 
in June. Freight-rates have served to keep up the price on 
coal. Copper Range was fortunate, however, in being able 
to take advantage of the reduced lake freight-rate on coal. 

A total of 5,858,000 lb. of copper was shipped out of the 
Lake Superior district by boat in the month of June. It is 
estimated that 1,000,000 lb. more, in the form of ingots, 
bars, and wire, went out by rail. Production for the month, 
including Copper Range. Mohawk, Wolverine, Quincy, and 
the Calumet & Hecla refinery output, was $5,500,000 lb. 
Although metal sales fell off sharply the last ten days of 
June, the shipment figures indicate fairly large sales for 
the month as a whole. Of the water shipments, Calumet & 
Hecla sent 1,500,000 lb. to Germany and Copper Range, 
700,000. The remainder was for domestic consumers. The 

July 1G, 1921 



shipments by boat showed a considerable increase over 
those of May and those of June a year ago. In May the 
total was (.110.000 lb. and in June of last year, 5,190, 

According to advices from Detroit, many former resi- 
dents of this district now in that city will return here when 
mining operations are resumed at properties now Idle. A 
large number of these men are either out of work or dis- 
satisfied with their present employment. One man writes: 
"If copper comes back next fall, or early in the spring, you'll 
see hundreds from this and other southern peninsula cities 
striking out for the Copper Country ". 

Duluth. — Shipments of ore from the head of the Lakes 
for this season to date total less than half what they were 
during the same period last year. In fact, shipments for 

company bus made money In every month this year, so it 

can lie appreciated to just what extent costs have been ro- 
duced from the 16 25c. average of 1920. and the high av- 

iil 11119. 

Port Benton. — The suit of Oscar B. Goom. who alleged 
that his livestock had died as a result of Inhaling gases and 
from the Oreal Kails smelter of the Anaconda Copper 
Co., will he re-tried, as a result of the failure of the Jury 
that heard the case to reach a verdict. The trial of the 
recent suit consumed four weeks during which 150 witnesses 
were examined. 

Victor. — W. R. Price, of Helena, acting for Eastern capi- 
talists, has obtained control of the Curlew mines, the sale 
price being reported as $125,000. The mine was once a 
well known silver producer and is credited with dividends of 

On the Talkeetna River in Alaska 

June a year ago were greater than for the entire season 
thus far, the total this year being 6.107,479 tons, against 
7,533,824 tons in the single month of June 1920. 


Butte. — At the North Butte property, 70 men are em- 
ployed. Drifting is being done on the lower levels of the 
mine and sundry raises are being completed. Work, how- 
ever, is largely confined to keeping the mine in repair. 

Development work is proceeding in the Butte and Plutas 
mine. It is reported that 2} ft. of good silver ore has been 
uncovered in the Norwich vein on the 40-ft. level. 

The East Butte smelter in June produced less copper 
than in the previous month. The May production was 
1,726,000 lb., due to a clean-up of ore on hand, the large 
furnace operating that month instead of the small one. 
June output was approximately 1,000.000 lb., of which 
50% is East Butte's own production, the remainder repre- 
senting custom ore, largely Davis-Daly's. The East Butte 

approximately $1,000,000. -A new company is being 

formed to take over the Liverpool mine, another old silver 
producer; $250,000 worth of silver ore was shipped from 
the mine during the most recent operations which ended with 
a shut-down about three months ago. 


Divide. — The assets of the Victory Divide have been con- 
veyed to the Reorganized Victory Divide Mining Co., which 
is assessable, and assessment No. 1, for lc. per share, has 
been levied. A report by A. I. D'Arcy, president and gen- 
eral manager, says: "The mine is being developed by means 
of a two-compartment vertical shaft to a depth of 200 ft., 
and by means of an inclined winze on the vein to a depth 
of 500 ft. below the surface. Levels have been driven at 
the 200-, 250-, 310-, 360-, and 500-ft. points, totaling over 
2000 ft. Just east of the shaft on the 200-ft. level is dis- 
closed a large north and south fault, which displaces the 
vein, and it is our intention to drive a cross-cut north-east- 



July 16, 1921 

erly to pick up the faulted segment of the vein east of 
the fault and toward the Brougher Divide". 

Goldfleld. — The Silver Pick has a stope 10 ft. high and 
10 ft. long ahove the drift in which ore was found in the 
foot-wall of the Red Top vein at a depth of 26 5 ft. The av- 
erage grade of ore broken from the drift and stope is $50 
to $70, according to Ben Gill, secretary for the company. 

Hornsilver. — J. W. Dunfee, lessee of the Orleans, has 
shipped three carloads of ore to the MacNamara mill at 
Tonopah. The first carload assayed $32, the second $49; 
the third has not been sampled. This ore is coming from 
the 580-ft. level and Dunfee is prepared to continue the 
shipments indefinitely. The shoot has been opened for a 
length of 120 ft. and a raise is now being driven. The vein 
has not been cross-cut. Both the MacNamara and Belmont 
mills are prepared to handle the ore, which is ideal for cya- 

Klondyke. — Five 6-ton trucks, owned by Charles "Witten- 
berg, a Tonopah contractor, are being used to haul ore from 
the Klondyke district to the mills at Tonopah. There is 
estimated to be 2000 tons of ore broken in the various mines, 
with 10,000 standing in sight. There is estimated to be at 
least 1000 tons broken in the Knox and, since the ore-shoot 
has been found on the bottom levels, there is a huge ton- 
nage standing. Recent developments in the Original Klon- 
dyke have caused the owners, E. Marks and Harry Mac- 
Namara, to raise the price at which they will sell from 
$40,000 to $100,000. Five large samples of several hun- 
dred tons of ore being shipped from the Maupin and Logan 
sub-lease on the Original Klondyke gave $48, $69, $33, 
$27.70, and $26. Strong and Darnell are shipping 100 tons 
of $50 ore from their sub-lease. The ore from both of these 
sub-leases is being sent to the Belmont mill. The finding of 
ore on the bottom level of the Knox is regarded as being of 
importance because it indicates that the shoot extends to 
great depth on the lime-rhyolite contact. 

Lone Mountain. — The vertical shaft being sunk by the 
Electric Gold Mines is 130 ft. deep and it will be continued 
to 200 before lateral work is started. The shaft has passed 
out of the vein into the foot-wall. 

Lovelock. — Mining activity is being resumed at the old 
mining camp of Rileyville on what is known as the Japanese 
property, southeast of Lovelock. Jones & Clark who oper- 
ate the property, report uncovering a shoot of high-grade 
ore assaying close to $500 per ton, largely gold. The high- 
grade shoot is 12 ft. wide and 18 in. thick. The high cost 
of mining and transportation has delayed the operating of 
the. property at full capacity but with the uncovering of the 
high-grade ore work will be resumed. 

The Rochester Silver Corporation made its fortnightly 
shipment of bullion on July 7. The shipment is up to the 
regular average of $28,000 to $30,000. According to the 
management the underground conditions of the mine are 
still good with development work progressing at the rate 
of 750 ft. per month. The mill is operating at full capacity 
on the average tonnage held for the last two and a half 

Mina. — The mill of the Simon Silver Lead Mines Co. is 
90% complete. The company has negotiated a contract 
with the United States Smelting Co. to ship its lead concen- 
trate to the smelter at Midvale. It is reported that the com- 
pany has purchased the controlling interest in a smelting 
plant on the Californian coast in which it will treat its own 
zinc concentrates. The plan is to make zinc-oxide. 

Montezuma. — The Harmill has started widening and re- 
timbering the 100-ft. shaft on the claims bought from Moon 
and Whitaker. It is planned to sink the shaft to 300 ft. 
and extend the drifts on the 50- and 100-ft. levels, which 
are in ore. 

Silver Peak. — The Sanger-Taylor property near here has 
been sold to the Natural Soda Products Co., controlled by 
the Wattersons of Inyo county, California. The Sanger- 
Taylor property is a silver prospect with an 80-£t. shaft. 

Tonopah. — The discovery of 4 ft. of free-milling gold ore 
at the bottom of a 9 5-ft. prospect shaft on the property of 
the Electric Gold Mines Co., is reported. The mine is in the 
Weepah district, 30 miles south-west of here. The prospect 
shaft is near the foot-wall side of the main vein, which is 
known to be over 70 ft. wide, and opens richer ore than has 
heretofore been developed. One cross-cut disclosed ore 
assaying from $12 to $20 per ton for the full width of 70 
ft. A new engine is being added to the plant to give in- 
creased compressor capacity for running hammer-drills. 

The West End Consolidated Co. shipped 33 bars of 
bullion, weighing 66,000 oz., the first week of July. In- 
cluding the gold content the estimated value is $72,000. 
The mine report says that raise No. 12, from the Ohio shaft, 
continues showing a full face of mill-ore. 

It is reported that the second payment of $15,000, on the 
purchase price of the Clifford mine in the Stone Cabin dis- 
trict, has been received here. This payment makes a total 
of $22,500, leaving a balance of $77,500. The recent dis- 
covery of gold ore, assaying $150 per ton, has stimulated 
interest in this district where silver has hitherto been the 
most important metal. 


American Fork Canyon. — What appears to be the most 
important discovery made in this district during the past 
twenty years is the opening of 11 ft. of almost solid galena 
in the Echo claim of the Silver Wave group, according to 
C. B. Ferlin, manager for the American Leasing Co., which 
is operating the property under lease. The discovery was 
made in driving a tunnel from the Live Yankee mine. 
Twenty teams are employed by the company in transporting 
ore down the canyon and bringing supplies up to the prop- 
erties. A.bout 50,000 tons of mill-grade ore has been de- 
veloped and a small concentrating plant is in operation. 

C. W. Earl, superintendent of the Austin property, re- 
ports an important find in a 20-ft. raise from the Austin 
tunnel. An 18-in. vein of high-grade carbonate, with solid 
galena scattered through it, has been opened. In this same 
tunnel, about 75 ft. distant, gray-copper ore is being de- 
veloped. An assay gave returns of 16 oz. silver and 16% 

Eureka. — In spite of decreased prices for lead and cop- 
per, the difficulty of marketing silicious ores and other 
vexations, the production of ore at the Tintic district for 
the first six months of 1921 totaled 3958 carloads, as com- 
pared with 3 501 for the corresponding period of 1920. The 
increase was due principally to the large output of iron 
fluxing-ore at the Iron King mine and to the tonnage 
shipped by the Tintic Standard company to its new milling 
plant. The Tintic Standard was the largest shipper, its out- 
put being 1440 carloads, most of which went to the milling 
plant. The Chief Consolidated was second, with 894 car- 
loads, and the Iron King third, with 339 carloads. 

At the Eagle & Blue Bell and Victoria mines, both of 
which are being operated through the shaft of the former 
company, conditions continue to improve. There are now 
125 men on the payroll, and during July this force will be 
increased to 150 men. Recently miners have been coming 
into this district from other camps. Four cars of ore per 
day are being shipped to the A. S. & R. Co., most of which 
is a silicious silver ore, the remainder being a high-grade 
lead product. At the Victoria mine the high-grade silver- 
lead ore found on the 1350-ft. level, then tapped on the 
145 0, has been reached with a drift on the 1500-ft. level. 

Three shifts are now being employed by the Chief Con- 
solidated Mining Co. in the sinking of the Water Lily shaft- 

July lti. 192] 



The shaft, having three compartments, has been equipped 
with modern hoisting machinery. Active development Is 

An Important discovery was made recently In the prop- 
erty of the Tlntlc Treasure Leasing & Mining Co., In the 
southern part of the district, according to J. S. Free, man- 
ager. The ore Is in a Assure in the porphyry and has been 
developed for 33 ft. in length, with an average width of 
2} ft. Assay returns show 40 to 60 oz. stiver and 20% 
lead. The orebody was opened at a point 185 ft. below the 
surface and 340 ft. from the portal of the adit. 

Milford. — Operations have been resumed at the Bon Saldo 
Mining Co.'s property in the South Star district, according 
to George Miller, manager. The company has recently In- 
stalled a gasoline hoist and a shaft has been sunk to a depth 
of 135 ft. The property adjoins the Moscow mine, once an 
important producer. 

Moab. — A. W. Stevenson, president of the Pittsburgh 
Radium Co., operating claims in the Yellow Cat district, 
reports that a force of IS men is at work. The company is 
building a reduction plant at Denver, which should be com- 
pleted early in August. The principal product will be 
vanadium; it is said that the company has orders from 
Eastern steel-mills. 


Sprlnetfale. — The Cleveland mine, 18 miles west of 
Springdale, resumed operations recently, after being closed 
down since last fall. The mine was once a producer; it is 
equipped with a concentrator and flotation plant. The chief 

metals are silver, lead, and zinc. The Deer Trail mine 

in the same district is reported to be ready for operation, 
and the Queen and Seal has been shipping steadily for sev- 
eral weeks, loading a car o£ ore each week. 

Spokane. — Members of the Columbia Section of the A. I. 
M. & M. E. will take an outing of three days, leaving 
Spokane August 21, for a visit into the east Kootenai min- 
ing district of British Columbia. The party will visit sev- 
eral camps, including the Sullivan mine where they will be 
entertained by engineers of the Consolidated Mining & 
Smelting Co. Arrangements have been made for transporta- 
tion of about 50, including ladies. 


Grand Forks. — The Horn Silver mine has been acquired 
by Herbert Powell. Shipments have been made this year to 
the Trail smelter. It is said that Powell will endeavor to 
interest capital with a view to the installation of a small 
reduction plant. 

Nelson. — The difficulty of identifying mineral ground held 
by Crown Grant and otherwise in some of the districts of 
British Columbia was discussed recently by the B. C. Pros- 
pectors' Association. Considerable areas, it was contended, 
should be re-surveyed, permanent location posts planted, and 
maps prepared on a scale of 1500 ft. to the inch showing all 
important rivers, creeks, and other topographic features 
mentioned in the original field notes. It is argued that 
forest fires, and the natural destructive agencies of nature 
have obliterated old land-marks. 

Prince George. — The North Point Mining Co. is develop- 
ing a promising silver-lead-gold property situated near Hud- 
son Spur on the Fraser river and near the Grand Trunk 
Pacific Railway. Recent work is re.ported to have cut an 
8-ft. vein showing good assays. The main adit now in 350 
ft. is expected to strike the principal vein at about 600 feet. 

Revelstoke. — Frederick Keffer, of Spokane, is making an 
examination of the Lardeau district in the interest of Spo- 
kane capitalists, who, if the examination is favorable, con- 
template operating a dredge in the district. 

Trail. — The smelter receipts for the third week in June 

totalled 6476 tons. The Florence mine, at Alnsworth, con- 
tributed 102 tons; Knob Hill, Republic, GO; Surprise, Re- 
public, 87; and the Consolidated company's mines, 6237. 

The abandonment of Its Red Mountain branch by the 

Great Northern Railway Co. will leave the Josle and Velvet 
mines, at Rossland, without transportation facilities. More 
than a million dollars has been spent on the development 
and equipment of these mines. The owners of the Joale 
were about to erect a concentrating plant, and Improvements 
had been planned for the Velvet, a strong company recently 
having been formed for the purpose. The Great Northern 
company claims that the lino has been operated at a loss for 
some time, and no other course was open to the company. 

Victoria. — The Provincial Department of Mines has issued 
the annual report for the year ended December 31, 1920. 
The final figures of the value of production come within 
$50,000 of the estimate made by the Provincial Mineralogist 
at the commencement of the year, but some of the individual 
items vary vastly from the early estimate. Thus, for ex- 

Part of British Columbia 

ample, as your correspondent suggested at the time, the 
figures for the zinc production were altogether too high in 
the preliminary estimate, being some 29 million pounds in 
excess of the actual production. On the other hand, the 
figures for the lead production were some 18 million pounds 
too low, and were the means of doing much to counteract 
the error made in the zinc production. The followiug are 
the final figures, those of 1919 being given for comparison: 

1919 . . 1920 . 

Quantity Value Quantity Value 

Placer gold, oz 14.325 S286.500 11.080 $221,000 

Lode gold, oz 152.426 3.150.845 120.048 2,481.392 

Silver, oz 3.403,199 3.592.673 3.377.849 3.235.980 

Conner, lb 42.459.339 7.939.896 44.887.876 7.832.899 

Lead, lb 29.475.968 1.528.855 39.331.218 2.816.115 

Zine. lb 56.737.651 3.540.429 47.208.268 3.077.979 

Coal, long tons 2,267.541 11,337.705 2,695.125 12.975.625 

Coke, long tone 91.138 637.966 67.792 474.544 

Miscellaneous products 1.283.644 2.426,950 

S33.296.313 J35.543.0S4 


Choix. — It is reported that the Lluvia de Oro Gold Mining 
Co. has nearly exhausted the present ore-reserves and will 
not undertake further development of the property at the 
present time. 


Dawson. — G. P. Mackenzie, Gold Commissioner for the 
Yukon, has been made a land commissioner for the North- 
west Territories, in order that claims staked in the Fort 
Norman oilfield by Yukoners may be recorded at Dawson, 
thus avoiding a trip to Edmonton for the purpose. 



July 16, 1921 


The Editor invites members of the profession to send particulars of their 
work and appointments. The information is interesting to our readers. 

E. B. Rider is at Bisbee, Arizona. 

A. G. MacGregor has returned from Peru. 

M. A. Newman is at Los Angeles, California. 

D. O. Lima is now at Minneapolis, Minnesota. 
A. B. Shutts is now at Pittstown, Pennsylvania. 
Gilbert Hart is residing at Haileyville, Oklahoma. 
Henry P. Collins has returned to London from Spain. 
Lewis L. Bradbury is on his way from Los Angeles to 


Thomas H. Sheldon, formerly of Denver, is at San Martin, 

Charles Butters is not expected home from Nicaragua un- 
til September. 

Fred Searls, Jr., on his return hither from China, went 
to New York. 

A. P. Mallon is with the Dean Mines company, at King- 
man, Arizona. 

J. N. Justice has returned to England from Demarara, 
British Guiana. 

Paul R. Cook has returned from the Near East and is now 
at Rolla, Missouri. 

John Hays Hammond was in San Francisco this week, on 
his way to the Orient. 

E. R. Wolcott, of the Western Precipitation Co., Los 
Angeles, is in New York. 

W. S. Stevens, of Chicago, expects to leave shortly for a 
two months trip to England. 

Thomas P. Carr is now manager for the Cia. Minera 
Anglo-Hispana, at Leon, Spain. 

L. S. Cates has returned to Salt Lake City, after a six 
weeks visit to Boston and New York. 

C. F. Rand has been elected to honorary membership in 
the Iron & Steel Institute, of London. 

A. K. Anderson is now with the Howrey Creek Mining 
Corporation, at Willisville, Ontario, Canada. 

George C. Jones, general manager of the Minas del Tajo 
and other properties in Mexico, is at Palo Alto. 

Norman C. Stines has been appointed receiver for the 
Alaska Mines Corporation and is now at Nome. 

John B. Harper, of Jerome, Arizona, was in San Francisco 
recently on his way to Sonoma county, California. 

Edward W. Packard, principal. owner of the Gemini mine 
in the Tintic district, recently visited the property. 

Algernon Del Mar has returned from Mexico to Los An- 
geles, where he expects to remain until the autumn. 

C. W. Whitley, vice-president of the American Smelting 
& Refining Co., spent several days at the Tacoma plant of 
the company recently. 

J. E. Scott; from India, is making a tour through the 
West, with a view to informing himself concerning Ameri- 
can methods of leasing mineral land. 

Percy E. Barbour, the assistant secretary of the American 
Institute of Mining & Metallurgical Engineers, who has been 
seriously ill, is reported to be convalescent. 

Charles Janin, in his capacity as consulting engineer to 
the U. S. Bureau of Mines, will make a study of cold-water 
thawing as used in alluvial mining in Alaska. 

A. L. Feild, formerly assistant metallurgist at the Pitts- 
burgh station of the D. S. Bureau of Mines, is now with the 

Union Carbide & Carbon Corporation, Long Island City, 
New York. 

H. G. McClain and Webster P. Cary are now in partner- 
ship as McClain & Cary, mining and metallurgical engineers, 
at 708 Harrison avenue, Leadville, Colorado. 

D. Vogt, the retiring president of the British America 
Nickel Corporation, intends to leave shortly for Norway, to 
take charge of the company's affairs in Europe. 

T. Skewes Saunders, for several years the general man- 
ager for the Dos Estrellas Mining Co., at El Oro, Mexico, 
has opened an office at 525 Ediflcio La Mutua, Mexico, D. F. 
The Hon. William Sloan, Minister of Mines for British 
Columbia, has been granted two months sick leave and has 
retired to his hunting-lodge, at Horn Lake, north of Na- 

C. E. Davies has accepted the appointment of managing 
editor of 'Mechanical Engineering', and the 'Engineering 
Index', the two publications of the American Society of 
Mechanical Engineers. 

Frank G. Janney, general superintendent of mills for the 
Utah Copper Co., at. Garfield, Utah, has resigned, effective 
July 1. He is now associated with the Stimpson Equipment 
Co., of Salt Lake City. 

Paul Hillsdale, a well-known mining engineer of Utah and 
Colorado, was married on June 21, at Eureka, Utah, to Miss 
Maude Fitch, daughter of Walter Fitch, president of the 
Chief Consolidated Mining Company. 

Robert W. Butler has been appointed manager for the 
Mine & Smelter Supply Co. at Salt Lake City, succeeding 
W. R. Thurston, who has accepted a position with the Mc- 
Intosh-Seymour Corporation, of New York. 

Ralph S. Baverstock, of Baverstock & Payne, Los Angeles, 
having returned from an examination trip to the Mt. Gleason 
mining district, has left for Mojave. H. L. Payne, of the 
same firm, has gone to Yuma and to the Dome district on 
mining business. 

Charles Salter, works manager of the Straits Trading Co.'s 
tin smelter at Singapore, is making a tour of metallurgical 
and mining districts in this country. He spent several days 
in Utah recently. He will sail from New York on July 23 
for Liverpool, on his way home. 

C. Yale Pfoutz, of Salt Lake City, who has been metal- 
lurgical engineer with the Utah Copper Co. for a number of 
years, has accepted the position of Assistant Professor of 
Metallurgy at the Colorado School of Mines. He will take 
up his new duties on September 1. 

W. A. Clark, president of the United Verde Copper Co. 
and the Ophir Hill Consolidated Mining Co., spent several 
days in Utah recently, visiting the property of the latter 
company. He will sail from San Francisco on August 2 for 
a vacation in Honolulu. 


William J. Richards was killed recently at the Mononga- 
hela mine at Crystal Falls, Michigan, as a result of an 
accident due to the overwinding of a cable. 

John Gately May died recently at Denver, Colorado. He 
was born on April 24, 1880. After completing his junior 
year in the Fremont High School he took a mining engineer- 
ing course at the Colorado School of Mines, at Golden, Colo- 
rado, graduating in 1901. He then spent three years in San 
Javier, Sonora, and Durango, Mexico, in professional work. 
After returning to the United States, he made his head- 
quarters in Denver, where he continued his studies and re- 
search work, taking up civil and electrical engineering. He 
traveled extensively, visiting and studying various mining 
projects in Colorado, Wyoming, Nevada, California, and New 
Mexico. He was connected with a number of domestic and 
foreign mining corporations. 

July 16, 192] 




San Francisco. July 1 

Aluminum dust, cents per pound 

Antimony cmtl per pound 

Copper, electrolytic, cents per pound 

Lead. pur. cent** per pound 

Platinum, pure, par ounce 

Platinum. 10c e iridium, per ounce 

Quicksilver, per flask of 75 lb 

Spelter, cents per pound 

Zinc-dust. ccnU per pound 



l 85 

84 li 

e 50 



(By wire from New York) 
July 11. — Copper is inactive and soft. Lead is quiet but firm. Zinc is 
dull and steady. 


Below are Fiven official or ticker quotations for silver in the open market 
as distinguished from the fixed price obtainable for metal produced, smelted, 
and refined exclusively within the United States. Under the terms of the 
Pittman Act such silver will be purchased by the United States Mint at $1 
per ounce, subject to certain small charges which vary slightly but amount 
to approximately three-eighths of one cent. The equivalent of dollar silver 
(1000 fine) in British currency is 46.65 pence per ounce (925 fine), calcu- 
lated at the normal rate of exchange. 


. . . 59.00 

6 50.50 

7 50.00 

R 58.50 


10 Sunday 


New York London 


Jan 1011': 

Feb 101.12 

Meh lull-: 

Apr 101 12 

May 107.23 

June 110.50 



36 25 
.■10 ss 

r,o :\r. 




Average week ending 

C< nt- Pence 

30 58.16 33.60 

57.68 33.75 

13 58.39 35.20 

20 58.77 35 IS 

27 58.69 35.25 

4 58.90 85.33 

11 58.30 36.75 


1919 1920 1921 

July 106.3(1 92.04 

Aus 111.85 90.28 

Sept 113.92 03.66 

ii.l 119.10 83.48 

Nov 127.57 77.73 

Dec 131.92 64.78 

Prices of electrolytic, in cents per pound. 





5 12.62 

6 12.62 

7 12.62 

8 12.62 


10 Sunday 


Monthly averages 
1920 1921 
19.25 12.94 
19.05 12.84 
18.49 12.20 
19.23 12.50 
19.05 12.74 
19.00 12.83 

Average week ending 
30 13.26 

6 13.08 

13 12.91 

20 12.85 

27 12.68 

4 12.62 

11 12.62 


Feb 17.34 

Meh 15.05 

•Apr 15.23 

May 15.91 

June 17.63 


July 20.82 

Aug 22.51 

Sept 22.10 

Oct 21.66 

Nov 20.45 

Dec 18.55 




' Lead is quoted in cents per pound. New York delivery. 



5 4.40 May 

6 4.40 June 

7 4.45 " 13. 

8 4.45 " 20. 

9 4.45 " 27. 

10 Sunday July 


Monthly averages 

Average week ending 

30 5.02. 

6 4.90 



. . 5.60 

Feb 5.13 

Meh 5.24 

Apr 5.05 

May 5.04 

June 5.32 




. 7.12 


Prices in New York, in cents per pound. 

Monthly averages 


Jan 71.50 

Feb 72.44 

Meh 72.50 

Apr 72.50 

May 72.50 

June 71.83 




July 70.11 

Aug 62.20 

Sept 55.79 

Oct 54. 82 

Nov 54.17 

Dec 54.94 





Zinc Is quoted as spelter, standard Western brands. New York, delivery. 

in cents per pound. 

July 5 4.75 

6 4.75 

7 4.75 

8 4 75 

9 4.75 

10 Sunday 
" 11 



Average week ending 






:. ■:.-. 
:. 17 

I 75 

Monthly averages 

1919 1920 1921 



June 6.91 


9 15 

8 O.I 




5 10 




7 84 



The primary market for quicksilver is San Francisco. California being 
the largest producer. The price is fixed in the open market, according to 
quantity. Prices, in dollars per flask of 75 pounds. 

Date I June 28 48.00 

June 14 50.00 July 5 48.00 

21 00.00 I ■• 12 48.00 

Monthly averages 






Jan. . . 

. . .103.75 



July . . 



Feb. . . 

. . . 90.00 



Aug. . . 

. . .103.00 


Meh. . . 

. . . 72.80 



Sept. . . 

. . .102.80 


Apr. . . 

. . . 73.12 



Oct. . . 

. . . 86.00 


May . . 

. . . 84.80 



Nov. . . 

. . . 78.00 


June . . 




Dec. . . 




Wc have one hundred millions of people, the most resourceful and 
enterprising- on earth. Not all of them are producers, but every living 
one of them is a consumer, says the "Manufacturers Record*. They are 
accustomed to a high, standard of living. They do not scrimp them- ivea 
in food, or clothes, or pleasure. They have no faith in the philisophy that 
man is put on earth to do without. They believe that it is high motive 
to have large desires and achieve in such a way as to be able to satisfy 

There is nothing- more foreign to the American disposition than a buyer's 
strike. Americans fail to buy primarily not because they are on strike, 
but because they are without the means to buy. There was sharp ruin 
and the shadow of impending- disaster in the repeated warnings of Govern- 
ment officials last year that people cease from purchasing - . It meant the 
beginning 1 of a cycle of stagnation. 

The economists said that the solution of the world's gTeat problem was 
production and more production. All production has been cut to the 
minimum. There is hardly a basic commodity in the wide world whose 
production is not at the lowest. Be it steel or lumber or the things that 
g-row out of the earth, there is underproduction in all alike. And this at 
a time when the world has four years of destruction to make g-ood! This 
at a time when every factory in the world migrht run day and night for 
years before making: up the deficiencies! Therein is tomorrow's sun. 
There are economic laws which are as sure and fixed in their working as 
the rising' tide. The underproduction of today foretells the insatiable de- 
mand of tomorrow. Not only will the 100 millions of people in this coun- 
try begin before long- to meet their needs, but so will the millions abroad. 
And the first signs of the rising tide will bring so soon a sense of confidence 
that rising" prices, like a healing- flood, will stir to life every channel of 

None knows better that we do the tragic mistakes which have been 
made. We exposed them before they were made, but our voice of warning- 
was as that of one crying" in the wilderness. Those mistakes are now. at 
last, everywhere being recognized. The Government is reversing- its credit 
policy, slowly but surely. Counterblasts to the devastating publicity put 
out from Washington last year are being- issued. A new psychology is 
being- built up — the psycholoiry of faith and enterprise. No longer is 
Washing-ton advising people not to buy. It is urging- them to buy. 

Men still g-o about their business, still eat. still sleep, still walk, still 
play, still love, still fight, still desire, still have ambition, still labor, still 
spend, There is nothing that can hold them back. Peoples that con- 
quered the Hindenburg: line and smiled through years of hell will not 
succumb and he them down to die because depression in trade has swept 
like poison gas over the land. They who won the war can win the peace; 
they can and they will MAKE prosperity. 


Foreign quotations on July 1" are as follows: 

Sterling", dollars : Cable 3.fi4 % 

Demand 3.66 94 

France, cents: Cable 7.i)0 

Demand 7.88 

Lire, cents: Demand 4.59 

Marks, cents 1-36 



July 16, 1921 

Eastern Metal Market 

New York, July 6. 

The tariff, with its new duties, is the principal topic dis- 
cussed in market circles in the absence of any activity. The 
new tariff carries proposed import duties on tin, lead, and 
zinc. There has been little change in prices, which are firm 
to higher. 

Buying of copper is still very light; price-changes have 
been insignificant. 

Selling of tin has been confined to one day with prices 
firm and steady. 

The lead market is very quiet with prices decidedly steady. 

Prices in the zinc market are slightly higher but buying is 
still confined to urgent needs which are small. 

The reduction in prices of various steel products formerly 
made on July 5 by the Bethlehem Steel Co. have been met 
by such of the other producers as were not already selling 
at the new Bethlehem levels. The fact is, that, as to some 
products, the announcement merely recorded what the 
market already had done, says 'The Iron Age'. 

For the six months ending June 30 the country's pig-iron 
output, exclusive of charcoal iron, was 9,428,000 tons, 
against 18,139,000 tons in the first half of 1920. 

Opposition in the steel trade to the metal schedule of the 
new tariff bill centres on the manganese ore and ferro- 
manganese duties, which steel manufacturers consider far 
too high. There is also the anomaly that 20 units of man- 
ganese in spiegeleisen pay $1.25 duty, whereas 80 units in 
ferro-manganese pay $39.42, or at nearly an eight-fold rate. 
The general provision for American valuations would be of 
little help in keeping out European steel, since nearly all 
steel duties are specific and hence do not involve valuations. 

It is understood that the one or two small interests which 
were selling copper at the lowest prices, recently have either 
parted with all the metal they have or have withdrawn from 
the market. This has stiffened the market to some extent 
but prices for most of the business being done remain the 
same on the average as a week ago, namely, 12.S7JC, de- 
livered, or 12.62*c, New York, for July delivery. So^ie 
sales have probably been made under this level but it repre- 
sents the general market. In any event, sales have not been 
heavy. Most, if not all, of the so-called large producers are 
still out of the market and quoting nothing less than 13 to 
13.25c, delivered, for July. The Lake copper market is 
practically on the same level as the electrolytic. 

The feature of the week has been the duty on pig-tin, pro- 
posed in the new tariff hill submitted to Congress last week. 
It carries a duty of 2c. per pound on pig-tin with tin ore 
admitted free. This contrasts with the request for 10c. per 
pound on pig-tin and 6c. per pound on tin contained in ores, 
which was fathered by important interests. The moderate 
duty, while not as acceptable as free tin which is the rule 
now, is a matter of satisfaction to importers in that it is so 
much less than seemed imminent at one time. The week 
has been a quiet one — almost stagnant except for one day; 
on July 1, about 300 to 400 tons was sold consisting of 
prompt shipment from England and of future shipment from 
the East at .29.25 to 29.37JC. This was bought by dealers 
largely. Prices have been firm to higher here and in 
London. Yesterday British prices were £4 to £5 per ton 
higher than a week ago with spot standard quoted at £172 
5s., future standard at £174 5s., and spot Straits at £172 5s. 
per ton. The spot Straits market at New York has been 
between 29 and 30c. during the week, with the quotation 
yesterday at 29.87AC The quantity of tin delivered into 

consumption during June was 1590 tons with the amount in 
stocks and landing at 2546 tons on June 30. Imports to 
July 1, this year, were 8918 tons against 27,743 tons to 
July 1, 1920, or only about one-third. 

The feature of this market is the fact that in this locality 
at least, no metal can be bought from any of the independent 
producers. The leading interest therefore has the market 
to itself at 4.40c, New York, which is also the quotation at 
St. Louis. Independents there, however, are selling around 
4.25 to 4.35c. for delivery in Chicago and the West. Inde- 
pendents, if they quote at New York, are offering nothing 
less than 4. 624c The new tariff proposes a duty of 2ic per 
pound on pig-lead as against the ad valorem duty, now, of 
2.25%. This is a decided advance for with lead selling at 
4c, London, as today, this would mean a cost of 6ic duty- 
paid, seaboard, as against 5c now, freight not being con- 
sidered, or being the same in both cases. 

Prices of prime Western for early delivery in wholesale 
lots are slightly higher at 4.35c, St. Louis, or 4.85c, New 
York, or 10 points above those ruling a week ago. This is 
due partly, it is said, to the proposed duty of about 2c per 
pound, effective for the first year after it goes into effect, 
but probably the major factor in stiffening the market is the 
fact that no producer will sell under this level and that those 
who were willing have disappeared. Demand is still con- 
fined to small lots for immediate needs and it develops now 
and then that some consumers have large stocks and others 
have almost nothing. Some who had large stocks sold them 
at a loss some time ago and are buying only as their needs 
develop, usually at lower levels. 


Wholesale lots for early delivery are quoted at 4.75c, 
New York, duty paid, with the market quiet. Jobbing lots 
are about Jc per pound higher. 


The leading producer continues to quote wholesale lots 
for early delivery unchanged at 28c. f.o.h. producer's plant, 
while the same grade from foreign sources is obtainable at 
22 to 23.50c, New York. 


Tungsten: No change is recorded; the market is quiet. 
Quotations are nominal at $3 to $3.25 per unit for Chinese 
ores with Bolivian and other ores at $3.75 to $4 per unit. 

Ferro-tungsten is unchanged at 48 to 50c per pound of' 
contained tungsten in lump form, guaranteed as to quality. 

Molybdenum: The market is without feature with quota- 
tions nominal at 50c per pound of MoS, in regular concen- 
trate, usually 85%. 

Manganese: There is no demand with quotations nominal 
at 22.50c. per unit for high-grade foreign ore. A duty of 
lc. per unit is contained in the proposed new tariff bill. 

Manganese-Don Alloys: There is no activity in either 
ferro-manganese or spiegeleisen and prices are nominal, 
those for ferro-manganese being $75, seaboard, for the 
British alloy and $80, delivered, for the American. Prices 
for spiegeleisen are $3 0, furnace. A carload of ferro-man- 
ganese is reported sold at about $72.50, delivered, and 
there are inquiries for two 100-ton lots of spiegeleisen. The 
production of ferro-manganese in June, according to blast- 
furnace reports of 'The Iron Age', was only 453 6 tons, or 
the lowest for any month on record. No spiegeleisen was 
made in June. The tariff on manganese ore and ferro- 
manganese is a topic of much interest, with various views 
depending on the person or company interested. 

SnafinDsj sumi 



A. w. Allen I . 

A. B. Parsons /amociat. Editors 

Member Audit Bureau of Circulations 
Member Associated Business Papers, Inc. 


PublMrrl at uo itarkrt SI.. Han Franelteo. 
by the Dewy Pubtithing Company 

C.T. Hutchinson, manarer 



itiinmitDnmiimiiiMinnnijiiinnniiiiiiiiiiiinniiiiiiri iiiimtiim 

ilitiilniiiniiiiiiinmiimniiiiimtiiimiimiiiiiiiif i iiiiiiinmn inn inn inn niiinniiililnlnnliinii 


Issued every Saturday 

San Francisco, July 23, 1921 

$4 per Year — IB Cents per Copy 



NOTES 107 


Fordney Tariff Bill. Special interests. Need for 
the protection of young industries. War-time re- 
quirements. Production of tin in the United States. 
Exploitation of known resources. Decrease in ex- 
ports. Gold in storage. Mr. Hoover's opinions. 


Use of copper in the electrical industry. New 
plants in the Western States. Anaconda company's 
sales. Electrification of railways. Changes in 
England. The Midi system in France. Water- 
power in Italy. Projects in Belgium, Spain, 
Sweden, and Germany. Electricity — the modern 
form of power. 


Mr. Ford's offer to the Government to operate the 
nitrate plants. The inter-relation of industrial ef- 
forts. Conditions of purchase. Mr. Ford's methods 
at Detroit. The Chilean nitrate industry. 



By N. Thompson 113 

Coking coals of Washington, and of British Co- 
lumbia. Establishment of iron and steel plant on 
the Coast. Cost of production. Iron from China. 
Growth and development of the West. 


By R. H. Stretch 114 

Appearance of non-metallic minerals. Colemanite 
in Nevada. 


By W. W. Rush 114 

Adverse criticism on clause relating to disposition 
of mining records. 

By L. I. Munscn 115 

A plea for the retention of the old mining code. 

By Charles A. Bramble 115 

Need for mathematics. Uee of languages. 


By P. B. McDonald 116 

Advice on book-reviewing. Criticism. 'Carping' 

details, such as the fixed-nitrogen problem in the 
United States, should receive minor attention. 


By Leon J. Richardson 116 

A complaint as to the attitude of those in control 
of the corporation to the stockholders. 



By A. W. Allen 117 

Residue disposal. Handling of solutions. De- 
chloridizing. The electrolytic department. Melt- 
ing of copper. Social welfare. 


By J. Nelson Nevius 122 

Former history. Origin of name. Stock-jobbing. 
New development. Unwatering. Exhaustion and 
abandonment. Geology. 


By Victor H. Wilhelm 125 

Area covered by reconnaissance. Mining in the 
district. Sedimentaries in southern area. Geology 
of the district. 


By K. P. McElroy 128 

Conditions at the Patent-Office. Work of the 
Smoot-Reavis committee. Control of the Office. 
Function. Need for good patents. Reorganization. 


By H. C. Hoover 131 

Future of foreign trade." The situation and its 




MINES 127 








Established May 24 1860. as The Scientific Press: name changed October Branch Offices— -Chicaeo. 600 Fisher Bdir.: New York. 31 Nassau St. 

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. . 


July 23, 1921 

77y e History of ifaa Wzlfley 
is th@ History of Concentration 

Greatest Travel — Least External Agitation 

The Wilfley head-motion has a differential move- 
ment which gives the greatest travel to the material 
with the least amount of external agitation. 

The light, rigid deck, moving in a perfectly hori- 
zontal line, is provided with riffles adjusted so that the. 
gangue will be eliminated all along the table from 
end to end. 

Under the influence of the table's motion, the ma- 
terial is carried forward until it reaches the smooth, 
unriffled portion where it is acted upon by the water 
which completes a perfect separation of the gangue 
from the mineral. 

There is never any attempt to force the material to 
take any path except that caused by the co-efficiency 
of the action of the head-motion, the wash-water of 
uniform graduation and the guiding influence of 
properly designed riffles. 

The great success of the Wilfley is due to the ad- 
herence to these basic principles of concentration as 
discovered by Mr. Wilfley in 1896. 

Send for the nett) 
Wilfley "Boo%let. 

The Mine and Smelter 
Supply Company 

"Denver Salt La%e City El Paso 

Nett) York. Office: 42 "Broadway 

Chicago Representative: 


4555 Maiden Street, 

Chicago, III, 

Pacific Coast Office: 

Mills "Building, San Francisco 

M. H. CARPENTER, Representative 

Latest Model 
Wilfley Gable 
No. 11 D. 

July 23, 1921 



hi minimum imiiuii i i 



PRESIDENT HARDING'S message on the Bonus Bill 
•*■ reminds us of the story of the Chinese cook and the 
tramp. The latter opened the kitchen-door and said, "I 
want something to eat". "You eatee ftish?"' asked the 
suave Chinaman. "Yes." "All lite, you come Fliday." 
Joking apart, the President has shown courage and good 
sense in opposing a gratuity of $500 to every service man, 
while at the same time emphasizing the need for concen- 
trating any national benevolence upon those who are 
disabled or dependent. "We hope that his wise action in 
this matter will serve to encourage efforts toward Fed- 
eral economy in other directions. 

A CCORDING to the 'Pioche Record', the 'Mining and 

■*"*■ Scientific Press' has "endorsed the new sensational 
bonanza silver camp" of Silverhorn, and to the Editor 
personally, as a "famous geologist and writer", is 
credited responsibility for this unqualified endorsement. 
All this appears in a telegram dated from New York as 
if to give it additional credence. The basis for these 
friendly exaggerations is an item that appeared in our 
news columns, for the accuracy of which the Editor is 
only indirectly responsible. We have correspondents in 
the various mining districts and they send us the sifted 
gossip of the camp ; that, of course, is news, but it is a 
long way from being an expression of editorial opinion. 
We note that "a big interest" in the Silver Peer prospect 
has been sold to 'Tex' Rickard, so next the Editor will 
be credited with speculating on his own account, for the 
fight promoter has been identified more than once with 
him. Mr. George Lewis Rickard is a useful man in his 
day and generation, but we are not warranted in claim- 
ing any kinship, physical or mental, with him. As for 
Silverhorn, it is a promising district and we wish it good 
luck. That is all. 

• - Editor 

iiiiiiiiliiiiiiiiitiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiniiiiitiiiiiiiitMiiiiiiiiiiitiiiiiitiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiinii HM 

All appear to be poorly paid, 30 clerks receiving no 
more than $60 per month. The United Engineering 
Societies has issued a statement that draws attention to 
these wholesale resignations, and also to the fact that 
Ihe Office is reaching a point of disorganization that 
threatens a crisis. Immediate legislation is necessary. 
The situation is described in this issue by Mr. K. P. 
MeElroy, whose article we have re-printed from the 
columns of our contemporary, the 'Journal of Industrial 
and Engineering Chemistry'. As Mr. MeElroy con- 
tends, a man of education and standing needs some- 
thing more than salary to keep him in the job: he re- 
quires a certain amount of pride of place and dignity of 
position. If paid merely what he is worth and what he 
can command elsewhere, and if there are no other in- 
ducements, inertia is all that will hold him. The salaries 
paid in the Patent Office are too low, and there are no 
other inducements ; hence the present chaos. 

rPHE Commissioner of the U. S. Patent Office describes 
•*- that institution as the largest 10-cent store in the 
world ; for it sells weekly a vast number of specifications 
at that modest figure from its assorted stock of 75,000,- 
000 copies. However, something more than financial 
success is needed, for the department is one of national 
importance. This being the case, it is all the more re- 
grettable that conditions are such that a constant stream 
of its officials are 'seeking pastures new'. It is reported 
that over 100 examiners have resigned within twelve 
months, as well as nearly 150 of those in clerical posts. 

pOLONEL GEORGE HARVEY must feel foolish 
^ when he meets veterans of the recent war or of 
other wars, of which there have been plenty during the 
last twenty years, for his military title is based upon 
service as a colonel and aide-de-camp on the staff of a 
Governor; indeed he must have been fond of the mas- 
querade for, according to 'Who's Who', he has accepted 
that theatrical appointment four times, twice on the staff 
of a Governor of New Jersey and twice on the staff of a 
Governor of South Carolina. He is a clever man, why 
did he do it? Did it ensure him a railroad pass or sundry 
perquisites? Here we may note that both the 'New Re- 
public' and the 'Weekly Review' write about 'Mr.' 
Smuts while they refer to ' Colonel ' Harvey. It may not 
be surprising that a paper so ill-mannered and showing 
so little sense of humor as the 'New Republic' should 
make the blunder, but that self-appointed antidote to 
radicalism, the 'Weekly', ought to know better, for the 
South African statesman has been in command of armies 
in two great wars while Mr. Harvey was participating 
in the political vaudeville of two provincial Governors. 
Colonel House likewise obtained his military title by 
serving on the decorative staff of a Governor of Texas; 
he must have felt like a chump when asked when and 
where he had seen service as a soldier, particularly when 
he found himself in the presence of generals who were 
commanding the biggest armies that the world had ever 
seen in battle array. Surely it is time for an American 



July 23, 1921 

of distinction, notably an Ambassador, to drop these 
provincial trappings. 'Mr.' is a prefix good enough for 
the representative of our democratic Republic. 

OUFFICIENT ore has been treated at the new plant 
*^ of the Shasta Zinc & Copper Company at Winthrop, 
California, to prove the technical success and economic 
practicability of the process developed by the River 
Smelting & Refining Company at Florence, Colorado, 
for the smelting of the complex sulphide ore from the 
Bully Hill mine. The treatment of this ore has been for 
years the subject of investigation by numerous metal- 
lurgists, especially with respect to that class of ore in 
which the zinc content is high and the copper low ; this 
naturally had been allowed to remain in the mine as long 
as profitable operation on ore richer in copper was pos- 
sible. That now being smelted contains about 25% zinc 
and 2%, copper, together with some gold and silver. It is 
crushed and roasted inMcDougall furnaces preliminary to 
smelting in a reverberatory. The design and operation of 
the furnace differ in no essential particular from the or- 
dinary copper reverberatory except that a combustion- 
chamber is provided for the oxidation of volatilized zinc 
as effected in the standard Wetherill furnace for the 
treatment of oxidized zinc ores. The copper carries the 
gold and silver into the matte. Exact analyses are not 
available, but we are informed on good authority that 
the matte is low in zinc and the slag reasonably low in 
both zinc and copper. The grade of the zinc oxide, col- 
lected in a bag-house of the usual type, is excellent; it 
is comparatively free of lead, and is contaminated with 
neither soot nor sulphates to an objectionable extent. 
The absence of lead makes it suitable for use in the 
automobile-tire industry, whereas freedom from discolor- 
ing matter fits it to serve in the manufacture of paint. 
Aside from the practical demonstration of the suitability 
of a reverberatory furnace for making zinc oxide, the 
success of the new plant is of interest because it may 
lead to the treatment of large quantities of complex 
ore elsewhere in California. Credit is due to Messrs. 
R. C. Beals, general superintendent, J. C. Kinnear, con- 
sulting engineer, and J. H. Rose, smelter superin- 

TN this issue we publish a synopsis of the annual report 
-*• of the Chile Copper Company, with interesting data 
concerning the year's operations at Chuquicamata, as 
well as the concluding article of a series on the enter- 
prise, by our Mr. A. W. Allen, who visited the property 
last year. The two accounts, one official, and the other 
from a detached source, have much in agreement; Mr. 
Daniel Guggenheim makes no idle boast when he says, 
in the report, that the operations of the company "have 
now passed the development stage; the metallurgical pre- 
dictions of your engineers have been met ; your company 
has an extremely efficient staff of loyal and expert em- 
ployees, and has arrived at a permanent stage of consist- 
ent and highly satisfactory operating results ' '. The figures 
speak for themselves, and the policy of the company, in 
placing all technical information in the hands of those 

who are interested, is to be commended. Speaking of 
the financial future of this great enterprise, Mr. Guggen- 
heim is optimistic. Holders of copper securities will 
soon be rewarded for their patience, he says. The lowest 
estimate, based on conditions as they exist at the present 
time, but not taking into consideration the large increase 
in the demand for copper that should come from Ger- 
many and the rest of the world, indicates that the con- 
sumption of copper is about 675,000 tons per annum, and 
the mine production about 375,000 tons per annum. At 
this ratio it is obvious that it will not take long to absorb 
the entire copper surplus. It is estimated that produc- 
tion is now about 30% of normal consumption, as based 
on pre-war statistics, plus the usual annual increase as in 
the past. The German plants that manufacture copper 
products are now re-established at full capacity. Raw 
material in quantity will be needed in Germany, so that 
the indemnity obligations can be met by the exportation 
of finished articles. In addition, the high price of coal, 
the relative cheapness of water-power, and the increased 
demands for such facilities as telephones and other elec- 
trical apparatus, will ensure a strong demand for the 
copper on which the electrical industry depends. We 
share Mr. Guggenheim's optimism, and believe that a re- 
vival in the industry is not far off. 

4"TkISCUSSION' this week starts with a valuable an- 
alysis of the conditions governing the possible, or 
probable, establishment of an iron and steel industry on 
the Pacific Coast. The writer, Mr. Nicol Thompson, has 
made a special investigation of the subject and is thor- 
oughly competent to discuss the matter authoritatively. 
Mr. R. H. Stretch, now residing at Seattle, is known to 
our readers as the author of that useful book on ' Pros- 
pecting, Locating, and Valuing Mines'. Recently when 
at Virginia City we saw his name on some old mine-maps, 
reminding us that he is a veteran indeed. "We wish he 
could find time to record some of his experiences on the 
Comstock during the spacious times of the boom in the 
'seventies. The new mining law as yet has not been re- 
ceived with favor by the prospectors who have written 
to us on the subject. Both Mr. "W. W. Rush, of Kasaan, 
and Mr. L. I. Munson, of Republic, dislike sundry of its 
provisions. "We shall be glad to hear from those who 
like the proposed revision ; there must be many who favor 
it. Mr. Charles A. Bramble writes pleasantly, from 
"Winnipeg, on the educating of an engineer, and gives 
the experience of his own life. Such testimony is valu- 
able. "We agree as to the basic value of mathematics as 
a training for the mental faculties. Mr. Bramble's Latin 
may have been scant, but it was enough evidently to help 
him in the use of our language, to which Latin has con- 
tributed so much, particularly for scientific usage. Our 
friend 'P. B.', as he is known to his acquaintances, 
writes from London in continuation of his little differ- 
ence with our Mr. Allen. We agree that reviews should 
give the reader a fair and complete idea of the contents 
and character of a book, because, after all is said, the 
primary purpose of a review is to tell the reader whether 

July 23, 1921 



it will be worth his while to purchase it or obtain a copy 
at the nearest library. Tin' Inst letter of 'Discus 
this week is particularly interesting because it is a legiti- 
mate and proper protest from a minority stockholder 
against laxity, if not impropriety, in the management of 
company affairs. With such protests, when honestly 
made, we have the utmost sympathy. Mr. Richardson is 
Professor of Latin in the University of California: he is 
one of onr foremost educators, and a man widely known 
for his sagacity in such public affairs as come within his 
wide scope. In onr issue of May 28 we published a letter 
from Mr. C. G. Fowler, in which a complaint similar to 
that of Professor Richardson was made against the Con- 
solidated Gold Fields management of the American 
Trona Corporation. Mr. Fowler bought a large block of 
shares as a speculator. The Professor's interest is that 
of an investor, for he speaks in behalf of a holding of 
stnrk purchased by the late Warring Wilkinson, the 
father of Mrs. Richardson. We give these details so that 
the Gold Fields offices in London and New York will ap- 
preciate the good faith of his actions in this matter. Let- 
ters sent to them have not been answered. This is not 
only impolite, but stupid. Shareholders have the right 
to have reasonable questions answered, and, in any event, 
to have their letters acknowledged. This high and 
mighty way of treating minority shareholders is out of 
date, and it will do no good to the Consolidated Gold 
Fields if it expects to do business pleasantly in the 
Cnited States. The Trona Corporation has been the 
victim of many blunders ; of that there is no doubt ; the 
least that those in control should do is to show some 
sense of decency in the treatment of bona-fide complaints. 

The Tariff 

In our issue of July 9 we summarized those provisions 
of the Fordney Tariff Bill that affect the mining in- 
dustry. Naturally, any legislation that is beneficial to 
our clientele, the mining public, is agreeable to us, if it 
is not detrimental to the welfare of our country as a 
whole. That, of course, is not the sentiment that rules 
in Congress; in that gathering of Solons, as the daily 
press, unaware of the satire implied, calls our legislators, 
the framing of a tariff is chiefly a game of 'log-rolling', 
which is an arrangement between law-makers whereby 
groups trade their votes, so that, for example, the grower 
of almonds in California will support a duty on the pins 
made in Vermont, provided the Vermonter will vote for 
a duty on almonds, the net result being a duty on both 
pins and almonds, without regard to the welfare of the 
majority of our citizens not participating in the produc- 
tion of either pins or almonds. Forty years ago General 
Winfield Scott Hancock described the tariff as "a local 
issue", thereby raising a laugh that proved disastrous to 
his Presidential candidacy. Unfortunately, whatever the 
view of most people on the broad question of free trade 
versus protection, it is a fact that when a tariff bill is 
being framed its details are decided in accord with the 
desires and insistence of local industries and of special 

interests This makes tin- whole question unsatisfactory 

.-mil irritating, because it it so difficult to discuss it with- 
out prejudice. Even that excellent lady, .Mis, Robertson, 
the member from Oklahoma, stated thai she would vote 
against a duty on hides because she cared more I'm' the 
children, who use leather for shoes, than for the packers. 
There are more poor children than rich packers, seems 
to be her generous reasoning. Our own view is that we 
should protect young industries that would he killed by 
unrestricted foreign competition, in order that such in- 
dustries, if essential to the country, may become firmly 
established and thereby contribute to making our coun- 
try self-contained. During the War we found that for 
many essentials, such as dyes, potash, and antimony, we 
were dependent entirely upon importation. We pro- 
ceeded to develop these industries in a hurry, and a good 
start had been made when the Armistice restored the 
status quo ante, thereby blighting the expectations of 
those who, in response to the national need, had started 
to make us independent of a foreign supply of these 
particular products. Most of us warmed to the idea of 
a self-contained country, that is, one w'hich, if isolated in 
time of war, might, be able to dispense with the importa- 
tion of anything it needed for daily life and domestic 
industry — not luxuries or other non-essentials. That 
argument is being used in behalf of many of the metals 
and minerals mentioned in Mr. Fordney 's bill. For in- 
stance, our production of tin is so small as to he neg- 
ligible, yet the use of tin, for plating sheet-iron, is a 
matter of no small importance ; so a duty on tin is ad- 
visable if it help to stimulate prospecting for tin ore, 
with a view to establishing a tin-mining industiy that 
may make us independent of the Straits Settlements, the 
Malay States, and Bolivia. Antimony is another metal 
that we produce hardly at all ; if a duty should serve to 
incite interest in the development of our own deposits of 
antimony, and if we have any large enough to supply 
the domestic demand, then in this case also an import 
duty might be advisable, not to enrich a small group in 
the community but for the benefit of the community as 
a whole. The war argument, however, breaks down 
when applied to the exploitation of known resources, for 
if the price of a metal or mineral be raised artificially by 
a tariff, it is obvious that the increase of price will hasten 
the exhaustion of the reserves during peace-time and, 
possibly, may cause the domestic supply to be depleted 
by the time we find ourselves again at war. It were bet- 
ter, from the point of view of the nation, to exhaust the 
resources of China or Brazil, in respect of a particular 
mineral, and to buy it cheaply from those countries dur- 
ing peace, than to pay high prices for the mineral and 
exhaust our own reserves, as against the time when those 
reserves may supply an urgent need. Such an argument 
is adverse to many of the duties suggested, but it supports 
the levy of a tariff on dyes and potash, for example, both 
being products of vast industrial importance that we 
ought to produce ourselves on a large scale. The grant- 
ing of a duty on aniline dyes or on potash salts may 
benefit a small group, but that is not objectionable, pro- 



July 23, 1921 

vided it conduces to the welfare of the nation. 

A few days ago we heard Mr. Adolph C. Miller, a direc- 
tor of the Federal Reserve Bank, speak in public on 
financial affairs in their broadest aspect. He had many 
wise things to say, particularly in emphasizing the fact 
that the present financial unpleasantness is due to the 
effort to readjust relations between the producing and 
the consuming capacities of different parts of the world. 
He adverted to the marked decrease in exports, which 
declined 55.9%, in May as against the same month of last 
year. He recognized the truism that when your customer 
has to pay in cash, a rapid shrinkage of business with liirn 
is in sight. If, on the other hand, you buy from him 
he is enabled to establish a credit. The recent increase 
of half a billion dollars in the amount of gold held by the 
banks of the Federal Reserve system has caused some 
short-sighted publicists to chortle, whereas any sane 
economist sees that it is by no means a factor favorable 
to our foreign commerce or to our national welfare. 
When a fellow begins to pay for things with family plate 
or his wife's wedding ring, it augurs badly for further 
trade with him. That is Europe's status toward us. 
Apparently the gentlemen in Congress, and some out- 
side, expect to export without importing ; they expect to 
open up foreign markets while themselves sitting behind 
a Chinese Wall of tariffs ; they count upon the prosperity 
of the United States while the rest of the world falls into 
the abyss. Yet Mr. Miller never mentioned the word 
'tariff'. He feared to do so. Likewise, Mr. Hoover, one 
of whose recent public addresses we take pleasure in 
printing on pages 131 to 134 of this issue, makes a plea 
for a larger vision and an ampler perspective in world 
affairs, yet he also shies from any direct reference to the 
tariff, which is the negation of all the sane and generous 
ideas of men of his type. Of course, it is obvious, as 
many times before, that the arrangement of such a mat- 
ter as the tariff should be based upon the recommenda- 
tions of a non-partisan body of experts, such as exists 
in the form of the Tariff Commission ; it should not be 
left to the mercy of a group of log-rolling legislators, in 
disregard of the recommendations of the Commission. 
The tariff is not economics ; it is merely cheap polities. 

Electricity and Copper 

During the decade that ended with 1914, the electrical 
industry probably absorbed a half or slightly more 
of the world's supply of newly mined copper. Statistics 
are not in close agreement, but the available data make 
it certain that under normal conditions the use of copper 
for making electric conductors was by far the most im- 
portant item in the gross consumption of the metal. The 
demand for brass during the War, coupled with the cur- 
tailment of sundry peace-time industrial activities, tem- 
porarily deflected the normal flow of metal from its ac- 
customed channels. Following that came the period of 
obstruction and stagnation, with the consequent shutting- 
down of the copper mines. Unmistakable signs, however, 
point to the early disintegration of the restricting bar- 

riers: then it may be expected that the normal channels 
again will carry their share of metal into useful in- 
dustries. Of these the creation, distribution, and utiliza- 
tion of electric energy should be the greatest ; and as 
compared with former times the future requirements of 
the electrical industry should assume gigantic propor- 
tions. A few concrete examples may be cited to indicate 
quantitatively the importance of copper in the applica- 
tion of electricity. The San Joaquin Light & Power 
Company of California has just added to its 'connected 
load' some 46,000 horse-power; 2,000,000 pounds of new 
copper wire was required merely to connect the plants, 
factories, and homes of the new consumers to the dis- 
tributing system that already was in existence. Accord- 
ing to a survey made by the 'Journal of Electricity and 
Western Industry', there will be constructed during the 
next decade in eleven Western States new plants to gen- 
erate 2,800,000 horse-power of electric energy ; assuming 
the use of wire in the same proportion as in the work of 
the San Joaquin company, the final connections to be 
made would require about 280 million pounds of copper. 
A second important use of wire is in the manufacture of 
electrical equipment, including generators, motors, and 
switchboard appliances. High-tension transmission lines 
and the local distributing mains entail a still greater use 
of copper. The Pacific Gas & Electric Company is about 
to commence the construction of a double-circuit trans- 
mission line, 172 miles long, to connect the new hydro- 
electric plants of the Pit River project, in the Sierra, to 
a new sub-station at Vaeaville. The current will travel 
over six stranded rope-lay cables, each with a capacity of 
500,000 circular mills, which makes them approximately 
one inch in diameter; the line is designed to transmit 
ultimately 320,000 kilowatts at 220,000 volts. The power 
company has recently purchased from the Anaconda Min- 
ing Company 10,000,000 pounds of copper wire, three- 
fourths of which will go into this single high-tension line. 
Three features of plans for up-to-date electric-power 
enterprises enhance the importance of long transmission 
lines as a factor in consuming copper. These are (1) the 
general development of hydro-electric power projects. 
The source of the water-power, and consequently the site 
of the generating plant, is usually far distant from the 
region where the electric current is consumed. (2) The 
tendency to erect large coal-fired steam-electric plants at 
the mine, to take the place of great numbers of small 
generating units situated at the immediate point of con- 
sumption. (3) The growing acceptance on the part of 
capitalists of the fact, always appreciated by engineers, 
that efficient utilization of power resources depends upon 
the replacement of steam in plant and factory by elec- 
tricity, and the inter-connection of generating units to 
form immense distributing systems from which a reason- 
ably high load-factor can be obtained. The plan to con- 
struct a system of this kind to supply approximately 
15.000,000 horse-power to consumers in eleven North 
Atlantic States is probably the most elaborate undertak- 
ing ever conceived, but there is reason to believe that it 
will be accomplished in part at least. A preliminary 

July 23, 1923 



report on the engineering aspects of this so-called - 

-■ Survey has already been made, and the legislative, 
legal, and financial phases of the plan are being studied 

Electrification of railways and the supplying of 7,000,- 
000 horse-power for operating trains is contemplated in 
this huge undertaking, and similar electrification of rail- 
roads in all parts of the country is being considered. 
That electricity is the only logical form of power for this 
purpose is conceded by everyone; even though hydro- 
electric power be not available, there is no possible eco- 
nomic justification for transporting coal all over the 
country and burning it in thousands of locomotives in- 
stead of generating electricity at the coal mines and dis- 
tributing it by copper wire. Virtually the first long 
stretch of electrified railroad was the division of the 
Chicago. Milwaukee & St. Paul road between Avery, in 
Idaho, and Harlowtowu. in Montana, a distance of 480 
miles across the Rocky Mountains. The locomotives draw 
3000 volts of direct current from two '0000' bare copper 
wires, each of which weighs 3280 pounds per mile; in 
addition, the rails are bonded at every joint with three- 
foot pieces of the same wire; and one '000' high-tension 
wire and one feed-wire of 500,000 circular-mills capacity 
extend over a large part of the line. The total weight 
of copper used is about 20,000 pounds per mile for a 
single-track line: manifestly, the electrification of the 
roads, which cannot long be delayed, will afford an im- 
portant outlet for the product of our copper mines during 
the years to come. 

The United States will not bo alone in equipping its 
railroads with electric power. Plans were matured in 
Great Britain in 1014 for the division of the country into 
power districts that were to ■ be supplied from large 
central stations, where electric energy by efficient man- 
agement was to be produced in steam-plants for less than 
a half-penny per kilowatt-hour. This comparatively low 
cost had already been obtained in some plants. The War 
postponed the necessary construction, and since the 
Armistice the problem of financing has been the most 
serious obstacle. However, the strike of coal miners has 
emphasized the necessity for obtaining the maximum effi- 
ciency from available fuel, and the project of electrifica- 
tion will be iindertaken immediately. The 'Boston Finan- 
cial News' recently published a summary of reported 
plans for electrification abroad, which we presume to be 
authentic. The Midi system in France has announced 
plans for the harnessing of water-power to supply elec- 
tricity for the operation of 1700 miles of railroad, 1000 
miles of which will be electrified within five years. It is 
said that the River Rhone alone will be developed to sup- 
ply several million horse-power of hydro-electric energy. 
A commission has been sent by Italy to investigate the 
methods used in the United States in anticipation of util- 
izing domestic sources of water-power for operating sev- 
eral thousand miles of railroad. Switzerland has sold 
$25,000,000 of bonds in this country, the proceeds of 
which will be devoted to electrification, according to 
reports. Projects are under way in Belgium, Spain, 

Sweden, and Germany for the development of thi 

trical industry, particularly with res] t to the applica- 

i f electric power to railroads. According t<> th 
eral Power Commission, the Chicago, Milwaukee & St. 
Paul company "forwards twice as many cars at double 
the speed" on the division that has been electrifi 
compand with the others; power costs § cent per 
watt-hour — a figure that cannot be approached by oil- or 
coal-burning locomotives. In dozens of other industries 
the advantages are equally certain and equally important. 
Electricity is the modern form of power; its utilization as 
such has barely commenced. Until a practical means of 
transmitting current by wireless is perfected — a possi- 
bility that our electrical engineers declare is still remote 
— the electric-power industry should be the source of 
much comfort to the copper miner. 

Mr. Ford and the Supply of Nitrate 

"United we stand; divided we fall" is a motto that is 
being applied to the solution of many industrial and 
technical problems. Mr. Henry Ford has recognized the 
inter-relation of industrial efforts, and has made an 
offer to the Government to purchase and complete the 
United States nitrate plants and to lease the water- 
power plants in the South, using the excess power in his 
own business. A combination of this kind is often an 
essential to financial success; and it must be admitted 
that Mr. Ford is far-sighted. His proposal to the Secre- 
tary of War is reported to be as follows : He will take a 
100-years lease on the Wilson dam, on the No. 3 dam, and 
on the electric-power plant when completed at a cost 
that has been estimated at $28,000,000. He proposes to 
pay interest at the rate of 6% on this amount, and to 
amortize not only this sum but also the entire cost of 
construction over a period of 100 years. He offers 
$5,000,000 for the nitrate plant and equipment, the lands, 
the steam-plants, and the other accessories, all of which 
cost the people of the United States about $80,000,000. 
He proposes to remodel the large nitrate plant (No. 2), 
and to operate it for the production of fertilizer com- 
pounds in time of peace, and to equip it so that it will be 
ready for immediate conversion into an explosives plant 
in the event of war. He proposes, modestly we think, to 
limit the profits of the fertilizer plant to 8%, thus en- 
suring a relatively cheap nitrogen product for American 
farmers. The completion of the works will make the 
Tennessee river navigable as far as Chattanooga. The 
power developed will exceed greatly the requirements of 
the fertilizer plant, the excess being available, at a small 
cost per unit, for Mr. Ford's other enterprise or enter- 
prises. Thus by disregarding nearly all the enormous 
first cost of the nitrate plant at Muscle Shoals and by 
combining two industries under one efficient management 
it may be possible to produce, at a reasonable price, in 
peace time, that essential prop of national existence, a 
suitable fertilizer; and, in war time, enough of the 
nitrogen basis for munitions to free us from dependence 
on Chile. Under the conditions that Mr. Ford proposes 



July 23, 1921 

to attack the problem it is obvious that the completion of 
the project will give the enterprise a tentative commer- 
cial value. United, the two industries may be successful ; 
divided, and under dual control, one or both might be 

Last year the writer of these notes had the privilege 
of studying Mr. Ford's methods at Detroit, the conclu- 
sion reached being that the amazing success of his efforts 
had resulted from an ability to apply simple funda- 
mental principles on a large scale. A few days before, 
at Saginaw, Michigan, it was noticed that a valueless 
brine was transformed into a valuable product by the 
utilization of exhaust-steam from a neighboring lumber- 
mill. Thus it was that two industries when joined were 
successful, whereas, if operated separately, at least one 
would have been a dismal failure. A few days later, in 
Ohio, the immense benefit of uniting industries was again 
noticed. In this case a supply of brine formed the re- 
serve of an immensely profitable salt industry, profitable 
because exhaust-steam from a plant supplying power to 
chemical works, as well as to a large cardboard plant, 
was available, the three industries being operated under 
the same management. Mr. Henry Ford had the fore- 
sight to anticipate that the same principle may be ap- 
plied to the production of 'tin Lizzies', fertilizers, and 

The question now arises: How will Mr. Ford's scheme 
affect the cost of living, for that is the question of the 
day. We have urged in previous issues the need for 
adequate provision that will make us independent of 
Chile for the necessary nitrate supplies in time of war. 
In times of peace, however, how will the cost of Mr. 
Ford's fertilizer compare with the price of the Chilean 
product ? The question is complicated but extremely in- 
teresting, for the economical combination of industries is, 
perhaps, more applicable in Chile than elsewhere, al- 
thougk it is difficult to convince nitrate operators of this 
fact. Perhaps this is because the nitrate industry has 
become enervated and languid, as a result of the ease 
with which the high-grade caliche could be selected from 
a deposit of such immensity, because of the high price 
of the product and the availability of efficient and cheap 
labor. Furthermore, the death of 'the goose that lays 
the golden eggs' is often the ultimate result of a policy 
of protection of monopolies, because of the restriction of 
trade that ensues. Mr. Fernando Benitez, whose kindly 
and appreciative comment on our recent editorial ap- 
pears in the February (sic) issue of the 'Boletin Minero' 
of the National Society of Mining in Chile, takes issue 
with us with regard to our condemnation of the price- 
raising tactics of the Association of Nitrate Producers. 
Our comments, he avers, raise a laugh, as coming from a 
country where trusts had their origin. The point that we 
empasized, however, was that the American companies 
in Chile, because of their allegiance to the laws of the 
United States, were not members of the nitrate 'trust'; 
and we opined that a greater interest in the industry on 
the part of American engineers and financiers would 
tend to break up the 'ring'. Mr. Benitez quotes the 

United States Steel Corporation as an American concern 
whose tactics have been merely copied by the nitrate pro- 
ducers. To this we would demur, pointing out that the 
activities of the Steel Corporation are not monopolistic ; 
it is not a trust, because it does not control the iron and 
steel industry of this country. Our national policy and 
our laws are against combinations in restraint of trade, 
and we still think that President Alessandri is taking 
the right course in breaking up the trusts, combines, and 
pools in Chile. The recent action of a group of exporters, 
who tried to corner the market for nitrate, resulted in 
the temporary collapse of the industry. It was the 
stupidity of such control that we tried to emphasize. In 
the present case it appears that the 'pool' will be hard 
hit, for it holds about a million tons of nitrate, bought 
at about £17 per ton. The result of its profiteering 
tactics has been that the industry has suffered, many of 
the producers having been obliged to suspend operations. 
President Alessandri has proposed to his Congress that 
the Government' take control of the industry. The mem- 
bers of the 'pool', which is backed by the Rothschilds, are 
becoming nervous, and a loss of about £5,000,000 appears 
to be inevitable. The absence of any legislation against 
such combinations in Chile has resulted in endless com- 
plications. In the present case it seems that the members 
of the 'pool' are the agents and representatives of many 
of the operators and hold their votes in the Association 
of Producers. From this it would seem that the pro- 
ducers may be obliged, in part at least, to pay the piper. 
On the other hand, the Compania de Salitres de Anto- 
fagasta represents a powerful and influential group of 
Chileans, who, though not in political agreement with 
President Alessandri, nevertheless realize that he is a 
strong and able man ; and consequently they will be pre- 
pared to support him in any measures he may propose to 
help the producers and to save the key industry of Chile 
from the maw of the speculators. The election of Mr. 
Alessandri to the presidency of Chile marked a change 
of administration that was ominous ; his program is one 
that is meeting with approval and support, especially 
from foreigners. He realizes that rings, pools, combines, 
and associations that operate in restraint of trade are 
inimical to the progress of Chile; he will, of necessity, 
take steps to place the nitrate industry on a firm basis 
by restoring open competition, and by prohibiting the 
selective mining of high-grade caliche. If he takes such 
action and if the Government assumes the control of the 
industry, money will be needed to finance the purchase 
and the shipment of the product. The 'pool' that has 
succeeded in nearly crippling the industry is essentially 
European; such a combination must be fought with 
something more than moral suasion. We wish the Presi- 
dent of Chile good luck in his well-meant efforts. We 
foresee a healthy competition between the products of 
Chile and those of the factories in this country. It is to 
be hoped that Mr. Ford will be allowed to carry out his 
proposals; he has the capital as well as the organizing 
ability ; the combination of the two should be of national 

July 28, 1921 



D I 3 

Iron and Steel on the Pacific Coast 

The Editor: 

Sir — I have read the article by Mr. Clyde E. Williams, 
in your issue of July 16, with keen interest. Mr. Williams 
has referred specially to the coking-coals of the State of 
Washington, notably the Wilkinson, Carbonada, and 
Fairfax districts in Pierce county, and while admitting 
that coke made from these coals has a high ash-content, 
he thinks coke can be made from this coal sufficiently low 
in sulphur and phosphorus to be desirable for use in the 
blast-furnace. I am fairly familiar with the Wilkinson 
and Fairfax coke, having used both in foundry-work, 
and I am very doubtful if a satisfactory blast-fumace 
coke can be made from this coal on an economical com- 
mercial basis. 

Referring to his remarks on the coking-coals of British 
Columbia, I am compelled to take issue with him. Those 
of us who know the coals of British Columbia never con- 
sidered the Cassidy coal as a coking-coal. On the other 
hand, the Cumberland, or what is known as the Comox, 
coal is an excellent coking-coal and beehive coke-ovens 
have been operating there for over twenty years. It is 
just a question of properly washing and properly burn- 
ing in order to turn out a good coke, even in the beehive 
oven, and in a by-product oven there is no question but 
a first-class metallurgical or blast-furnace coke can be 
made from Comox coal, although the ash-content would 
be higher than Connellsville. Certain seams in the Nicola 
valley will coke in a by-product oven. This coal is high 
in nitrogen and from samples sent to England to test for 
by-products it produced values approximating $9 per 
ton, plus 60% of coke as a good smokeless domestic fuel. 
This coal yields 30 to 40 gal. per ton of various oils and 
15 to 20 lb. ammonium sulphate. 

The Crow's Nest coal in East Kootenay is undoubtedly 
the best coking-coal on the Pacific slope. This district has 
been supplying the smelters with a good metallurgical 
coke for twenty years. 

The establishment of an iron and steel plant on the 
Coast has become an absolute necessity, especially a blast- 
furnace plant for the manufacture of pig-iron. Quite 
recently I was commissioned by British and American 
interests to make a personal investigation of the market 
for pig-iron on the Coast. I interviewed practically 
every user of pig-iron, also the shipbuilding and engi- 
neering works from Vancouver to Los Angeles, and I am 
satisfied there is a market on the Coast for at least a 
thousand tons of pig-iron per day, and probably consid- 
erably more. The foundries in Oregon alone use 300 tons 
per day. 

In discussing the question of pig-iron with the scrap- 
mill owners of San Francisco and Los Angeles, they 
assured me that the five mills would undertake to enter 
into a firm contract to take 500 tons per day. They are 
operating entirely on steel and iron scrap, but would 
prefer at least 40% pig-iron if they could secure it any- 
where near the price of scrap, which was then $32 per 
ton in San Francisco. The price of pig-iron was then 
$65 to $30 per ton. The prevailing price of pig-iron be- 
fore the War was from $27.50 to $32.50 for Scotch pig, 
known as Eggleton No. 2, and during my thirty years 
residence in British Columbia, I have only once seen pig- 
iron uncier $25 per ton. 

Regarding the cost of producing pig-iron on the Coast 
from our native magnetic ores: In 1910 the Canadian 
Federal government sent out to British Columbia Mr. 
Lindeman, an emient Norwegian mining engineer and 
metallurgical expert, to look into the cost of producing 
pig-iron by the blast-furnace method, and he estimated 
that notwithstanding the higher wages and cost of other 
material prevailing at the time, pig-iron could be pro- 
duced from British Columbian ores at a cost not exceed- 
ing $16 per ton. Siever also reported from $12.50 to 
$15. The high iron-content of our ores and their lack of 
impurities reduces the cost of producing pig-iron. 

In a report that I received from Sheffield on a sample 
of magnetite ore from Vancouver island, they said cru- 
cible tool-steel could be manufactured from such ore at 
8 shillings per ton less than from the best. Norway ores, 
on account of the high iron-content and the lack of im- 

Regarding competition from pig-iron made in China, 
I agree with Mr. Williams that we have nothing to fear 
from this source. They have not yet made a foundry pig- 
iron suitable for our market. Moreover, China will not 
only absorb all she can make herself, but will be a large 
importer of the products of iron and steel for the next 
fifty years at least. 

Dealing with Mr. William's remarks regarding the 
total consumption of steel on the Coast, it is true that it 
consists of many different sizes and shapes without 
perhaps a large continuous consumption of any particu- 
lar size, and I fully agree with him that it would be im- 
practicable to construct and operate a single mill, to pro- 
duce all this assortment of sizes and shapes, and that 
those products must be made for which there is a steady 
demand. He mentions tin-plate as a product for which 
there is sufficient demand to take the output of a modern 
rolling-mill, and states that the consumption of tin-plate 
on the Coast amounts to 150 tons per day. He is more 
than conservative in his estimate here, as the consump- 



July 23, 1921 

tion of tin-plate on the Coast is approximately 200,000 
tons per year, and, in addition to this, approximately 
100,000 tons per annum is exported to the Orient through 
Pacific Coast ports, but what we want first on the Coast 
is a blast-furnace plant whereby we can prove that we 
can manufacture the various grades of pig-iron from our 
native ores at a cost that will compete with the East and 
Europe. When this is accomplished, subsidiary com- 
panies will soon take up the manufacture of the various 
products of iron and steel. There already exists on the 
Coast open-hearth and rolling-mill equipment sufficient 
to take care of the merchant-bar market. What we lack 
is a mill large enough to roll ship-plates and large shapes 
and angles, and also rails up to, say, 56 lb. For the 
latter there is an ever-growing market. 

Regarding the smelting processes that Mr. Williams 
mentioned: As I have already stated, a blast-furnace 
plant is what we want. In my opinion, there is a market 
on the Coast to justify the building of two 400-ton fur- 
naces, one for the production of pig-iron, the other to be 
used in conjunction with an open-hearth furnace, in 
turning out steel billets by the continuous process. An 
electric furnace could also be considered in conjunction 
with the latter unit for the purpose of further refining, 
and, if necessary, making high-grade tool-steel and other 
high-grade steel castings. The other processes he refers 
to are more or less visionary. 

One reason perhaps why an iron and steel industry has 
not been established on the Coast has been the scarcity of 
hematite ore, the iron deposits being largely magnetite. 
It has been maintained that these ores cannot be eco- 
nomically smelted in a blast-furnace without a large per- 
centage of hematite to act as a flux and cheapen the cost 
of reduction. It is quite true that magnetites carry an 
extra atom of oxygen and therefore cost more to reduce to 
metallic iron, but I contend that the higher iron content 
of our magnetites, and their low sulphur and phosphorus 
content, more than compensates for any extra amount of 
fuel necessary to melt and reduce them. The magnetic 
ores of the Pacific Coast run from 55 to 68% metallic 
iron, with sulphur and phosphorus well within the 
bessemer limit, whereas the hematite ores of the Mesabi 
range and Lake Superior rarely run 50%, and are as low 
as 37% metallic iron. In reply to those who maintain 
that magnetites cannot be smelted without at least 25% 
of hematite, we know that in New York blast-furnaces 
have been operating for 30 years on 100% magnetite and 
on ores that are so low-grade and impure that they have 
to be concentrated by magnetic concentration, which also 
means crushing and sintering or briquetting before they 
can be used in the blast-furnace, so if it pays to smelt 
magnetic ores of this class in the East, surely it will 
more than pay to smelt our Coast ores, which do not re- 
quire concentration and are practically free from all im- 
purities, including titanium. 

I congratulate Mr. Williams on the excellence of his 
article and thoroughly agree with him that the presence 
of an iron and steel industry on the Coast will stimulate 
the growth and development of the West. Its location 

should be decided on economic rather than on political 
grounds. We, in British Columbia, believe we have more 
and better iron ore than is to be found either in Wash- 
ington or Oregon. We also have an abundance of flux, 
and unquestionably we have the better coking-coal, and 
therefore we believe that somewhere on the east coast of 
Vancouver island would be an ideal site for such a plant. 
However, our American friends have the larger market 
for the product and it is just a question as to whether it 
is better to take the raw material to the larger market 
and manufacture there or put the furnaces near the raw 
material and ship the pig-iron to the market. The main 
thing is to get the industry started. 
Vancouver, June 20. N. Thompson. 


The Editor: 

Sir — The discussion on this subject suggests that the 
following speculations as to the history of the large body 
of colemanite reported to have been discovered in the 
extreme south-east corner of Nevada may be of interest to 
prospectors who have failed to acquaint themselves with 
the appearance of the non-metallic minerals. Some half 
a century ago, about the time (1866) when I piloted 
Governor Blaisdell's party across the desert from Silver 
Peak to Pahranagat, a prospector reported that he had 
found an enormous outcrop of rock-salt in the neighbor- 
hood of the Virgin river, and described it as extending a 
great distance along the side of the canyon. Those of us 
who are acquainted with that mineral naturally dis- 
counted the story, and anyhow a deposit of salt in such 
an out-of-the-way locality was not a commercial proposi- 
tion. Is it not more than likely that the prospector had 
found the outcrop of the colemanite and in ignorance of 
its true value was unable to negotiate a sale, and it be- 
came a forgotten story? I have a hazy recollection of 
mentioning the statement in my annual report as State 
Mineralogist of Nevada in 1867, but not having a copy 
cannot speak positively. It is lucky that the men who 
found the salt are dead and will never know how near 
they came to being millionaires. The occurrence of 
ulexite was first noted on the Nevada marshes on that 
memorable trip, which opened up southern Nevada to the 
prospector. The character of the country may be judged 
from the fact that when we left Silver Peak we were lost 
to the world for more than three months. 

Seattle, Washington, July 5. R. H. Stretch. 

The New Mining Law 

The Editor: 

Sir — "Pretty rotten" is the mildest criticism appro- 
priate for that clause of the proposed new mining law 
that provides that mining records shall be kept in the 
district U. S. Land Office instead of a local recording 
office as formerly. Speaking for Alaska, the place for 
local public records is where they are accessible to the 
local public and not a thousand miles away where they 
are practically accessible only to agents and associates 

July 23, 1921 



of the liorgan-Quggs. How would the tanners of the 
States greet a proposal to remove the records of their 
title-deeds from the county-seat to the State capital or to 
Washington, D. C.t This clause illustrates how highly 

paid and highly respectahle engineers earn their popular 

Kasaan, Alaska, June 29. W. W. Rush. 

The Editor: 

Sir — I wish to make a few comments on the 'Revision 
of the Mining Law' published in your issue of June 18. 
I have been prospecting- and mining for 24 years and at 
the present time am the owner of two groups of lode- 
mining claims j on one group there is 842 ft. of tunnel and 
on the other group there is 200 ft. of tunnel. This work 
has been done by mo alone with a single-jack. 

First, why should the Mining and Metallurgical So- 
ciety of America take such a deep interest in the welfare 
of the prospector and miner as to get up a new mining 

"Sec. 5. Every full mining claim upon unsurveyed 
lands shall be located in the form of a square containing 
forty acres laid out on cardinal lines, conforming to the 
system of public land surveys." 

The proper way to locate a lode-mining claim is to 
locate it on the strike of the vein, most of the mineral 
land that is left is in the rough mountainous regions, un- 

"B. Subject to limitations contained in this article, 
discovery of valuable mineral land shall not hereafter be 
necessary in order to locate and hold a mining claim." 

Anyone with lots of money could hire men to go into 
the Forest Reserves and locate large areas, and by com- 
plying with C in the same section, they could set up a 
drilling rig, which is very easy for a man with large 
capital, and drill more than one hundred feet to make 
discoveries on each claim of 160 acres. 

Under B., Sec. 6, it does not specify how or where the 
annual labor shall be performed and, of course, they 
could do it in the overburden or in the country-rock or 
any old place where they could do it quick and easy, or, 
in lieu of the performance of such labor, a sum computed 
at the rate of $5 for each acre or fraction thereof may be 
paid each year, including the year of location, into the 
United States Land Office for the district. That is fine 
for the speculator and capitalist, but it would not de- 
velop a mine. 

Section 7. Prospectors and miners who have held lode- 
mining claims under the apex law, which gives them the 
right to follow their vein to the entire depth, would find 
their veins cut off with a vertical side-line, as this section 
is conflicting and it would cause litigation without end. 

Section 13, under B, is where the joker comes in. 
Where is there any unoccupied land belonging to the 
public domain outside the Forest Reserves that is worth 
$10 per acre ? Who wants to take land without limit as 
to aggregate area? Surely not the genuine prospector or 
miner ! If this law should be passed by Congress, inside 
of ten years the biggest part of the Forest Reserves in the 

m pan of the United states of America, and also 

Alaska, would be in the hands of tin- capitalist. 

Section 2">. It would be a good thing to repeal Si 
2341 and 2342 of the Revised Statutes, as they have 
caused lots of trouble by homesteaders filing over mining 
property, hut Sec. 2322 and Act of February 11. 1875, 
relating to tunnel work, should never be repealed a.s they 
have done more to help develop the mineral resources 
than any law that can be put on the statute-books. 

The apex law under Sec. 2322 seems to be a big bone of 
contention. I would suggest that it bo amended as 

follows : 

"Be it enacted, etc., that Sec. 2322 of the Revised 
Statutes be, and the name is hereby, amended so that the 
side-lines of all lode-mining claims shall run parallel with 
the dip of the vein to its entire depth ; if there are any 
cross-veins on said claim the side-lines shall become the 
end-lines of said cross-veins." 

Give me the good old mining code that has withstood 
the test of time and under which the mining industry of 
these United States of America has made the greatest 
progress that the world has ever seen. 

Republic, Washington, July 5. L. I. Munson. 

Educating an Engineer 

The Editor: 

Sir — A good deal has appeared in print of late re- 
garding the education of the engineer. It seems generally 
conceded that a too strictly technical course tends to a 
narrow outlook: the aim of the teacher should, it is 
thought, be to foster a broader vision, and a wider sym- 
pathy in the pupil. Admirable — especially if man lived 
longer and there was not so darned much it would be nice 
to know. Bacon could propose to master all the learning 
of his day without drawing down upon himself the ridi- 
cule of his fellows, but the man who should avow such an 
intention now would probably become a candidate for the 
foolish-house, his friends taking good care that he were 
safely ensconced therein and thus protected from himself. 

No doubt, just as history is supposed to aid us in de- 
ciphering the future, so the experience of engineers of 
ripe age, if they would but set them down, ought to help 
the planning of a sensible curriculum. What did I 
study? How did these subjects help me in after life? 
What hours were well spent? What hours practically 
wasted? If the leaders of the profession would be at 
pains to ask themselves such questions seriously and then 
make known the answers, perhaps we should arrive some- 
where. Just to start the ball rolling, in order that opin- 
ions of far greater weight may thereby be brought forth, 
I shall venture to give my own results premising that 
today education is conducted on far saner lines than a 
generation ago. 

Mathematics is essential. French has come in useful 
in numberless instances. Latin may have helped a little, 
almost unconsciously, but was probably not worth the 
time spent on acquiring the little I once knew and have 
forgotten. German I never learned — sorry to say, for it 



July 23, 1921 

is more useful than French to the technical man. The 
'teaching' of drawing, or music, unless the pupil has a 
real aptitude, is more or less humbug; you cannot turn 
out an artist or a musician unless the divine fire is pres- 
ent, and if it is, you cannot stop its exhibition — hut an 
engineer hardly needs either of these accomplishments, 
though each may help him pass pleasant hours in even 
the most god-forsaken country. 

As his profession will probably call him far afield, 
geography will come in useful; also some astronomy, at 
least sufficient for the latitude, time, and azimuth prob- 
lems he may have to solve; and one of his closest com- 
panions during his dear old college days should certainly 
be a standard dictionary. It's really surprising how 
many eminent men cannot spell our most beautiful but 
puzzling language. 

Looking backward, it seems to me the two subjects of 
study that have paid me best are Euclid and rugby foot- 
ball. Euclid is a wonderful mental training; even in 
planning the flow-sheet of a contribution to the press. 
Most good newspaper stories follow, unconsciously, no 
doubt, the general and particular enunciations, the con- 
struction, and, finally, the proof of Euclid's problems, 
as presented by the late lamented Todhunter, and other 
defunct worthies. 

As for football, it teaches a lad to be active, to decide 
and act quickly, and is about the best training for the 
rough and tumble of every-day existence that I, at least, 
can think of. 

This screed will, perhaps, attract the attention of those 
whose success lends weight to their opinion, and is, as 
will be conceded by all who honor me by reading it, more 
remarkable for what is left out than for what has been 
touched upon. But, in extenuation. Education is a big 
subject, and the thermometer at my elbow shows 95 °F. 

Charles A. Bramble. 

Winnipeg, Manitoba, July 2. 


The Editor : 

Sir — The difference of opinion between Mr. Allen and 
myself over book-reviewing is one of proportion. My 
contention is that a review should give the average reader 
as good an idea as is possible of the book and what it 
specially has to offer. The review, in a paragraph or a 
page, should reveal the gist or heart of the book, if the 
reviewer has the ability to do such a thing, for it is not 
easy. By no means do I hold that adverse criticism, 
where warranted, should be omitted ; in fact, the whole 
tenor of the reviewer's sentences should indicate his 
judgment of how well -or how poorly the author has done 
his work. 

Mr. Allen's opinion of book-reviewing, it seems to me, 
is that the reviewer should write for a much smaller 
audience than my suggestion indicates. He evidently 
would have the reviewer make little corrections and 
changes in the text for the benefit of the author when he 
prepares a second edition, much as if the author had 

handed him the book with the request, "Would you mind 
reading this proof and marking any slips that you find" ? 
Such a review obviously has not a general appeal and is 
interesting only to specialists, that is, only to those read- 
ers who have specialized in the same small field as has 
the reviewer. 

As applying to Slosson's 'Creative Chemistry', it had 
seemed to me that Mr. Allen's review devoted too little 
space to the large virtues of the book, and too much space 
to carping details. The book covers a wide field, being 
a summary of much of the recent advance in chemistry, 
and is a work that should be represented correctly to 
thousands of the readers of the 'M. & S. P.'. There was 
a phrase in my letter that Mr. Allen apparently mis- 
understood; when I wrote "with all its faults", I re- 
ferred to Wells' 'Outline of History', not to Slosson's 
'Creative Chemistry'. However, there is one point, on 
which Mr. Allen and I agree, namely, that book-review- 
ing is neglected or poorly done in America. It is perhaps 
due to lack of a proper critical faculty in a land where 
there is so much to be optimistic over. 

London, June 23. 

P. B. McDonald. 

American Trona Corporation 

The Editor: 

Sir— The Consolidated Cold Fields of South Africa, 
Ltd., has a reputation for probity and wise management 
of mining enterprises. This reputation, however, is 
likeely to be injured as a result of the mariner in which 
the American Trona Corporation is being handled. 
There seems to be no reason why this corporation should 
not be successful ; yet year after year goes by with noth- 
ing accomplished. 

In the monthly statements one finds obscurities and 
shifting classifications. It is, therefore, impossible to 
follow the business policies. Letters written to the New 
York office usually bring no information. One finds 
among other things money expended for the construction 
of a refinery on leased land at San Pedro and presently 
the work is given up, involving a large loss to the stock- 
holders. No explanation is made of this action. It seems 
strange that careful management should have proceeded 
with this work to the extent of nearly half a million 
dollars without discovering that the plan was not feasible. 

It is difficult to understand why the London authorities 
should attempt to manage these properties in California 
through a sub-office located in New York. Such an 
arrangement necessarily involves great expense and im- 
perfect understanding of the work. An office in Cali- 
fornia would certainly seem to be in the best position to 
carry out effective management. The small stockholders 
cannot escape the fear that the present plan is inconsist- 
ent with their interests. It is to be hoped that the Con- 
solidated Gold Fields of South Africa, Ltd., will have 
sufficient regard for their reputation not to allow care- 
lessness to ruin the American Trona Corporation. 

Leon J. Richardson. 

Berkeley, California, June 26. 

July 23, 192] 




The Chuquicamata Enterprise — III 

By A. W. Allen 

The residue from the leaching process at Chuqui- 
camata is removed from the vats by electrically operated 
grab-buckets of the clam-shell type. These are of six- 
ton capacity in the two bridges that span six of the 
leaching-tanks, and of twelve-ton capacity in the new 
bridge that unloads the three leaching-tanks which were 
recently constructed. These grab-buckets deliver the 
material, to hoppers that lead to side-discharging cars, 
in which the residue is hauled to the dump by locomo- 
tives. These phases of operation are clearly shown in 
the accompanying half-tones. A residue sample is taken 
automatically by means of Vezin machines that are 
adjusted to cut a proportion of the flow of material to 
the dump-cars. 

The solutions from the leaehing-process are handled in 
a special type of vertical-shaft, boot, centrifugal pump, 
lined with antimonial lead. The thrust is held by special 
oil-pressure bearings ; there are no stuffing-boxes. There 
are eight 15-in. pumps driven by 200-hp. motors, which 
operate at 750 r.p.m., and four 9-in. pumps, two of which 
are driven by 75-hp. motors at 1000 r.p.m., and two by 
50-hp. motors at 950 r.p.m. These machines were manu- 
factured by the Worthington Pump & Machinery Cor- 
poration, and have proved entirely satisfactory. 

All the strong solution from the leaching-vats goes to 
the de-chloridizing plant, where the chlorine in the solu- 
tion, usually amounting to about 3 gm. per litre, is pre- 
cipitated by means of cement copper in agitators of a 
special type. The resultant cuprous chloride is allowed 
to settle, the decanted solution (from which about 80% 
of the chlorine has been removed) going to the electro- 

lytic department. The cuprous chloride sludge is re- 
moved from the settlers by grab-bucket, and is dissolved 
in ferrous chloride, the resultant solution being passed 
through cylindrical mills that are filled with scrap-iron. 
The cement copper produced goes to settling- vats ; the 
overflowing ferrous chloride solution from these is used 
to dissolve more cuprous chloride and is returned to the 
precipitating-cylinders. The cement-copper sludge is re- 
moved from the settling-vats by grab-bucket mechanism, 
and is returned to the de-chloridizing agitators. The 
cement copper, therefore, remains in the circuit, being 
used in the first place to precipitate cuprous chloride, and 
later being re-formed by precipitation with iron. About 
20% of the cement copper is removed from operation 
each cycle and sent to the melting-furnace to be cast into 
soluble anodes for the electrolytic-cell house. 

After passing through the de-chloridizing plant the 
solution is pumped to the main solution head tank. This 
is 90 ft. long, 60 ft. broad, and 12 ft. deep, and is con- 
structed of reinforced concrete lined with mastic. From 
here the solution passes to the depositing-cells, of which 
there are now 784 ; these are 19 ft. long, 3 ft. 6 in. broad, 
and 4 ft. 10 in. deep. Each cell has 44 ferro-silieon 
anodes with five bars to the anode, each bar measuring 
48 in. by 4| in. by 1 in. The cathodes measure 3 ft. by 
4 ft., and there are 45 per cell. The current-density 
used for copper deposition when operating at full ca- 
pacity is 11.4 amperes per square foot of cathode surface. 

The starting-sheets are made in 64 cells, of the same 
dimensions as those in the 'commercial' cells, the current- 
density used being 18 amperes per square foot of cathode 



July 23, 1921 


1915 1916 1917 1918 1919 1920 

Ore treated, tons 625.394 1,742. 748 2,904.191 3,745.083 2.961.465 4.243.301 

Copper content, % 1.71 1.71 1.76 1.64 1.62 1.54 

Copper recovered. % 66.87 77.15 81.80 82.20 86.0 89.7 

Copper recovered, million pounds 10.944 41.306 88.37 102.136 76.718 111.13 

Net cost of copper, including selling and delivery, excluding 

depreciation and depletion, cents per pound 18 55 15.46 16.75 13.30 13.01 10.7 

surface. The soluble anodes that are used in making the 
starting-sheets are allowed to be eaten away until about 
20% of the copper remains. They are then replaced 
with new anodes ; the scrap is sent to the anode-furnace 
for re-melting. The cells used for de-copperizing the 
wasted solutions are 46 in number, and are of the same 
dimensions as the others. The commercial copper sheets, 
or cathodes, formed in the cells weigh about 150 lb. 
apiece, and take about ten days to form. They are trans- 
ported to the melting-furnace by means of a light rail- 
road. The copper used for the production of the soluble 
anodes is melted in a 100-ton oil-fired reverberatory fur- 
nace, which has a hearth dimension of 26 ft. 3 in. by 
11 ft. 6 in. The metal runs to a tilting ladle, and from 
there to a casting-machine, the final plate being 4 ft. 
by 2 ft. 11 in. by 1J inches. 

There are three oil-fired reverberatory furnaces used 
for melting the cathodes and casting them into market- 
able shapes. Two of these furnaces have a hearth dimen- 
sion of 41 ft. by 13 ft. 10 in., and a capacity of about 200 
tons per charge. The third furnace has a hearth 50 ft. 
by 13 ft. 10 in. and has a capacity of 250 tons per charge. 
Wire bars varying in weight from 135 lb. to 275 lb., and 
ingot bars weighing 65 lb., are produced. The bars are 
tipped onto a conveyor about 20 ft. long and running at 
about 5 ft. per minute. This conveyor will carry up to 
4 tons of copper bars, which are cooled by means of 
water sprays. The copper is delivered direct to box- 
cars that belong to the Antofagasta & Bolivia railroad, 
a narrow-gauge spur-line connecting the melting-plant 
with the station at Calama. The metal is shipped from 
Antofagasta, the freighting of copper and supplies being 
done in the steamers of a subsidiary company, the Chile 
Steamship Company. 

Plans for the extension of the plant have been made, 
by which an ultimate yearly capacity of 300,000,000 lb. 
of copper is anticipated by crushing and treating about 
35,000 tons of ore per day. 

Socail Welfare. The establishment of an industry of 
considerable national and international importance in 
the heart of a desolate region in South America involves 
consideration of numerous problems of other than tech- 
nical importance. The success of the mining and metal- 
lurgical side of- the enterprise is essential, for without it 
the venture would he a failure. To make the industry an 
economic as well as a technical success, however, every 
detail of community life must be considered. Employees 
need more than their pay; they must be housed, they 
must be able to clothe and feed themselves, their chil- 
dren must be educated ; facilities must be provided for 
the encouragement of adherence to whatever religious 
faith is dominant in the locality ; surgical, therapeutical, 


and dental aid must be forthcoming when required; as- 
sistance must be given to foster physical fitness by means 
of games and exercises: mental enlightenment needs to 

July 23, 1921 



be fostered by means of libraries, reading-rooms, and 

night Bohoola; amusement and recreation must I on- 

sidertd, for happiness and contentment are essential to 
honest effort, 

After a period of observation that has involved travel 
in all five continents and residence in four of them, I 
feel justified in making comparisons of conditions at 
Chuquieaniata with those that prevail in mining com- 
munities in other parts of the world, ami I have no hesi- 
tation in Baying that the Chile Exploration Co. is to be 
congratulated on setting an example that industrial con- 
cerns are usually too slow to adopt, especially mining 
companies that are operating in isolated districts. The 
results at Chuquicamata are all the more praiseworthy 
in that they involved enormous expenditures, in addition 
to careful planning. None of this cost has come from 
profits, for no dividends have been paid to date; condi- 
tions are far from normal in the mineral industry, and 


the Chuquicamata plant is not yet operating at a capacity 
that indicates an exhaustion of ore-reserves that ap- 
proaches an economically justifiable amount. The wel- 
fare work was carried to a successful conclusion before 
the enterprise was a financial success, and before the 
mine and plant were operating on an adequate scale. 
Not that the money spent in this connection was the 
result of altruistic ideas only ; welfare work, provided 
that it is neither patronizing nor paternalistic, is gen- 
erally an indication of sound business sense on the part 
of the company concerned. Men that are unoccupied, 
either during working or during leisure hours, are liable 
to be the centres of discontent of some form or other ; 
and discontent should be avoided at all costs. This, 
doubtless, has been an important consideration in the 
scheme of welfare work that has been initiated at Chu- 

Few engineers who have not undertaken the manage- 
ment of industrial enterprises in foreign countries can 
realize the difficulties in the way of retaining the indi- 
vidual members of the subordinate groups of an Ameri- 
can staff for any length of time. At Chuquicamata, 
there has been a heavy turnover of minor company 
officials in the past, a condition that is much improved 
today. In the first place, a large amount of work that 

was originally clone by Americans is now in the hands of 

Chileans; the change has i q satisfactory, for the citi- 
zen is, primarily, the most desirable worker in any 

locality, if he 1 apable. I have a high opinion of the 

Chilean laborer and mechanic ; he is quick to learn and 


■ j i mB 


can be trained to observe the fundamentals of neatness 
and accuracy. Like others of our South American 
neighbors, he must be led rather than driven. He has 
his vicios, and unreliability is among them ; but a large 
amount of mechanical work can be performed by 
Chileans of the better class. Many are experienced 
miners, and few are unaccustomed to the handling of 
tools. The common labor is drawn from a class that is 
exceptionally strong and sturdy; for manual work, espe- 
cially under contract, they possess advantages over many 
other types. 

The number of Americans, in proportion to output, 


has steadily declined at Chuquicamata since the com- 
mencement of operations. Chileans are now used as 
engine-drivers, and as steam- and electric-shovel opera- 
tors; they handle the drilling machines, as well as the 
large number of electric motors that move machinery of 
all kinds at different stages in the handling and treat- 
ment of the ore. The machine- and repair-shops are 



July 23, 1921 

manned largely by Chileans ; they perform a large pro- 
portion of the actual work in connection with the melt- 
ing of the copper and the shipment of the bars and ingots. 
The trouble (if trouble it can be called) in connection 
with the employment of Americans, has therefore been 
reduced considerably, and because of the adaptability of 
the Chilean. The employment of any large number of 
Americans abroad will, in normal times, always consti- 
tute a drawback to successful operation in foreign coun- 
tries. The United States is at a disadvantage in this 
respect, with regard to participation in foreign industry, 
in connection with colonization, and in the maintenance 
of an American merchant marine. Men go abroad as 


colonists or in professional capacities because the life at 
home lacks something that they can obtain by going 
farther afield. In some cases it is a measure of freedom 
they are looking for, or they need experience ; in others, 
additional recompense is the controlling factor. But 
unless things are made exceptionally attractive for the 
young American, he sees no advantage in leaving his 
own country. He can get all the mining experience he 
needs in the United States ; he can earn his pay at a rate 
that is the highest in the world. The American standard 
of living is no myth, as any manager will admit who has 
tried to satisfy the average American employee who is 
working in a foreign country. The thousand and one 
advantages of home life are missed; and, unless the 
normal rate of pay is increased largely, the employee 
is inclined to think that he has a grievance. With the 
majority of other nationals there is much to be gained 
and little to be lost by leaving home to take up a per- 
manent and remunerative appointment overseas. Few 
Americans go to Chile or to any other South American 
republic with the intention of making the country their 
home, as so many Englishmen have done in the past. 
The fact that a large number of employees at Chuqui- 
camata broke their contracts during the earlier years of 
operation is an undeniable fact; this meant a serious 
loss to the company, for the efficiency of any man reaches 
normal only when he is au fait with the work and sur- 
roundings; and the expense of engaging men in the 
United States and of bringing them to Chile has been 

During three visits to Chile I have paid considerable 

attention to the matter of the engagement of foreigners 
to work in the industries of the country, and I have come 
to the conclusion that the average American, in normal 
times, is too well-off at home to be satisfied with con- 
ditions in any other country, particularly where his 
own language is not spoken. There are a few notable 
exceptions, but the fact remains that the average Ameri- 
can cannot conceive the idea of making his home among 
the people of a foreign country ; it redounds to the credit 
of the United States that this is so ; but, because of this, 
American expansion abroad will always be at a disad- 
vantage, as compared with the efforts of other nationals. 
British prestige and influence in South America is almost 
entirely due, I should say, to the number of influential 
Britishers who are part and parcel of the national life in 
those countries. They may return, on rare occasions, to 
the land of their birth ; but the hankering to do so is far 
less emphatic and far less frequent than it is with the 

Apart from the feeling of preference for one's own 
country. State, or home town, I could see no justification 
at Chuquicamata for grumbling. The company has pro- 
vided its emploj'ees with excellent houses that are ren1> 
free. These are plainly but sufficiently furnished, the 
occupant having to pay only 10% of the value of the 
furniture per year, to allow for depreciation. Water, 
though expensive to obtain, is free; 50 kw. of electric 
power per month is supplied without charge, additional 
current beyond this amount being purchasable at a cost 
of 2$ cents per kilowatt. A club-house that cost $180,000 


has been built and equipped for the benefit of all 'gold' 
or staff employees. For this the entrance fee is $10, 
with monthly dues of $2. It contains a fine swimming- 
pool, a theatre, bowling-alley, pool-rooms, ball-room, and 
library ; it boasts of a real American barber, with com- 
plete impedimenta. A weekly paper, 'Chilex', is pub- 
lished in the camp. 

The importance of welfare-planning work at Chu- 
quicamata may be estimated from the fact that about 
1800 dwellings and other buildings have been or are 
being erected, involving a total cost of about $4,000,000. 
The company store carries an immense variety of goods, 
valued at about one million and a half pesos in normal 
times. All the employees' houses were built to standard 
pattern, at first of corrugated iron, and later of adobe 
brick, made from screened tailing, earth, and a small pro- 

July 33, 1921 



jHirtion of cement Type .1 houses have four rooms. a 
kitchen, and a bathroom; Type B houses, three rooms, a 
kitchen, and a bathroom. A few larger houses, for heads 
of departments, have six roams, two Imths. and a kitchen. 
Included among the buildings erected by the company is 
a Roman Catholic church, of artistic mission style, that 
cost $45,000. 

The hospital equipment is unusually complete, and 
consists of six buildings, with operating-rooms, separate 
wards for patients of different social grades, and for 
special cases, and a modern X-ray outfit. Dr. Shaw has 


two assistants. The principal work at the hospital is in 
connection with minor and major accidents; pneumonia 
and appendicitis are not uncommon. The last-mentioned 
trouble seemed to be unusually prevalent, for which no 
reason can be assigned. Nine hundred cases of influenza 
were under treatment during the epidemic, from which 
there were only seven deaths. A dental surgeon is num- 
bered among the permanent company officials, and a com- 
plete and up-to-date equipment is at his disposal. 

Schools are provided for the children of Chileans and 
Americans. In the latter, Spanish is taught; but the 
number of American children at Chuquicamata is small. 
The Chilean school is under government control, and is 
staffed, partly at the expense of the Chile Exploration 
Co., with Chilean teachers ; it is situated, together with 
the Roman Catholic church, at the New Camp, as it is 
called, where there is a large plaza and bandstand, and 
over a thousand small adobe dwellings for Chilean labor- 
ers. Every encouragement is offered, in the way of 
prizes and commendation, for cleanliness of house and 
attractiveness of garden. 

In summary, I would like to say that my visit to 
Chuquicamata was as profitable in impressions as it was 
pleasant. The mining work being done is notable, not 
only on account of quiet achievement, but as indicative 
of a spirit of progressiveness that will undoubtedly make 
the property one of the world's principal producers of 
copper in the near future. The metallurgical practice 

at the plant indicated careful planning and the absence 

of bias in the tirst instai followed by eapaU jntrol. 

The company appears to have done everything possible to 
make the employees contented and satisfied with their 
surroundings; in those cases where failure has resulted 
I feel sure that the cause lies not with the personnel or 
welfare departments, but is the result of temperamental 
influences over which they have little or no control, 
coupbd with the fact that there is no natural beauty in 
the immediate country. 

For the Chileans themselves I have a high esteem, but 
in making mention of them in connection with the work 
at Chuquicamata I realize that I must tread gingerly. 
The company has done a great deal, far more than it 
need have done on purely humanitarian grounds. This 
fact has been driven home on several occasions by com- 
pany officials, who have made pertinent comparison be- 
tween living conditions at Chuquicamata today, as com- 
pared with conditions that prevailed or prevail in other 
centres in the country. It is not easy to draw attention 
to such matters without causing offence; comparisons are 
odious. That the company has tried to set a high stand- 
ard is patent; that Chileans have been quick to take 
offence, where none is meant, is also patent. The Chile 
Exploration Co. has been trying to make a home for 
Chileans in a barren part of their own country; it has 
helped them in every way to become good citizens. It has 
done this because of a real desire to bring contentment, 
and because the bringing of contentment is good business, 
and redounds to the credit of the organizer. 

In conclusion, I would like to express an appreciation 

:'~i- . 


of personal courtesies extended to me at Chuquicamata 
by Burr Wheeler, the general manager; B. A. Middle- 
miss, the assistant general manager; B. C. Leadbetter, 
the mine superintendent ; L. "W. Kemp, the superintend- 
ent of the reduction plant; Dr. W. F. Shaw; L. F. 
Sussiek, of the welfare department; and W. R. Baseden. 
the company's agent at Antofagasta. 

Deposits of antimony exist in many parts of Mexico, 
and a considerable quantity has been produced, according 
to the U. S. Geological Survey. Output was increased 
largely during the period 1915 to 1918. No reliable data 
as to mine production are available. 



July 23, 1921 

Resuscitation of the Octave Gold Mine 

By J. Nelson Nevius 

After a successful period of operation during which it 
produced $2,250,000 worth of gold, the Octave mine 
succumbed to mismanagement and was abandoned. It 
lay idle for several years, but recently has been re-devel- 
oped so successfully as to give every promise of a profit- 
able life for many years to come. 

Octave is situated ten miles east of Congress Junction 
station in Yavapai county, Arizona, about half-way be- 
tween Phoenix and Prescott at an elevation of 3250 ft. 
The town is on a patented mining claim and the company 
thus controls the little community. It is ten miles east of 
the old Congress mine, reputed to have produced $12,- 
000,000, which was mined to a depth of more than 4000 
ft. on a dip of 30°. The geology and type of veins are 
identical in the two mines, and it is worthy of mention 
that there are similar veins in the district well worthy of 
development. The arroyos close to Octave have made a 
record as producers of placer gold ; Rich Hill, Antelope 
and Weaver gulches being the main sources of supply. 
Much of the placer gold is coarse; I have seen a $207 
nugget taken from the Octave property, yet gold is rarely 
seen in the veins. 

The name Octave is said to have originated from the 
fact that in 1897 eight men associated themselves to 
organize the Octave Gold Mining Co. A 40-stamp mill 
was erected, with amalgamation plates, concentration 
tables, and cyanide plant. Oil-fired boilers supplied 
steam-power for the mill, compressor, and two single- 
drum hoists. The plant was operated for several years 
and the vein was mined over a length of 2000 ft. .along its 
strike and for nearly 2000 ft. on the dip. 

In 1905 the property was sold to a Chicago stock- 
broker. At that time the bottom of the mine showed a 
strong vein but too low-grade to be profitable, and to the 
east the vein was cut by the Joker fault, as described 
later. Whether these unfavorable factors influenced the 
sale is conjectural, but they were never overcome by the 
new owners. Thus closed the fus6t chapter. 

Then began a period of stock-jobbing. The evidence 
underground, a mill ore-bin a third full of waste, and the 
correspondence left at the office, tell the tale of the 
wrecking of a good-mining enterprise. The climax came 
after the construction of an electric power-plant at 
Wickenburg, an 11-mile transmission line to Octave, and 
a complete electric equipment for operating the mine, the 
mill, and the town. This equipment is said to have cost 
$150,000, but it was used less than two weeks. The com- 
pany had no ore in the mine and neither cash nor stock 
in the treasury. Thus ended the second chapter. 

Several years ago some of the bondholders engaged me 
to advise them whether the geologic evidence indicated a 
reasonable probability of successful re-development. My 

report was favorable and resulted in the organization of 
the present Octave Mines Company, in which all former 
participants of record were invited to join on equal 
terms. IT. C. Gibbs, of Boston, president, and Donald S. 
Leas, of Philadelphia, secretary-treasurer, have carried 
the burden of the financing. Before undertaking the 
heavy expense involved the company wisely engaged 
Wilbur H. Grant, of San Francisco, and later Mr. Miller, 
of New York. Both of these engineers reported favor- 

The new development was undertaken under my direc- 
tion. The vein was recovered beyond the Joker fault by 
hand-drilling, and after drifting in good ore for several 
hundred feet a compressor plant, consisting of a Fair- 
banks-Morse Y engine and Sullivan angular-compound 
compressor, was erected, the camp was rehabilitated, and 
ore development was begun in earnest. The vein was 
recovered on the 850-ft. level of the Joker shaft, which 
corresponds to the 250-ft. level of the old mine. Refer- 
ence to the accompanying map will explain the details. 
The 850-ft. level disclosed a continuous orebody for 730 
ft., then encountered another fault, which had not been 
passed when work was suspended. Although this fault is 
a nuisance, it is not serious. The vein will be recovered 
beyond it, and the outcrop indicates that the vein is con- 
tinuous for 3000 ft. farther within the company's prop- 
erty. Profitable ore has been found beyond the Joker 
fault also on the 600-ft. and 1000-ft. levels of the Joker 
shaft, and, with the exception of the 850-ft. level, all the 
working faces are now in ore, and further development 
will place more ore in reserve. The face of the 1000-ft. 
level shows a vein 52 in. wide assaying $26.50. Within 
the boundaries shown on the map there is 40,000 tons of 
ore assaying $14 per ton, with a gross value of $560,000. 
The cost of the actual development of this ore was about 
$55,000. There are 800 ft, of backs above the 600-ft. 
level to be developed, and if this ore goes no deeper than 
the bottom of the old mine, it gives 1500 ft. on the dip 
below the 1000-ft. level yet to explore. The map shows 
the relations of the new ore to the old workings and sug- 
gests the long life that may be expected on this one ore- 
body. Then there is 3000 ft. of ground east of this ore, 
marked by a strong outcrop, yet to be developed. 

The old mine has not been unwatered. , Many miners 
have told me that the vein in the bottom is four to five 
feet wide, but low-grade. As the Congress mine was 
operated profitably to twice the depth of the Octave, 
there is sufficient encouragement to unwater the mine 
and sink deeper, but this is for the future. 

Development had gone far enough to justify a new 
mill when war conditions made it advisable to suspend 
operations temporarily. Mill-tests made by Hamilton, 

July 33, 192] 



Beraehamp A Woodworth Indicate that a recovery of 
an be made by a simple process. With the return 
to more normal conditions a new plant will be built using 
the old mill-building. Meanwhile no damage accrues to 
the mine by waiting until the bankers discover that gold 
ntial to our financial stability. 
The Octave is an object lesson, showing that a mine 
may be abandoned before it is exhausted. "When I first 
saw it the mine was a discouraging mess, both under- 
ground and on surface. The conditions were such that to 
the east the prospect was hopeless because the vein is cut 
by a profound fault at the base of the mountain. Some- 

tempt, the displacement being 50 ft. to thr right. More 
recent work has given some evidence of the existence at 
this point of two parallel veins about 50 ft. apart, and 
the Joker fault ends — like a tear part -way through a 
sheet of paper — at about this level. As exposed in the 
Joker shaft, the vein shows a sudden wave just above the 
1000-ft. level, but no faulting occurs there, yet in the 
upper levels and on the surface the fault is unquestion- 

The Octave vein is one of several similar veins along 
the base of the mountains, which are composed mainly of 
a coarse-grained granite, such as encloses the Congress 








one had sunk a shaft said to be nearly 400 ft. deep and 
failed to get below the loose material of the wa?h. The 
bottom of the mine was not accessible because the mine 
was, and still is, filled with water to about the 800-ft. 
level. The west limit of the old mine was in the Joker 
fault immediately beyond the Joker shaft, and the work 
indicated frantic but unintelligent efforts to recover the 

A peculiar situation existed in that the evidence on 
the surface indicated a displacement of about 200 ft. 
to the left, where a stroDg vein shows near the top of the 
ridge, but the evidence underground equally strongly 
indicated a displacement to the right. As the effects of 
faulting were diminishing with depth, the 850-ft. level 
was selected and the vein was recovered at the first at- 

and the Alvarado veins. At Octave, although the mass of 
the mountain is granite, yet the vein is enclosed in coarse- 
grained grano-diorite that was intruded prior to ore 
deposition. The vein is a persistent quartz-filled fissure. 
The fissure has been re-opened several times and in places 
the rock shows shearing. At the mouth of the adit the 
grano-diorite is sheared to a schistose structure for a 
width of 25 ft. and the quartz is only six inches wide. In 
places in the mine, the vein-fissure has been re-opened 
along the quartz and filled with rhyolite ; in other places 
diorite has similarly been intruded in the fissure through 
cross-cutting dikes later than the ore. At Raise No. 7 
on the S50-ft. level such a dike cuts the vein cleanly in 
the drift without displacing it, whereas in the raise the in- 
trusive rock has spread out in the vein over the ore. The 



July 23, 1921 

vein strikes north-west and dips south-west at about 30°. 
In width the quartz varies between nothing and five feet. 
The average width of the new orebody is scant 30 inches. 
A thin selvage occurs on both walls, so the ore breaks 
clear of the walls, and both walls are hard and unshat- 
tered, timbering being unnecessary except where faulting 
has occurred. 

The vein is composed of white quartz carrying 4 to 5% 
of sulphides, pyrite predominating, but galena, sphaler- 
ite, and chalcopyrite occur sparingly. About 60% of the 
gold is free and 40% is in the sulphides. It is' noticeable 
that where the galena increases the gold increases. Al- 
though certain differences can be noted, the character- 
istics of this vein are almost identical with those of the 
veins at Grass Valley, California. One rarely finds con- 
ditions so similar in districts so far apart. 

About 10% of the value is in silver, and both precious 
metals are rather uniformly distributed throughout the 
vein, assays rarely falling below $5 or reaching as high 
as $40. No coarse gold has ever been found in the Octave 
vein ; and this is peculiar because the local washes yield 
numerous good-sized nuggets. Only rarely may any fine 
gold be seen in the ore. 

As regards the delineation of the old mine on the ac- 
companying map, the ragged line merely outlines the 
periphery: it does not mean that the entire area was 

The reasons for recommending re-development consti- 
tute probably the most important part of this story and 
the most difficult to put on paper. Reverting to the time 
of the original examination, the favorable facts were : 

1. Duplication of vein-structure and ore-deposition 
with those at the Congress mine, which was profitable to 
twice the depth. 

2. Similarity of vein-type and ore-deposition with 
those of the classic veins of Grass Valley. 

3. Continuation of vein-outcrop beyond the Joker 

4. An indefinite condition that made the Octave look 

The unfavorable facts were : 

1. A successful company had sold the property, prob- 
ably considering it about worked out ; and a second com- 
pany had spent much money on it and failed. 

2. No chance for ore to tha east. Bottom of mine in- 
accessible and further exploration at depth (2000 ft. on 
an incline of 30°) would involve very heavy expense. 

3. To the west the vein was faulted and surface and 
underground evidence apparently was contradictory as 
to displacement. 

4. Outcrop beyond the fault reasonably continuous, 
but almost devoid of pay-ore. 

5. Old stopes showed the vein to be narrow and flat, 
with numerous though not large bodies of ore. 

Reduced to print, the above brief does not make a 
strong case in favor of re-development. There are some 
things that can be recognized but not described, and I 
take refuge in No. 4 of the above list of favorable condi- 


There are several cadmium minerals, but none of them 
occur in quantities large enough to be called ores, states 
a U. S. Geological Survey bulletin. The cadmium of 
commerce is derived from zinc minerals and ores, in al- 
most all of which it occurs in minute quantity, the ratio- 
being about 1 of cadmium to 200 of zinc. Cadmium be- 
haves metallurgically almost the same as zinc, and hence 
constitutes a fraction of 1% of almost all metallic zinc. 
The sources of cadmium that have been utilized are zinc 
ores treated by fractional distillation, lead-furnace bag- 
house fumes (the cadmium content of which is derived 
from the zinc minerals contained in the charge of lead 
ore), and residues from the purification vats of electro- 
lytic-zinc plants and lithopone plants. The production 
of cadmium, either as the metal or as the sulphide, has 
been reported by the companies in the following list, 
which shows also the nature of the metallurgic plant in 
connection with which the cadmium plant is operated: 

Producers of Cadmium in the United States in 1920 

Company Associated plant 

American Smelting & Refining Co. Denver, Colo Lead smelter 

Graselli Chemical Co.. Cleveland. Ohio Chemical works 

Krcbs Pigment & Chemical Co.. Newport. Del Lithopone plant 

Midland Chemical Co.. Argo. ni Lithopone plant 

U. S. Smelting. Refining & Mining Co.. Kennett. Cal. .Electrolytic-zinc plant 
U, S. Smelting. Refining & Mining Co.. Midvale, Utah. Lead smelter 

Of these, the plant at Kennett, California, was re- 
ported to have made no output in 1920. The lead fur- 
naces at the Globe plant of the American Smelting & Re- 
fining Co., at Denver, have been closed for some years, but. 
stocks of cadmiferous residues remain from former oper- 
ations, and more has been shipped in from other plants 
of the company. Several other electrolytic-zinc plants 
and lithopone plants save cadmium-bearing residue and 
have developed processes for recovering the metal, so that 
an extension of the uses of cadmium and an increased de- 
mand for it would result in additions to the list of pro- 
ducers. Several companies that produce cadmium-bear- 
ing residues sell them to the producing companies named 

A new method of determining surface tension is pro- 
posed by A. Ferguson in a paper that was read recently 
before the Faraday Society. Instead of measuring the 
height to which a column of liquid rises in a capillary- 
tube, external pressure is applied to force the level of the 
liquid to the bottom of the tube, this pressure being 
measured by a delicate manometer. Among the advan- 
tages claimed for this method are that it avoids difficul- 
ties due to variations in tube diameter and to variations 
in temperature in the capillary-tube itself; also the 
capillary -tube may be very short, which facilitates clean- 
ing. The method is rapid in use, and it gives results 
which are in good agreement with those obtained by the 
best methods previously known. 

According to the U. S. Geological Survey. 1% of the 
salt in the ocean would cover all the land areas of the 
globe to a depth of 290 feet. 

.Inly 83, 1921 



Baja California and Oil Possibilities 

By Victor H. Wilhelm 

The area covered in this reconnaissance is mainly in 
the southern and central parts of the peninsula extend- 
ing on the Pacific side from Cape San Lucas to Mag- 
dalena Bay, and on the Gulf side from the Cape to Santa 

Baja California, or Lower California, consists of a 
narrow strip of broken mountainous land, 775 miles long 
and varying from 30 to 75 miles wide, and in general 
trends northwest-southeast. Its coast is characterized by 
long sweeps of gently curving bays, with intervening 
points enclosing oval basins, with outlying islands. The 
interior consists of a series of mountain ranges made up 
of recent volcanics, and submerged mountain masses that 
are an extension of the Sierra Nevada uplift. 

The climate is remarkably equable, being little warmer 
than southern California, although much more arid. 
Large areas on the Pacific side have an annual rainfall 
of less than two inches, and the mountain areas average 
less than five inches. The entire area is a desert, with 
the exception of a few small valleys, where arroyos sup- 
ply sufficient water for irrigation. The raising of cattle 
is the main industry, but considerable sugar-cane is 
grown where irrigation is possible. Most of the corn and 
beans, the staple food, are imported from the mainland. 
Pearl-fishing has been an important industry, but the 
beds have been worked out since the cancellation of the 
French concession. 

The southern portion of the peninsula classifies itself 
naturally into two districts: (1) the area south of La 
Paz, on the Gulf, and Todos Santos on the Pacific, con- 
sisting mainly of granitic intrusives, gneiss, and schist, 
bordered on the east by a series of Tertiary and Pleisto- 
cene sedimentarics, and (2) the area running north from 
La Paz to Santa Rosalia, consisting of large deposits of 
limestone, sandstone, and volcanic tuff, forming mesas, 
with recent rhyolitic and basaltic flows. 

The area situated south of La Paz consists mainly of 
granitic gneiss, probably of post-Jurassic age, cut by 
numerous dikes, of irregular size and continuity, the 
most prominent of which are syenite, diorite, and dia- 
base. In places the original granite has been altered to 
hornblendite, of a schistose character. This area con- 
sisted of an island during the Cretaceous period, as the 
area to the north was submerged during deposition of the 
mesa sandstone of Upper Cretaceous age. This island 
was of considerable extent and of an irregular outline. 

There has been considerable mining at various times 
in this district. The mining town of Triunfo, situated 
20 miles south of La Paz, is the site of the operations of 
the Progresso Mining Co., now called the Minas y Montes. 
of which Blarney Stevens is general manager. The prop- 
erties of this company have been operating for over 50 
years. The ore contains lead and silver, associated with 

arsenopyrite, and is of a refractory nature. Two mills 
have been operated, using hyposulphite and cyanide 
processes after roasting. The various mines of the com- 
pany are connected with the town of Triunfo by a nar- 
row-gauge railroad. The mines contain 60 miles of un- 
derground workings, having been developed to a depth 
of 2700 ft. along the dip of a flat vein, averaging 35°. 
The orebodies consist of two well-defined fissure-veins in 
the granitic gneiss. One of these veins has been worked 


for a distance of seven miles along the outcrop. The 
other vein, situated near San Antonio, extends continu- 
ously for a distance of five miles. The veins average from 
3 to 7 ft. in width, and the ore, after sorting, averages 
50 oz. of silver per ton. This company has had a total 
production of over $16,000,000. The property is now 
under option to the Boleo company, which is financed by 
the French Rothschilds. The mines are not being op- 
erated, owing to a series of difficulties, the principal of 
which are the low price of silver, the wrecking of the mills 
by a local cyclone, and the fact that the properties were 
confiscated and looted by the Carranza government. 



July 23, 1921 

Labor is plentiful, efficient, and cheap, and the climate is 
healthful. There are numerous other small mines in this 
district, only one of which is operating on silver ore, and 
exporting arsenic as a by-product. 

In the southern area there is a considerable extent of 
sedimentaries, bordering the Gulf coast, running from 
Buena Vista to San Jose del Cabo and extending inland 
for a distance of 15 miles to the sierras of the Cape 
region. Along the granitic and rhyolitic peaks are 
enormous deposits of unclassified and unconsolidated ma- 
terial, which Gabb states are the remains of glacial 
moraines, but signs of glaciation are totally lacking. These 
deposits cover a large area surrounding Miraflores and ' 
San Bartoleo. The bedded deposits occur almost in the 
attitude of deposition with a slight western dip due to 
an uplift along the Gulf coast. The beds present a west- 
facing escarpment, with steep dips along the edges, rap- 
idly flattening in depth. Three distinct formations, 
lying conformably upon each other, were observed at this 
place. The oldest formation, probably of Upper Cre- 
taceous age, consists of coarse indurated sand, in places 
with a greenish color, due to traces of copper carbonates, 
and also containing thin beds of crystalline gypsum, and 
some small seams of brown lignite. Several sulphur 
springs were observed seeping from this formation. 
Lying conformably on the gypsum are over 1000 ft. of 
fine-grained sandstone and clay-shale, including sundry 
beds of limestone made up of shell formations containing 
a large species of ostria — probably of Miocene age. 
Seemingly conformable with the Miocene is a large series 
of Pleistocene conglomerates and granitic sands, which 
border the glacial moraines. 

Despite the many exposures of tilted strata, there were 
no evidences of oil seepages, although some specimens of 
ozokerite have been found along the beach. 

After leaving the granitic ranges south of La Paz. the 
entire character of the country is altered, the older 
igneous rocks are replaced by enormous deposits of sand- 
stone, limestone, and massive conglomerate, forming 
mesas, or flat-topped ridges, and the backbone or higher 
portion of the peninsula follows the Gulf coast. These 
beds form rugged and precipitous escarpments along the 
Gulf coast, but dip gently to the Pacific side. Along a 
belt bordering the igneous rocks, running from La Paz 
to Todos Santos, the limestone in the sedimentaries has 
been altered along the contact to a fair grade of marble, 
which still shows the fossil contents of which it is made. 
This marble has been quarried for export, at Pescadero, 
adjacent to Todos Santos. 

Traveling north, from the small town of Todos Santos 
along the Pacific coast, recent marine terraces, probably 
Quaternary, are observed. These terraces are of con- 
siderable extent near Magdalena Bay. At Point Cedros, 
60 miles south of Magdalena Bay, the mesa formations 
of the Pleistocene, dipping westward at a uniform angle 
of 4°, outcrop along the coast. This formation was made 
up mainly of shell beds of marine origin, in which the 
fossil forms are well preserved. A section at this place 
consists of shell beds, containing turritellas, olivas, patel- 

lar, and ostreas, 60 ft. thick. Upon these beds are sand- 
stone and volcanic tuff, more or less consolidated, under- 
lying beds of volcanic ash, showing spicules of sponge 
forms. The surficial formation everywhere consists of 
massive conglomerate, made up of large boulders of 
eruptive material, loosely consolidated. To the eastward, 
in the higher mesas, these beds are penetrated and capped 
by deposits of volcanic origin, mainly trachyte and rhyo- 
lite. The Pleistocene is nowhere over 1000 ft. thick, and 
the volcanic flows average over 200 ft. in thickness. The 
Cretaceous can be distinguished from the Pleistocene by 
its unconformity, coarser grain, greater compactness, and 
the large number of boulders and pebbles embedded in it. 

At Point Gasparino, 40 miles south of Todos Santos 
and 70 miles north of Cape San Lucas, on the Pacific 
side, there is a considerable accumulation of asphaltum 
and oil-residue on rocks of igneous origin. This deposit 
has attracted the attention of local residents for many 
years. The point of rocks is made up of granitic gneiss, 
and the oil has probably been liberated from seepages in 
the ocean to the north, and carried by the prevailing 
southern current, on the surface of the ocean, to be de- 
posited on the north side of this point. At Point Cedros, 
on Pleistocene shell-limestone, a similar deposit was 
observed, but with no indication that the oil originated at 
this place. The U. S. Coast and Geodetic Survey has 
noted or received notice of the presence of large areas on 
the ocean covered with oil, which is probably caught on 
the projecting points of the coast. At Conejo, 60 miles 
south of Magdalena Bay, concretionary float limestone 
impregnated with oil was found at a considerable dis- 
tance from the beach. There is a large deposit of car- 
bonaceous shale at this place, but the impregnated lime- 
stone was not found in place. At Purissima, 40 miles 
north-east of Magdalena Bay, an oil-well 900 ft. deep 
was sunk by Mexicans in 1910, but they discovered only 
a considerable flow of heavily mineralized artesian water. 

Inorganic sediments make up nearly the whole of the 
sedimentary beds in this district ; they consist principally 
of the decomposed remnants of igneous rocks. Folding 
or flexure of the strata is entirely lacking, the only move- 
ment being the result of a gradual uplift along the Gulf 
coast and a consequent slight dip to the west. 

Traveling north from La Paz along the Gulf coast, the 
line of the peninsula presents a ragged precipitous ap- 
pearance, with definite west-dipping escarpments. The 
outlying islands consist mainly of rhyolitic flows, dipping 
westward conformably with the underlying Pleistocene 
shell-beds. At San Evaristo, 50 miles north of La Paz, 
bedded volcanic ash and tuff, impregnated with mala- 
chite, were observed. At Carmen island, lying east of 
Loretto, an oil-seep known to the inhabitants for many 
years was observed dripping from the overlying rhyolitic 
flow, probably through a fault or break in the volcanic 
material. Small boats have observed several other seeps 
at a distance from the land, such areas being supposed to 
be calm in the severest storms that sweep the Gulf. A 
similar seepage and residue of asphaltum has been dis- 
covered on the south end of Isle de la Guardia, in the 

July 23, 192] 



DOliberi) portion of the Gulf, not far from the mouth of 
the Colorado river. Then evidences of the presence of 
oil undoubtedly come from the mesa sandstone," forced 
out from the porous formations up the dip by hydrostatic 

The sedimentary formations oJ Baja California seem 
to be absolutely lacking in anti, -lines or folds favorable 
to the accumulation of oil in commercial quantity. The 
oil probably has eseaped for generations out of the open 
edges of the heds along the Gulf eoast. as the formations 
axe nowhere sealed. This would indicate that the oil has 
escaped as fast as it has accumulated. Diatomaceous 
shales such as are the source of the oil in southern Cali- 
fornia are entirely lacking. The prevailing vuleanism, 
whieh has prevailed during the sedimentation, is an un- 
favorable factor. The great extent and porosity of the 
• onld indicate that the oil has been rapidly replaced 
by water, and the oil forced out of the tilted edges of the 
strata. Drilling for oil where such seepages occur, 
through the sedimentaries back from the dip, would be 
useless, because no accumulation of oil could be expected. 

Hints to Speculators and Investors in Mines 

From a Cornish Book Published in 1857 

1. Use great caution when a mine is represented as 
being capable of being commenced without machinery; 
or as being able to be wrought with an unusually small 
amount of capital. 

2. Refrain from any mine proposed to be wrought by 
steam machinery with less capital than £5000, unless you 
are fully satisfied by your own personal examination. No 
mine ought to be undertaken without the possible re- 
source of a surplus capital. Nine out of ten mines which 
have been cramped for capital have failed. 

3. Be cautious when the Purser of the mine is a trader 
or shopkeeper. Mining capital is useful to extend private 
trade. Look to the Purser well, lest he look to himself too 
well ; lend to him personally rather than indirectly. 

4. Resident shareholders sometimes take shares in a 
neighboring project, if it will drain their own mine of 
water accumulated in it. Beware of projects got up by 
such gentlemen. 

5. Avoid mines of which the traders in supplies have 
an agency, or in which their special friends are strong 
and numerous. 

6. Avoid mines belonging wholly to non-resident 
shareholders, and whieh are left to the unchecked con- 
trol of the Purser and Captain. 

7. Look well to the registry and transfer of shares, if 
entrusted to the Purser alone, by means of entries in the 
cost-book only. 

8. Avoid mines of any metal except tin, the leases of 
which are incomplete, or have been granted except by the 
sett and signature of the lord 's agent in the cost-book. 

9. The repute, skill, and character of the Purser and 
Captain of the mine you invest in, are quite as important 
to you as your skill in your own business. 

10. Reference to an agent of uncertain character some 
times leads to a depreciation in the concern you are think- 
ing of, and a recommendation of the concern he is think- 
ing of. 

11. What exactly suits the views of a mine agent, may 
not exactly suit yours. 

12. It is far easier to put tin into a mine, than to get tin 
out of a mine; and it is more likely that you will lose 
£100 than gain £10. 

13. To determine the number of shares you will take in 
a very promising mine, first consult your wife, then count 
your children, and lastly, calculate your household ex- 

14. It is just possible that the sample ores you see in 
London, or some other city, have come from any mine ex- 
cept the one projected, or offered to your consideration. 
Some samples have been known to serve for several mines. 

15. As to foreign concerns, beware of wonderful re- 
ports and astonishing specimens. Not long since, some 
most rich masses of copper were exhibited in London, and 
a eompary projected. A keen agent, being sent out to 
report, found no such wonderful masses of copper, and 
hinted that more specimens had been Drought to the spot 
by the hand of man than the hand of nature. 

16. Before you invest, do not look over a list of mines 
whose returns have been extraordinary; but reckon up 
the failures. Be sure to be particular about these, as they 
will most concern you. 

17. When you have invested, make up your mind to 
lose ; and then any gains will be clear gains, and pleasant 

It is natural that an investing country, where, though 
its mineral deposits are meagre, metallurgical industries 
are as important as in Belgium, should have widespread 
interests in foreign mines. The capital of foreign mining 
companies (apart from coal) incorporated in Belgium 
may be placed at 73,181,000 francs, states a consular 
report. These companies exploit or control gold mines 
in South Africa and Australia, and operate zinc, lead, 
iron, and copper mines in Spain, Portugal, Sardinia, 
Tunis, Algeria, and Serbia. Among the largest of these 
mining companies are the Mines de Fer de Rouina 
(Algeria), capitalized at 8,750,000 fr., whieh operated 
profitably from its founding in 1908 to the outbreak of 
the War; the Societe Miniere Beige "La Productora y 
Coto San Antonio" (capital 7,500,000 fr.), holding lead 
and silver deposits in Spain, which did not show satis- 
factory results till 1920 ; and the Cie. Royale Asturienne 
des Mines (capital 6,000,000 fr.), operating, aside from 
Spanish coal mines, calamine and blende deposits in the 
Provinces of Santander and Guipuzcoa. Belgian capital 
has been widely distributed in foreign undertakings, the 
total amount of which may be estimated at 100,000,000 
fr. The Banque d'Outremer and Belgian paper manu- 
facturers have organized the Belgo-Canadian Pulp & 
Paper Co., with a capital of 4,500,000 fr. and an annual 
production of 35,000 tons of paper. 



July 23, 1921 

Our Anomalous Patent Office 

By K. P. McElroy 

•"What's the matter with Kansas?" is an old ques- 
tion that never did receive a satisfactory answer until 
Kansas became prosperous and contented. Afterward, 
it needed none because it wasn't asked. Answering, or 
ducking an answer to, the same question about the Patent 
Office is becoming monotonous. The Office is prosperous 
enough, in the sense that it takes in more money than it 
spends; but it is far from contented. That it is in a bad 
way is shown sufficiently well by the number of em- 
ployees leaving or about to leave. The Patent Office has 
always been, more or less, a sort of brooder or incubator 
for patent solicitors ; and just now it is more so ; much 
more so. It is full of cocoons awaiting butterflyhood. 
To use army slang, its morale is shot full of holes. 

It is a serious and perplexing situation to American 
inventors and manufacturers to whom a strong and virile 
Patent Office, playing the game according to the rules, is 
a business necessity. What we are going to do about it 
is not evident. The Nolan Bill, so far as it related to the 
inside of the Patent Office, was treating symptoms and 
not a disease. Rehabilitation cannot be accomplished by 
the simple expedient of raising salaries, although it would 
help. It is unquestionable that the good men in the 
Office, of whom there are many, should receive salaries 
commensurate with their merit. But men of education 
and standing need something more than salary to keep 
them on the job ; they require a certain amount of pride 
of place and dignity of position. Obviously, if a man is 
merely paid what he is worth and what he can command 
elsewhere and there are no other inducements, inertia is 
all that holds him. The cold fact is that, quite apart 
from salary, to the man in the Patent Office the outside 
looks more attractive than the inside. The Nolan Bill in 
no way cures this. 

As I see it, it is to the work of the Smoot-Reavis joint 
committee, charged with revision and co-ordination of 
all government activities, that we must look for relief. 
That that committee will do something to the Patent 
Office is certain; that it will do much for it, is to be 
hoped. Also, it ought to be urged ; and it is up to those 
interested in patent matters to do the urging. The com- 
mittee is free to do what it considers right, for there is 
here no question of economy, elimination, or reduction. 
The Patent Office pays its own way ; it costs the taxpayer, 
ordinarily, not one solitary nickel. And it must be big 
enough and equipped to handle whatever business comes 
before it. 

Intrinsically, the Patent Office is a highly dignified in- 
stitution, going back to the Constitution for its warrant 
for existence. It has been the birthplace of many of our 
great industries, and there is none that does not owe it 
something. Its records are the records of our national 
industry. A fire in the old near-white building would 

•Abstracted Irom the 'Journal of Industrial and Engi- 
neering Chemistry'. 

be more terrible to industry than an army with Zeppe- 
lins. Its personnel is charged with duties requiring not 
only a knowledge of every branch of human endeavor, 
but of the principles of law as laid down in the statutes 
and countless decisions. 

Actually, it is a mere bureau in the Interior Depart- 
ment bracketed with a miscellaneous lot of other bureaus, 
not to mention St. Elizabeth's Asylum and Howard Uni- 
versity. What it is doing in that gallery, or in any execu- 
tive department, I do not know, because it is in no sense 
an executive branch of the Government. It executes no 
orders of the President or of Congress — least of all, any 
by the Secretary of the Interior. Its employees are 
'Examiners'; but Washington is full of Examiners. I 
remember one time when I was in the Patent Office and 
we were short-handed, the powers that were, to whom all 
'Examiners' looked alike, detailed some from the Pen- 
sion office to help out — with chaotic results. There is 
but little dignity in the title ; and less official recognition 
than there ought to be. The head of the Patent Office is 
a Commissioner; but Washington is full of 'Commission- 
ers' of all sorts — of pensions, of lands, of fishing, of In- 
dians, of education, and what not. 

Under the Constitution, the Patent Office is there to 
promote the progress of science and the useful arts ; but 
it is to do it within the limits of certain statutes for that 
purpose made and provided. Therefore, its work is a 
blend or mayonnaise of law with science and technology. 
In the case of a patent, as with a contract, the wording 
is as important as the matter; what it covers depends 
upon what it says and how it says it, and not at all upon 
what it ought to say or ought to mean. A patent, to 
quote good old Dr. Squibb 's statement, is a "law of the 
land"; and it is not to be granted without due con- 
sideration of all the legalities. When an application is 
filed, whether the invention be in determining the paral- 
lax of the fixed stars, in curing meat, or in sewing shoes, 
it is first referred to Examiners who are supposed to be 
expert in the particular art, familiar with everything 
that has ever been done in it, and prepared to under- 
stand the new thing ; and to be able to apply their knowl- 
edge to it in view of the numerous controlling decisions 
in patent cases. This is a considerable requirement; 
but normally the Patent Office 'gets away with it'. The 
examining branches, of which there are about forty, are 
presumed to be manned by scientific and technical men 
of high standing, acquainted, among them all, with every 
• branch of knowledge. The Examiners are the judges 
(jury maybe would be a better term) of the fact. From 
them an appeal lies to a Board of Examiners-in-Chief, 
members of which are appointed by the President with 
the consent of the Senate. Under the law, they must be 
persons of "competent legal knowledge and scientific 
ability". From the Board, a further appeal lies to the 
Commissioner in person, who, therefore, in this capacity 
acts as a court of appeals. General Dyrenforth, himself 
at that time an Assistant Commissioner of Patents, sum- 
marized the procedure neatly, albeit somewhat scurri- 
lously, perhaps, in saying: "A case first goes to an Ex- 

July 23, 1921 



■miner who knows the facts but not the taw, then to the 
Kxaminers-in-Chief, who know the law but not the facts. 
«in.l then to the Commissioner who knows neither". 

In all its functions, the Patent Office acts as a tribunal 
to try to ascertain fact and law. It settles the question 
of ownership as regards certain alleged treasure trove 
between the inventor and the public, or between rival in- 
ventors, as the ease may be. The Examiners are triers 
of fact, the Commissioner settles the law, and the Board 
tries both fact and law. In each and every activity, the 
Patent Office acts as an adjudicating body; not as an 
executive body. It is really a court, and should rank as 
such : not as a bureau of an executive department. 

The importance of all this is that much depends, in- 
dustrially, on the kind and quality of patents we are to 
grant ; on the accurate working of our patent system. 
Bad patents, of which there are many, are as much of a 
public nuisance as good patents are of public benefit. 
All applications for patent should be as carefully scru- 
tinized and examined as human ability will permit, and 
the interlocking team work on fact and law, provided for 
by statute in the Patent Office, should be at least as good 
as that on a baseball nine. Any patent may furnish the 
basis for litigation, often bitter and prolonged, and the 
more there is of this, the worse. "Well-drawn and proper 
patents, like well-drawn contracts, seldom get into court ; 
they are respected. A good patent on a good invention 
seldom needs litigation ; the respective rights of the in- 
ventor and of the public have been settled in the Patent 
Office, once for all. On the other hand, a weak patent 
on something of importance usually does go to court and 
proves expensive for the owner, the industry, and the 
public at large. Frequently in such a case, where the 
patentee is lucky, the courts by judicial interpretation 
give the patent the form and meaning in which it should 
have emerged from the Patent Office in the first place. 
It is better for everybody that a patent, if granted, should 
be well granted. And to do this, it is necessary that the 
Office be manned and headed by competent men taking 
pride in their working together. 

What the Smoot-Reavis committee on reorganization 
should do, in my opinion, is to lift the Patent Office from 
its lowly place in the Interior Department and make it 
independent, affiliating it with the judicial branches and 
not with the executive. I think it should be re-named the 
'Court of Patents', and headed by a judge taken from 
the Federal bench; preferably a good crisp one. The 
Examiners should be high-class men, looking forward to 
a career in the Office, and with office conditions made 
attractive to them — much more attractive than they are 
now. All this will of course cost more money ; but why 
not? It is not the Government's cash or the taxpayer's 
cash — it is the money of those doing business with the 
Patent Office. And those who pay the fees are entitled 
to get service for their money; service of a grade that 
they do not receive today. 

The increase of filing fees provided for by the Nolan 
Bill is all right in and of itself, if it helps better the 
Patent Office. The present fees are not burdensome, nor 

would the increase hurt anybody. But what 'a the 

ling more income to an institution that is already 
charging more than the value of the services it renders I 
Put the Patent Office on a better footing and then 
more. It is absurd to take the money of the inventors 
and use it to run a post-graduate kind, rgarti n for patent 

At \-k\ has produced about 972 tons of metallic tin, 
which has nearly all come from the placers of the York 
district at the west end of Seward Peninsula. Tin de- 
posits, both placers and lodes, were discovered by the 
U. S. Geological Survey in 1900 and 1902. Develop- 
ments began in a small way on placer tin in 1902 and the 
first dredge was installed in 1911. Since then two or 
three dredges have been employed in tin mining. A 
number of discoveries of lode tin have been made in the 
York district. Practically no tin has been produced 
from lodes, but lode developments have been under way 
since 1903. The only considerable underground ex- 
ploration has been at the Lost River mine, where a mill is 
now under construction. Some placer tin has also been 
produced incidentally to gold mining in the Hot Springs 
district of the Tanana valley and in smaller amounts in 
other Yukon districts. Placer tin has also been found in 
the gravels of Yentna river, which is tributary to the 
Susitna. Though there has been systematic search for tin 
in Alaska during the last two decades, promising deposits 
have been found only in the York and Hot Springs dis- 
tricts. No new deposits of placer tin have been dis- 
covered in the York district in recent years, and there is 
no certainty that this form of tin mining will be con- 
tinued there when the deposits now being exploited are 
exhausted. No tin placers which, under present eco- 
nomic conditions, will warrant exploitation ior their tin 
alone have yet been found in the Yukon districts. When 
costs of operation are reduced, placer-tin mining may be 
developed in the Hot Springs and other districts. The 
distribution of the alluvial tin in this district also justifies 
the hope that tin-bearing lodes may yet be discovered. 
Meanwhile, the best hope of the continuation of Alaskan 
tin mining is based on the lode tin of the York district. 
The Lost River mine, in this district, is the only property 
sufficiently developed to justify the belief that it will 
soon become a producer, yet there are other deposits in 
the region which deserve prospecting. These facts do not 
indicate any large potential tin reserves in Alaska, but 
the wide distribution of the tin deposits gives hope of 
future discoveries. There is no evidence that the tin out- 
put will decrease in the near future, yet a large increase 
in production must depend on the development of de- 
posits not yet discovered. 

The production of primary zinc from domestic ores in 
1918, according to the U. S. Geological Survey, was 492.- 
405 short tons, valued at $89,618,000, based on the aver- 
age selling price, as compared with 584,597 short tons, 
valued at $119,258,000, based on the average selling price, 
in 1917 — a decrease of 92,192 tons, or nearly 16%, in 
quantity and of $29,640,000, or about 25%, in value. 



July 23, 1921 

Company Reports 


Report for the year ended December 31, 1920. 

Property: Controls the Chile Exploration Co., with mine 
and mill at Chuquieamata, and power plant at Tocopilla, 

Operating Officials: Burr Wheeler, general manager; B. 
Middlemiss, assistant general manager. 

Financial: Operating revenue, $17,711,020.80; operating 
cost, $10,205,764.82; operating profit, $7,505,256.98; other 
income, $1,169,867.23; total income, $8,675,124.21; charges 
against income, including interest on bonds of Chile Copper 
Co., $3,590,280.18; balance of income carried to surplus 
account, $5,084,844.03; charges against 1920 surplus, 
$4,932,850.04; net surplus from 1920 operations, $151,- 
993.99; net deficit as at December 31, 1919, $501,712.28; 
net deficit as at December 31, 1920, $349,718.29. 

Development: No further prospect drilling has been done 
beyond that mentioned in the last annual report. The ore- 
reserves as at December 31, 1920, were: 329,306,106 tons of 
oxidized ore, containing 1.91%; 151,000,000 tons of mixed 
ore, containing 2.98%; and 210,000,000 tons of sulphide 
ore, containing 1.84%; or a total of 690,306,106 tons, with 
an average copper content of 2.12%. 

Mining Operations: Total ground broken during the year 
amounted to 2,134,665 cu. yd.; 627,595 cu. yd. of waste was 
removed from the benches, averaging 0.30% copper; total 
number of churn-drill holes drilled amounted to 764, with a 
total footage of 34,477 ft.; the total advance in blasting tun- 
nels was 5919 ft.; since the beginning of the underground 
blasting tunnel development, a total of 9 3,340 ft. has been 
driven, of which 38,651 ft. has been blasted, and 54,689 ft. 
remains. Five new-type 103-C electric-shovels are being 
erected; when these are in service tbere will be a total of 9 
standard electric-shovels, 1 Type 225-B revolving electric- 
shovel, and 10 Type 95-B steam-shovels on the property. 
Six 85-tcn Porter side-tank locomotives have been added to 
the mine rolling stock, making a total of 32. One 1050-cu. 
ft. motor-driven air-compressor was installed in March, mak- 
ing a total of three of this type in service at the mine. 

Milling Operations: 4,243,301 tons was crushed; the 
oversize on a 0.371-in. square-mesh screen was 13.54%, as 
compared with 19% for the previous year. 

Iieaching Operations: 414 charges were treated during 
the year, the average extraction of copper being 91.9%, as 
compared with 88.5% for the previous year. 

Electrolytic Operations: The new 96-cell circuit was com- 
pleted in December. The plant is now equipped with 894 

Melting Operations: The third melting furnace was com- 
pleted and started operations in April. The total produc- 
tion of copper during the year was 55,565 short tons. 

General: The power plant at Tocopilla is operated ex- 
clusively on fuel oil; from the beginning of operations the 
company has relied on contracts with producers, who fur- 
nished the transportation, and delivered the oil at destina- 
tion. This has not proved satisfactory, with the result that, 
during September 1920 a contract was made with British 
shipyards for the construction of two modern tank ships, 
each of 70,000 bbl. carrying capacity. One of these should 
be delivered late this year, and the other a few months 

In furtherance of the policy of discontinuing plant exten- 
sions until the universal disorganization of business condi- 
tions has improved sufficiently to give promise of the prob- 
able continuous sale of a maximum production from the 
15,000-ton plant, the present condition of the work is as 
follows: (1) Designing work has been discontinued; (2) 

the lS,000-k.v.a. turbo-generator set is under construction, 
the installation not being postponed, as it was needed to 
safeguard the power requirements of the present plant; (3) 
further work on leaching plant and sump construction has 
been discontinued; (4) the 55,000-bbl. fuel-oil tank at 
Chuquicamata has been installed, as an insurance against 
accident and to prevent irregular supply; (5) the water 
reclamation system has been postponed, there being ample 
water at the present rate of production. 


Report for the year ended December 31, 1920. 

Property: Company owns the Britannia Mining & Smelt- 
ing Co., which owns the Britannia Power Co. and the Howe 
Sound Potosi Mining Co., which owns much of the stock of 
the Chihuahua Mining Company. Mines and mills in British 
Columbia and Mexico. 

Operating Officials: E. J. Donahue, general manager 
Britannia company; A. L. Eaton, general manager El 
Potosi company. 

Financial: Income, $7,024,330.14; expenditure, $5,177,- 
167.00; balance forward, $109,753.63; dividends, $396,830; 
dividend payable January 15, 1921, $99,207.50. 

Development: Britannia company, 7078 ft. together with 
5446 ft. of diamond-drilling; El Potosi company, 20,095 ft. 
of diamond-drilling. 

Production: Tonnage handled by the Beach Mill during 
the year amounted to 710,450; yield amounted to 18,161,- 
854 lb. copper, 6495.58 gold, and 101,505.07 oz. silver. 
From the Mexican plant there was shipped during the year 
the following: 120,158 tons of lead carbonates, with 13.95 
oz. silver and 4.22% lead; 42,211 tons of lead sulphides, 
with 19.34 oz. silver and 6.98% lead; and 11,441 tons of 
iron sulphides, with 23.38 oz. silver per ton. 

General: The concentrating mill at Britannia Beach was 
completely destroyed by fire on the evening of March 19. 
The power-house and adjacent buildings were saved. The 
company is protected by insurance and the construction of 
a new mill will be commenced as soon as plans and speci- 
fications can be prepared. 


Report for the year ended December 31, 1920. 

Property: Mines and mills at Etzatlan, Jalisco, Mexico. 

Operating Officials: J. H. Howard, general manager; W. 
Howard, assistant general manager; W. R. Askew, chief 
engineer; C. F. Joyce, mine superintendent; A. F. Dick- 
Cleland, superintendent. Exploration company: W. Alison, 
shaft superintendent; J. M. Brown, assistant mill superin- 

Financial: Income, $1,748,381.59; profit on operations, 
$231,756.79; net profit to surplus, $114,416.91. 

Production: 149,518 tons was milled, yielding 1,258,985 
oz. silver, and 27,176 oz. gold. Operating costs showed a 
decline of $2.48 per ton, as compared with 1919. 

General: The Merrill-Crowe system of precipitation was 
adopted during the year and is in successful operation. It 
is expected that the saving in the consumption of zinc and 
cyanide in a year will cover the cost of the change. The fine- 
ness of the bullion produced is also improved. 


Report for the year ended March 31, 1921. 

Property: Mines and plants in Canada; refineries in New 

Financial: Total income, $5,166,581.23; administrative 
and head-office expense, $987,731.25; net income, $4,187,- 
849.98; profit for the year, $2,029,699.83; dividends, $534,- 

General: No technical details of the year's operations are 

.lulv 23, 192] 



The Present Depression and Its Causes 

By H. C. Hoover 

•There is a feeling of some uneasiness and even of. 

lism regarding the future of our foreign trade, in 
which 1 do not participate. 

Our exports and imports during the last few months 
have dropped nearly 50% in value from the high-water 
mark of a year ago. Some of tins decrease is due to the 
fall in prices relatively more than volume; Borne of it is 
the temporary world depression and some of it lies 

In these times of troubled minds, we find much con- 
flict of opinion as to the situation and its remedies. Some 
extreme groups insist that inasmuch as our exports com- 
prise but 10% of our total production, therefore our 
foreign trade bears only this ratio to our economic life, 
and that, consequently, our true course is to forget it 
and to devote ourselves to healing our internal economic 
wounds. Other extreme groups consider that for our 
internal situation the only remedy is restoration of our 
export trade: they would undertake desperate measures 
to accomplish it. In either case we must not allow the 
present industrial depression to obscure our view. We 
have passed through several depressions since the Civil 
War and we have already turned the corner of this one. 

The importance of our foreign trade requires but little 
defense. I may say in passing that our whole standard 
of living greatly depends upon, our imports and that our 
exports are the great balance-wheel for our production. 
Exports are vital to the stabilization of our industries, of 
price-levels, of wages, and of employment. While our 
exports do cover but a small proportion of our total pro- 
duction, on the other hand they do comprise a large per- 
centage of the production of certain industries. For in- 
stance, we generally export 20% of our wheat, 60% of 
our cotton, 75% of our copper, not to mention others. 
Unless we find a market for the surplus production of 
our great industries, we shall continue to keep some 25 
millions of our people in reduced buying power. We 
might even drive them into poverty — during the many 
years that would be required to shift the whole basis of 
our internal production. Nor does a nation become rich 
by its exports alone — but by its trade. 

While many of the causes of the present depression 
lie within our own borders, yet there may be no recovery 
from these hard times for many years to come, if we 
neglect our economic relations abroad. Even if we lower 
our vision of civilization in this crisis solely to our own 
selfish economic interest, we are yet mightily concerned 
in the recuperation of the entire world. The hard times 
that knock at every cottage door today came from Eu- 
rope. No tariffs, no embargoes, no navies, no armies can 

*An address delivered on July 12 at Boston before the 
National Shoe and Leather Exposition and Style Show. 

defend us from these invasions, Our sole defense is the 
prosperity of our neighbors and our own commercial 
skill. The recovery of our foreign trade 'an march only 
in company with the welfare and prosperity of our cus- 

When We analyze the present foreign-trade situation, 
we find tremendous shifts in economic currents since 
1914. Indeed, we find great changes still in progress. 
1 f we would guide our policies of production and of trade 
aright, we must keep these great changes constantly in 
mind. These profound alterations naturally fall into 
two divisions: The shift in the world's production and 
markets and the shift in the world's financial relations. 
They bear upon each other, and they affect our three 
primary groups of food, raw material, and manufactured 
goods differently. 

There have been great changes in our own economic 
situation. We have not alone shifted from a debtor to a 
creditor nation ■ our capacity for surplus production in 
food and manufactures has grown enormously during 
the War until we have taken front rank of the world in 
foreign trade. 

The direction of our trade has shifted greatly. Dur- 
ing the last year about one-half of our whole foreign 
trade was with Europe, but of our exports to them 80% 
were foodstuffs and raw material ; of our exports to 
states outside of Europe about 75% were manufactured 
goods. Europe in turn is our serious competitor in mar- 
keting of our manufactured goods to the rest of the 
world. We have enormously increased cur imports of 
tropical and other commodities that we do not produce. 

Since the Great War, the world, outside the fighting 
states of Europe, has gained mightily in wealth, in 
standards of living, and in consuming power. Even 
omitting the United States, it has gained something like 
40 millions in population. The countries not directly 
affected by the War are indeed suffering from the general 
depression, but this depression with them is only the 
aftermath of the malevolent forces born of the past war 
booms. They have none of the deep economic wounds of 
the fighting states, and they will be quick to recover. 
During the War the productive capacity of these states, 
except possibly Japan, had no unusual increase because 
of their isolation through shortage of shipping. 

One of the economic shifts that affects the whole world 
profoundly is from Russia. Russia bore much the same 
relation to western Europe before the War that the Mis- 
sissippi Valley bears to our North-Eastern States. Rus- 
sia was one of the great food bases of the manufacturing 
countries of western Europe, exchanging food for their 
fabricated products. These manufactured goods in turn 
were to some degree produced from our raw materials. 



July 23, 1921 

JEven at best it will be many years before Russia will 
Tiave recovered. "We are today the only great source of 
enlarged food production. Europe must and will draw 
from us a great proportion of food-supplies that she 
formerly drew from Russia. I see no basic reason why 
we should not continue to export approximately the same 
large volumes of foodstuffs that we have exported abroad 
during the past 12 months. This item alone at even 
present prices would be triple our pre-war food exports, 
and would represent the equal of more than 60% of our 
whole pre-war export trade. 

Another great but uncertain shift in world forces will 
arise out of Germany. The reparation payments must 
have a profound effect upon the whole economy of the 
world. Germany is to pay outside her borders to the 
Allies $500,000,000, plus 26% export-duty, or, say, a 
minimum of about $750,000,000 per annum. Germany is 
left without much gold or foreign property, or foreign 
business earnings of consequence ; therefore, these pay- 
ments must be made mostly by the sale of manufactured 
goods outside her borders. But beyond the reparation 
payments, she must also sell goods abroad in the amounts 
necessaiy to buy her imports of food and raw materials. 
Any calculation based on the pre-war trade of Germany 
implies an enormous increase — perhaps more than doub- 
ling — of her pre-war exports. In view of the export 
duty and other payments, she must produce these good? 
for about one-half our production cost in order to take 
our markets. Such an increase in exports must be manu- 
factured goods, and until the world consumption grows, 
these must be marketed in displacement of the goods of 
other industrial nations. We shall certainly feel the 
effects of this flow of gsods that must be produced if she 
is to make reparation payments. On the other hand, 
Germany must take more raw material from us for this 
purpose. In any event, the crowding in the market, of 
German exports will affect her immediate neighbors 
more than ourselves, for 80% of her market, pre-war as 
well as in the future, must lie in Europe itself. 

The economic changes in the other combatant states in 
Europe obviously affects us also. The economic wounds 
given to them all by the War and peace will be long in 
healing. The sacrifice of skilled labor, of brains, and of 
property will require a generation to cure. The hates 
of many newly liberated states must cool slowly, and 
their many new borders check the free flow of commerce. 
Many of these states possess masses of people who have 
suffered from exploitation and tyranny for generations. 
Their extreme reactions of Bolshevism and socialism and 
nationalization are slowly dying out. Many governments 
have been unable to raise sufficient taxes to meet expen- 
ditures, and the ceaseless printing of currency carries 
destructive inflation. All of them except the enemy 
states bear the burden of greater military establishments 
than even before the Great War. All this must accumu- 
late to decrease their productive power and to lower 
their standards of living. 

In balance against this loss of productive power, their 
people over great sections are now coming to a full re- 

alization that they must work harder than ever before 
and that they must export commodities for all that is in 
them, in order that they may make exchanges for the 
bare margin of life. Some of them will receive payments 
from Germany in relief of their tax-burdens. They are 
mobilizing the skill and intelligence of their people to 
their economic salvation with the same diligence that 
they were mobilized in war. The great manufacturing 
states are straining every device of science and thought 
to the improvement of their industrial processes, to the 
simplification of production, to the elimination of waste — ■ 
that they shall make every reduction in production costs. 
In reinforcement of their marketing machinery, many of 
the governments are stimulating the consolidation of 
banks and of manufacturing concerns. Governmental 
and government-encouraged combinations are being 
created to control exports and imports to exploit foreign 
markets. They are seeking special concessions for de- 
velopment and trade throughout the world. Altogether 
these policies comprise a militancy in commercial ex- 
pansion that compares with Elizabethan England. 

Any improvement in European production of manu- 
factured goods will favorably affect our market for those 
raw materials such as cotton and copper, where we pos- 
sess the final supplies. In considering the demands for 
such raw materials, we must remember that the manu- 
facturing countries of western Europe have lost for a 
long time to come any great markets in Russia and Tur- 
key; the population of Europe as a whole has not the 
consuming capacity for manufactured goods that it had 
before the War and, therefore, we must expect less than 
pre-war consumption in the confines of Europe for their 
re-manufactured raw materials. But on the other hand, 
they will find, after this depression is passed, that the 
markets of the rest of the world are larger than before 
the War. I am confident they will gradually return to 
pre-war demand for our cotton, copper, etc. Fortu- 
nately, our producers have realized this temporary situa- 
tion and have vigorously reduced their production so 
that they should eventually realize better prices than at 

It seems to me that it was inevitable that the balance 
of the forces at work in Europe would improve their 
ability in competitive manufactured goods. Their pro- 
duction costs were bound to be lowered, both by better 
organized industry and by lowered standards of living. 
Some of them are today, through government subsidies, 
artificially low and will undoubtedly increase. If we 
analyze the effect of these forces on the market for our 
manufactured goods, either in Europe or in our much, 
larger markets outside of Europe, we quickly find two 
directions in which we occupy a position of some security. 
The first is in those exports of lower production-costs 
which are the result of great repetitive production, which 
has its firm root in our enormous consumption. The 
second is in that large number of special manufactures 
in which the inventive genius and skill of our people 
have been developed beyond any country in the world. 
Your own industry of shoes and shoe findings is typical. 

.Iiilv 23, 1921 



I believe we will recover and can hold our ihare of the 
market for th--s,> products after the present world de- 

As to our manufactures, containing a large clement of 
labor cost, in which we do not enjoy special advantages, 

we must look out and take measures of our own. We 
can no doubt devise tariff measures that will protect our 
domestic market. But if we are to hold to our foreign 
markets in this vast group of our manufactures, and thus 
keep our people employed, we have several things to 
attend to. Fundamentally, we must get our production 
costs down. That lies only along the road of increased 
efficiency in our whole industrial machine. It means a 
willingness of our working people to put forth every 
effort that is in them, consistent with health, proper 
family life, and good citizenship. The surest road to a 
continued high wage, and the surest safeguard against 
unemployment, is to remove every restriction on effort. 
This must extend from our mines to the railways, to the 
factories, to the wharf, and to the ship. It means smaller 
margins of profit. It means that ultimately we must 
have much lower transportation rates. It means we 
must have better organized marketing machinery abroad 
under Americans themselves. It means the establish- 
ment of adequate short-time-credit machinery and much 
more care in foreign-credit risks than our merchants 
have shown in the last 12 months. It means elimination 
of the great wastes in industry. For instance, in the 
Atlantic seaboard area alone, by the development of 
these great water-powers and through economies by 
electrification generally, we could profitably save 30,000,- 
000 tons of coal per annum if we had the courage to go 
at it. It means the Government must remove as quickly 
as possible those unnecessary domestic burdens upon 
commerce to which the Government is a party, by the 
reorganization of our tax system, the settlement of the 
tariff question, the reduction in Government expenditure 
through the reorganization of the Federal government, 
through reduction of armament and through reduction 
of Shipping Board losses and by the settlement by the 
Government of the outstanding claims of our railways. 
It means we must cease trying to drive American ship- 
owners off the sea with tax-paid shipping losses. We 
must carefully determine what particular trade-routes 
we will maintain in development of our commerce over 
a period of years, and let our merchants know them. It 
means the Government must provide such information to 
commerce and industry, from both at home and abroad, 
as will enlarge its judgment. It means we must extend 
scientific research into the problems of waste, the per- 
fection of processes, the simplification of methods that 
are beyond the ability of one manufacturer acting alone, 
and we must co-operate with industry to perfect these 
things. I am confident we can hold our markets, our 
higher standards of living and of wage if we will all put 
our backs into it. 

Overriding all these questions of production and mar- 
kets is one of credits. Our whole financial relation to 
the rest of the world has greatly shifted. From a nation 

owing some five billions of dollars to the list of the world 

for moneys borrowed, the War has reversed onr position 

so that the world, principally Europe, ours us today 13 
to 15 billions of dollars, of which about ID billions is due 
our Government. Before the War we had to export a 
surplus over our imports, and beyond this had to con- 
tribute, through remittances of immigrants, tourists, 
shipping, etc., great sums to pay interest upon our 

The reason for the piling up of this vast debt is, of 
course, that we have not only loaned money to the Allies, 
but have also since the War vastly increased the surplus 
of our exports, and the movement still continued to 
accumulate in our favor. Unless we would cease a large 
part of our war productivity with all the resulting un- 
employment and losses of such a cessation, we must con- 
tinue to export in e